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Eutered  according  to  Act  of  Congress  in  the  year  1883,  by  James  .Spruut,  in  the  office  of 
the  Librarian  of  Congress,  at  Washington. 





Settlement  of  Wilmington 5 

Sanitary  Condition 8 

City  Government 21 

City  Finances 23 

Board  of  Audit  and  Finance 25 

City  Contracts 88 

City  Police  Department 39 

City  Fire  Dei)artment 40 

City  Hospital 42 

County  Government . . « 43 

Sux)erior  and  Criminal  Courts 44 

County  Magistrates 45 

Statement  of  the  Financial  Condition  of  New  Hanover 

County 47 

Population 49 

Statistics  of  Population  and  Schools  50 

Public  Schools 51 

Union  Free  School 57 

Tileston  Normal  School 62 

Churches 64 

Secret  and  Benevolent  Societies 65 

Ladies  Benevolent  Society 67 

St.  George  and  St.  Andrew  Society 68 

Hibernian  Benevolent  Society , 69 

Seaman's  Friend  Society 70 

St.  James'  Home , 73 



Newspapers 76 

Commissioners  of  Navigation  and  Pilotage. 82 

Port  Wardens 93 

Port  Charges  and  Facilities ., 95 

Custom  House  Returns , 99 

Foreign  Carrying  Trade 101 

Foreign  Consuls  and  Dates  of  Appointment 103 

Notaries  Public 104 

United  States  Courts ....    104 

Improvement  of  Cape  Fear  River  and  the  Bar,    below 

Wilmington 105 

Ocean  and  River  Steam  Navigation  Companies 112 

Improvement  of  Cape  Fear  River  between  Wilmington 

and  Fayetteville ;.114 

Lillington  River  (Long  Creek)  Improvements 120 

Dry  Docks - 122 

Marine  Railway 122 

Wilmington  and  Weldon  R.  R 122 

Wilmington,  Columbia  and  Augusta  R.  R 127 

Carolina  Central  Railroad 130 

Clinton  &  Point  Caswell  Railroad 131 

Dux)lin  Canal  Company 132 

Inland  Water- Way 139 

First  National  Bank  of  Wilmington 140 

Bank  of  New  Hanover 141 

Cotton  Compresses 143 

Wilmington  Cotton  Mills 145 

Navassa  Guano  Company 146 

Southern  Ore  Company 146 

Cape  Fear  Tobacco  Works 147 

Carolina  Rice  Mills 148 

Grain  Mills 149 

The  Acme  Manufacturing  Comj^any 150 

Turx^entine  Distilleries 153 

Wilmington  Gas  Light  Company 154 


Clarendon  Water  Works  Company 154 

Oakdale  Cemetery  Comi)any 156 

Chamlber  of  Commerce 168 

Quarantine  Regulations 175 

Wilmington  Produce  Exchange 179 

Western  Union  Telegraph  Company 181 

Wilmington  Telephone  Exchange 184 

Wilmington  PostofRce  Statistics 185 

Lumber 187 

Steam  Saw  Mills ,196 

Peanuts 199 

Rice 202 

Provisions 210 

Fisheries 211 

The  Dry  Goods  Business 215 

Fertilizers 218 

Turpentine  Products 220 

Adulteration  of  Spirits  Turpentine 227 

Crude  Turpentine . . .  = 238 

Spirits  Turi)entine ". 239 

Rosin 241 

Tar 243 

Cotton 245 

Exi)orts — Domestic  and  Foreign 247 

Total  Exports 248 

Destination  of  Exports 249 

Appendix i 251 

To  the  Members  of  the  Produce  Exchange  : 

Instead  of  the  usual  condensed  annual  report  upon  the 
immediate  affairs  of  the  Exchange,  I  have  the  honor  of 
presenting  a  pamphlet  compiled  and  published  at  my  own 
expense,  containing  information  and  statistics  with  refer- 
ence to  our  city  and  port,  which  I  trust  may  be  found 
interesting  and  acceptable  to  you,  and  also  serve  the  pur- 
pose of  bringing  our  business  people  into  more  intimate 
and  profitable  relations  with  the  outside  world. 

This  work  has  no  literary  pretensions  ;  it  is  simply  a 
record  of  facts,  prepared,  within  the  past  six  weeks, 
during  brief  intervals  of  routine  business  duty,  and 
at  some  physical  disadvantage.  In  it  there  is  much, 
however,  which  may  interest  the  general  reader ;  esi^e- 
cially  with  reference  to  the  past  of  Wilmington,  so 
little  of  which  is  known  to  the  present  generation 
of  our  citizens.  The  business  statistics  have  been  compiled 
with  great  care,  especially  for  this  report,  and  have  never 
before  been  published  in  the  same  form.  I  have,  as  far  as 
was  practicable,  sought  the  information  Jn  person,  and 
from  official,  or  otherwise  reliable  sources ;  and  in  other 
instances  through  responsible  agents,  delegated  for  that 
purpose,  so  that  the  report  might  be  accepted  as  good 
authority,  accurate  in  detail,  and  reliable  as  to  facts. 

Although  the  past  year  has  not  been  a  prosperous  one 
for  the  business  of  the  South,  generally,  it  is  gratifying  to 
note  many  evidences  here,  of  substantial  improvement. 

Compare  the  number  of  industries  of  AVilmington  with 
those  of  other  Southern  towns,  as  well  as  the  yearly  volume 


of  general  trade,  and  where  will  you  find,  in  proportion 
to  its  population,  a  busier  or  more  thriving  community  ? 
There  is,  however,  much  room  for  improvement. 

I  have  referred,  in  deference  to  the  Chamber  of  Commerce, 
to  the  River  and  Harbor  work,  which  is  of  such  vital 
moment  to  our  trade  and  commerce.  The  indications  are, 
that  unless  a  vigorous  effort  is  made  for  an  additional 
appropriation  by  the  next  Congress,  this  undertaking, 
already* so  nearly  accomplished,  will  suffer  serious  preju- 
dice by  delay.  Let  us  remember  that  a  most  important 
and  indispensable  element  of  local  success,  is  that  of  hearty, 
honest  co-operation.  In  united  action  we  have  strength 
and  confidence ;  and  in  striving  for  the  general  good  of 
Wilmington  we  also  promote  our  combined  interests  and 
individual  welfare.  This  I  believe  to  be  the  means  of 
success  in  all  prosperous  centres  of  trade. 

In  relinquishing  the  highest  honor  in  your  gift,  I  remem- 
ber with  gratefulness  many  courtesies  on  your  part  which 
have  characterized  my  term  of  office  ;  and  it  will  probably 
be  the  proudest  reflection  of  my  business  life  that  so  many 
of  our  older  merchants,  whom  as  boy  and  man  I  honored 
and  respected,  have  thus  distinguished  me  with  their 
esteem  and  confidence.  It  is  gratifying  to  note  that  during 
the  past  year,  among  more  than  a  hundred  merchants  con- 
nected with  this  Exchange,  there  has  been  no  removal  by 
death,  and  that  the  character  and  integrity  of  every  house 

continues  unimpaired. 

James  Sprunt, 

Wilmington,  North  Carolina, 


The  Caps  Pear  River,  upoji  which  Wiliiiingtoii  is  situr 
ated,  was  known  in  the  early  history  of  our  State  as  the 
river  Clarendon. 

The  first  settlement  on  its  banks  was  mide  in  the  year 
1659  or  '60,  and  abandoned  in  1663, — but  at  what  particu- 
lar point  it  was  made  is  not  well  established.  In  1665;  Sir 
John  Yeamans,  w^ith  several  hundred  colonists  from  Bar- 
badoes,  made  the  second  settlement  at  a  point  about  two 
miles  below  the  present  city  of  AVilminojton,  now  known  as 
Old  Town,  or  Town  Creek,  and  in  honor  of  the  reigning 
King  of  England  at  the  time,  it  was  named  Charlestown. 

A  few  years  thereafter,  Sir  John  and  most  of  the  colo- 
nists from  Barbadoes,  removed  first  to  Port  Royal,  and 
cubsequently  to  the  neck  of  land  between  the  Ashley  and 
Cooper  rivers,  and  founded  the  present  city  of  Charleston, 
S.  C. 

Whether  any  of  the  colony  under  Yeamans  remained  on 
the  Clarendon  is  not  certainly  known,  but  it  is  asserted  by 
some  of  our  historians  that  such  is  the  fact,  and  that  the 
old  town  of  Brunswick,  about  six  miles  below  the  site  of 
Charlestown,  owes  its  origin  to  such  of  these  colonists  as 
did  not  accompany  Yeamans  to  Charleston. 

Our  earliest  reliable  knowledge  of  the  town  of  Brunswick 
does  not  go  further  back  than  1720,  when  it  contained  but 
few  inhabitants,  and  it  so  continued  for  some  years. 

()  \VlLMIX(iTON,    NOllTH    CAUOLINA. 

About  tlu3year  1725,  (iiiite  a  colony  of  educated  gentle- 
men, who  had  become  disgusted  vvitli  the  Blue  Laws  of 
Massachusetts,  settled  at  that  place  ;  and  it  soon  became  a 
thriving  town  of  commercial  importance,  and  the  })i'incipal 
port  from  which  the  products  of  the  Southern  part  of  the 
province  were  exported.  It  being  found  however,  tliat  the 
roadstead  or  harbor  of  the  town  of  Brunswick  was  much 
exposed  and  very  unsafe,  the  line  of  the  river  was  explored 
for  a  more  suitable  harbor,  or  place  for  the  delivery  and 
deposit  of  the  articles  then  constituting  the  i)riiiclpal  ex- 
ports from  this  part  of  the  province  ;  and  the  present  site 
of  the  city  of  Wilmington  was  found  to  be  the  nearest 
point  to  the  town  of  Brunswick  suitable  for  the  purposes 
required;  and  here,  about  the  year  1730,  wharves  and 
buildings  were  first  erected. 

A  plan  of  the  village  or  town  was  soon  made,  with  regu- 
larly delined  streets  and  lots,  and  called  New  Liverpool, 
which  name  was  retained  until  about  1732,  when,  as  ap- 
pears by  the  oldest  conveyances  of  the  lots,  the  name  was 
changed  to  Newton. 

There  are  deeds  still  in  existence  for  the  same  lots  or  par- 
cels of  lands  situated  in  the  town  formerly  known  as  New 
Liverpool,  afterw^ards  called  Newton,  now  knowni  as  Wil- 

The  lands  next  north  and  .south  of  the  tract  on  which 
New  Liverpool  or  Newton  was  located,  had  been  granted 
for  some  years  prior  to  1733,  in  whicli  year  John  Watson, 
or  Whatson,  obtained  a  grant  for  G40  acres  of  land  on  the 
east  side  of  th(^  north-east  branch  of  the  Cape  Fear  river. 
Among  other  recitals  in  said  grant  it  is  stated  that  the  vil- 
lage of  Newton  is  situated  on  the  tract  described  and 

The  original  settlers  of  New  Liverpool  or  Newton  were 
doubtless  the  factors  or  agents  of  the  principal  merchants 
of  the  town  of  Brunswick,  which  for  many  years  thereafter, 
and  up  to  the  war  of  the  Kevolution,  continued  to  h^  'port 


town^  where  the  officials  of  the  colonial  government  re- 
sided, although  i)rior  to  the  Revolution  the  then  town  of 
Wilmington  was  the  more  populous  of  the  two. 

In  1739,  through  the  influence  of  Gabriel  Johnston, 
Colonial  Governor,  the  name  of  Newton  was  changed  to 
that  of  Wilmington,  in  compliment  to,  or  in  honor  of, 
Spence  Compton,  Baron  Wilmington,  an  influential  friend 
ot  the  Governor  ;  and  in  1760,  by  a  royal  grant  from  George 
the  S'^cond,  Arthur  Dobbs  being  Governor,  Wilmington 
was  elected  a  Borough,  with  the  right  of  sending  a  member 
to  the  Assembly ;  and  by  a  second  grant  from  the  Crown 
in  1763,  George  the  Third  then  being  King,  additional 
rights  were  given  to  the  Borough,  its  corporate  name  being 
"The  Mayor,  Recorder  and  Aldermen  of  the  Borough  of 

In  1766  the  corporate  name  was  changed  to  that  of  the 
"Commissioners  of  the  Town  of  Wilmington,"  and  that 
name  was  continued  for  one  hundred  years,  the  present 
corporate  name,  "The  City  of  Wilmington,"  being  that  by 
which  the  inhabitants  of  Wilmington  were  incorporated  as 
a  city  in  the  year  1866. 

According  to  the  recitals  in  the  oldest  deeds  for  lands  on 
Eagles'  Island,  and  in  its  vicinity  on  either  side,  the  north- 
eastern and  north-western  branches  of  the  Cape  Fear  river 
commence  at  the  southern  point  of  that  Island.  What  is 
now  called  Brunswick  river  on  the  west  side  of  the  Island 
being  the  north-west  branch,  and  Wilmington  on  the  north- 
east branch,  and  not  on  the  main  stream  of  the  Cape  Fear. 
That  portion  of  the  river  which  runs  from  the  north-east 
branch  by  Point  Peter,  or  Negro-head  Point,  as  it  is  called, 
to  the  north-west  branch  at  the  head  of  Eagles'  Island,  is 
called  in  the  old  deeds  and  statutes  of  the  State  "the 
thoroughfare,"  and  sometimes  the  "cut  through"  from 
one  branch  to  the  other ;  and  the  land  granted  to  John 
Watson,  on  which  Wilmington  is  situated,  is  described  as 
lying  opposite  to  the  mouth  of  this  "thoroughfare." 


The  town  of  AVilmington  rapidly  increased  in  popula- 
tion, wliile  the  old  town  of  Brunswick  sank  into  decay,  and 
was  hnallj^  abandoned,  and  not  a  vestige  of  it  now  remains, 
save  the  crumbling  walls  of  old  St.  Philip's  Church,  which 
marks  the  sj)ot  where  once  the  hum  of  busy  life  was  heard 
more  than  a  century  and  a  half  ago. 

Wilmington   is   in    latitude   34°  12^,    and    in   longitude 

The  city  limits  extend  from  north  to  south  2|  miles,  and 
from  east  to  w^est  1^  miles,  comprising  a  total  area  of  about 
2,400  acres.  The  general  contour  of  the  town  is  that  of  an 
elevated  sand-ridge,  running  parallel  wath  the  river,  inter- 
sected with  dunes  and  rivulets  emptying  into  the  river  and 
adjacent  streams. 

The  Cape  Fear  river  flows  past  the  western  front  of  the 
city,  and  its  branches  and  tributaries  almost  encompass  it. 


Artificial  drainage  has  in  recent  years  carried  the  storm 
water  from  the  city  into  the  tributary  streams  of  the  Cape 
Fear,  and  if  maintained  in  proper  condition,  is  well 
designed  to  effectually  drain  a  lai'ge  area  which  was  for- 
merly the  most  unhealthj^  quarter  of  the  settlement.  As 
a  result,  malarial  fever  has  greatly  decreased  in  the  last 
ten  years,  and  it  may  be  truly  said  that  although  stigma- 
tized fort}^  3^ears  ago  as  the  sailor's  grave,  and  shunned 
by  the  people  of  the  up  country  as  an  unsafe  place 
in  which  to  tarry  all  night,  during  the  summer  and 
autumn,  it  has  become  exceptionally  healthy.  As  an 
evidence  of  this,  the  death  rate  for  several  years  past 
has  been  much  smaller  than  in  the  surrounding  country  ;' 
and  compares  f^ivorably  with  the  most  favored  towns  of  its 

NoTF.  .'—It  is  supposed  that  the  settlers  at  Old  Town  left  on  account  of  the  sterility 
of  the  land,  and  for  the  further  reason  that  Sir  John  Veamans  was  appointed 
Governor  of  South  Carolina  at  that  time,  and  his  administration  here  had  been  so 
conservative  they  preferred  to  follow  his  fortunes. 


size   on  tlie  Atlantic  coast,— tlie  annual  death  rate  being 
about  seventeen  to  the  thousand. 

Drainage  has  not  and  cannot,  it  is  true,  alter  the  mala- 
rial influence  upon  crews  of  vessels  sleeping  on  the  river  in 
the  months  of  July,  August,  September  and  October.  This 
standing  menace  to  the  prosperity  of  our  shipping,  as  evi- 
denced by  the  scarcity  of  tonnage  during  these  months,  has 
been  seriously  considered  for  many  .years,  and  a  remedy 
actually  devised.  The  difficulty  has  been  to  impress  the 
lesson  of  prevention  learned  at  such  a  cost,  upon  the  inter- 
ested parties.  The  State  Board  of  Health  has  done  much 
towards  inculcating  important  advice  upon  the  subject  as 
will  be  seen  by  the  following  extract  from  a  report  of  Dr. 
T.  F.  Wood,  Secretary  of  the  N.  C.  Board  of  Health,  to 
the  Medical  Society  of  North  Carolina,  1882. 

"For  many  years  it  has  been  known,  as  well  by  the  peo- 
l^le  as  by  the  doctors,  that  the  fevers  occurring  among  the 
vessels  in  our  tide-water  streams  were  preventable,  in  a 
marked  degree.  Observations  extending  over  a  space  of 
time  marked  by  four  or  five  generations,  demonstrated  that 
the  cause  of  sickness  among  sailors  was  due  very  largely  to 
sleeping  on  board  vessels  in  the  Cape  Fear  River  par- 
ticularly. This  fact  was  so  firmly  established  in  the  opin- 
ion of  merchants  in  Wilmington,  that  $20,000  was  sub- 
scribed to  build  a  home  for  seamen  in  which  they  might 
find  a  safe  retreat  from  the  effluvia  of  the  river,  and  what 
it  not  exactly  pertinent  to  the  present  subject,  to  escape 
also  the  venereal  effluvia  of  low  sailor  lodgings. 

In  this  building  ample  provision  was  made  for  more  sail- 
ors than  ever  visit  the  port  of  Wilmington  at  one  time, 
and  by  the  Christian  benevolence  of  Capt.  Gilbert  Potter, 
one  of  the  oldest  citizens  of  that  city,  who  had  himself  been 
a  sea-captain,  a  house  of  worship,  supplied  by  the  yearly 
ministrations  of  a  preacher,  was  provided,  to  throw  around 
these  ''toilers  of  the  sea,"  a  beneficent  influence. 


The  Board  of  Health,  therefore,  issued  a  pamphlet 
entitled  "A  Guide  to  Shipmasters  Visiting  the  CajDe  Fear 
River,"  a  copy  of  which  is  herewith  transmitted." 

Adcicc  io  Slii pinasters  for  the  Precention  of  River  Fever 
—  The  Fever  Thermometer  —Us  Uses. 

The  use  of  the  thermometer  to  indicate  the  existence  of 
fever  is  now^  established  beyond  doubt.  It  has  been  shown 
by  thousands  of  observations  that  the  heat  of  the  body  in 
any  part  of  the  world — in  the  tropics  or  the  arctic  circle  - 
varies  very  little  from  93.4°  Fahr.,  in  a  grown  person,  in 
health.  Upon  this  settled  observation  is  based  an  esti- 
mate of  the  amount  of  fever  in  any  given  case.  fever  thermometer  ditTers  from  the  ordinary  instru- 
ment in  being  selt-registering.  In  the  figure  a  thermome- 
ter is  shown  with  the  index  just  below  95°.  This  index  is 
a  slender  line  of  mercury  separated  from  that  in  the  bulb 
b}^  a  sliglit  space,  and  in  a  good  thermometer  the  index 
does  not  fall  back  and  unite  with  the  mercury  in  the 

To  Read  the  TiiEnMOMETEK. — The  instrument  must  be 
examined  and  the  index  must  be  below  the  arrow  seen  at 
98.4°.  If  it  i3  above  it  can  be  shaken  down,  either'by  hold- 
ing it  firmly  between  the  finger  and  thumb  and  shaking 
forcibly  as  in  flirting  the  ink  out  of  a  pen  ;  or,  by  taking 
tlie  instrument  at  its  upper  tip,  the  end  opposite  the  bulb, 
elevating  the  hand  as  high  as  the  head,  and,  by  a  smart 
impulse  downwards,  tluis  shake  the  index  below  the  ar- 

The  instrument  is  put  under  the  tongue,  or  between  the 
teeth  and  tlie  cheek,  the  lips  closed  upon  it.  and  it  is  al- 
lowed to  r.Muaiu  at  lenst  three  minutes  by  tlie  Avatch. 


On  removing  the  instrument,  an  examination  of  tlie  in- 
dex will  show  the  temperature,  which  is  indicated  at  the 
upper  tip  of  the  index,  that  is  the  end  of  the  index  the 
farthest  from  the  bulb. 

What  a  Rise  int  Temperature  Means. — For  the  pur- 
poses of  the  instruction  intended  to  be  conveyed,  it  is  safe 
to  assume  that  every  degree  of  heat  beyond  the  arrow  is  a 
degree  of  fever. 

The  following  table  will  sliow  the  relation  between  the 
pulse  and  the  temperature  of  the  body  : 

All  increase  of  temperature  of  One  Decjkee  above 
98°  Fahrenheit,  corresponds  with  an  increase  of  Ten  beats 
of  the  iDulse  per  minute.     {Aitken.) 

Temperature  98°— Pulse    60. 


1 1 



•  i> 









( I 



i  I 



1 1 



( . 


The  rule  above  is  subject  to  some  variation,  but  is  a  fair- 
ly good  guide. 

It  is  well  known  that  101°  before  11  A.  M.  indicates  an 
approaching  fever,  and  that  the  same  after  5  o'clock  a  de- 
clining fever;  and  so  on  with  every  degree  above  it.  103.5°  is 
about  the  average  of  the  malarial  fever  of  the  rivers.  Many 
severe  cases  reach  104.5°  and  105. 5^-,  Even  106°  is  not  sure- 
ly fatal,  but  beyond  this,  in  the  most  favorable  condi- 
tions, the  danger  is  very  great.  108°  to  110°  is  most  surely 

With  these  introductory  remarks  we  will  call  the  atten- 
tion of  shipmasters  to  certain  precautions,  which  long  ex- 
perience in  this  latitude  has  shown  necessary  to  be  ob- 


The  fever  occiuTing  amongst  the  seamen  who  visit  this 
and  other  Southern  rivers  is  malarial.  It  is  due  to  the 
ex]oosure  of  sleeping  on  board  vessels,  and  keeping  late 
hours  at  night. 

The  Natuke  and  Coukse  of  River  Malarial  Fever. 
— It  commences  sometimes  with  a  chill.  The  chill  is  either 
a  shaking  ague,  or  sometimes  the  only  symptoms  are  cold- 
ness of  the  fingers,  blue  nails,  cold  nose,  and  eais  and  toes. 
Both  forms  may  be  an  essential  part  of  similar  fevers.  A 
chill  may  last  from  half  an  hour  to  two  or  three  hours,  and 
is  always  followed  by  fever.  Chill  is  only  a  cold  stage  of 
fever,  and  the  thermometer  will  most  always  show  from 
100°  to  102"  even  when  the  chill  is  highest.  The  fever 
comes  on,  the  coldness  of  the  skin  gradually  goes  off,  and 
the  heat  of  fever  follows,  the  temperature  rising  gradually 
to  103.5  to  105^ 

For  instance,  if  the  chill  comes  on  before  11  o'clock  A. 
M.,  as  it  often  does,  the  fever  will  reach  its  height  usually 
by  5  o'clock  P.  M.,  and  then  gradually  decline,  either  by 
copious  sweating  or  an  abundant  discharge  of  urine.  If 
the  fever  goes  entirely  off  it  is  intermittent.  If  it  merely 
declines  it  is  remittent.  In  either  case  a  person  seized  with 
fever  may  look  for  a  return  on  the  succeeding  day,  or  the 
day  after.  These  are  forms  of  the  same  fever  and  have  all 
been  named.  Thus  we  have  them  coming  on  daily,  twice 
daily,  every  other  day,  every  third  day,  and  so  on  ;  "but 
the  fevers  are  essentially  the  same,  being  practically  cured 
by  the  same  treatment. 

The  way  to  avoid  River  Fever. — Live  temperately, 
and  do  not  sleep  in  the  river  on  board  vessel  during  the 
months  of  August,  September  and  October.  The  air  of  the 
town  is  perfectly  harmless  to  most  x>ersons,  and  especially 
those  who  go  to  bed  early,  and  are  not  intemperate. 

Sleeping  on  board  during  the  months  named  does  not 
ahvays  cause  sickness,  but  it  does  nearly  always.  Some- 
times fever  does  not  develop  until  a  vessel  gets  to  sea,  and 


then  ail  hands  may  be  taken  dovvn  at  the  same  time.   Such 
cases  are  known. 

Prophylactic. — The  daily  use  of  quinine  or  the  x^repa- 
rations  of  Peruvian  bark,  loill  j)TeDe]itfevier.  It  is  a  good 
l)ractice  to  give  to  crews  of  vessels  a  daily  morning  dose 
equal  to  five  grains  of  quinine.  Some  of  the  cheaper  pre- 
parations of  bark  answer  this  purpose  very  well.  None  of 
them  are  equal  to  quinquinia,  a  preparation  tested  now 
during  several  seasons,  and  found  to  be  remarkably  effi- 
cient. It  contains  15  per  cent,  of  quinia  and  45  percent,  of 
other  valuable  alkaloids  ot  i:>eruvian  bark,  which  really 
gives  it  an  advantage  over  the  sulphate  of  quinine  usually 
sold.     It  is  recommended  with  great  confidence. 

What  to  do  after  the  ve^jsel  gets  to  sea. — In  every 
case  of  complaining  on  the  part  of  a  seaman,  the  Cai3tain 
or  an  intelligent  officer  should  take  the  man's  temperature. 
If  it  is  more  than  98.4°  he  will  be  wise  to  conclude  that 
there  is  a  fever  approaching.  10(f  or  101°  is  absolute  evi- 
dence, apart  from  any  other  condition  of  the  man,  that  he 
has  fever,  and  it  is  tolerably  certain  that  if  it  is  not  checked 
he  will  have  more  the  next  day. 

What  to  do  if  the  temperature  rises. — No  amount 
of  fever  should  prevent  the  patient  from  taking  quinine, 
or  some  other  preparation  of  bark  in  the  proper  doses.  It 
is  always  best  to  commence  quinine  early  in  the  morning 
because  the  fever  increases  towards  noon,  and  with  the  in- 
crease of  fever  comes  on  many  times  such  a  sick  stomach 
that  the  ijatient  cannot  retain  the  much  needed  medicine. 
But  if  the  stomach  does  not  reject  it  he  ought  to  have  his 
medicine  in  proper  quantities,  notwithstanding  the  fever 
for  every  day  of  its  continuance  unaffected  by  medicine, 
lessens  the  chance  of  recovery. 

What  medicine  to  give.  -  If  the  fever  is  detected  ear- 
1}^,  medicine  should  be  given  at  once.  It  is  necessary  usually 
to  give  tioenty  grains  of  quinine  every  twenty-four  hours. 
J/or<3  is  needed  sometimes,  but  it  is  not  often  that  a  less 


quantity  will  succeed.  It  is  best  to  direct''-  live  i^rains  of 
quinine  in  pills  evfery  two  hours,  commencing  as  early  as 
four  o'clock  in  the  morning,  until  twenty  grains  are  given. 
Should  pain  in  the  head  and  hot  sldn,  and  unpleasant 
"singing"  or  ''roaring"  in  the  ears,  trouble  the  patient, 
bromide  of  2^oiash'^  should  he  given  in  ten  grain  doses ^ 
dissolved  in  water,  every  two  or  three  hours  Usually  a 
verj^  hot  and  dry  slvin  yields  to  the  action  of  the  i-eraedies 
above.  Should  they  iixW.JliLid  exircct  of  Jaborandi  should 
be  given,  fifteen  drops  qx^aj  hour  until  copious  sweating 
comes  on. 

Co?z.^^,'jfc>«//o>'i  is  somecimes  an  accompaniment  of  this  fe- 
ver, and  should  be  relieved  by  Calomel  and  Soda  at  nighty 
or  Epsom,  Salts  and  table  salt  i;t  the  morning. 

Relaiises  are  not  uncommon,  and  although  the  thermom- 
eter may  not  indicate  fever  after  a  few  days  of  treatment, 
(and  it  is  urged  that  the  thermometer  should  be  carefully 
applied  morning  and  evening,)  it  is  never  safe  to  withdraw 
the  quinine  the  day  following  the  one  on  which  the  patient 
misses  his  fever.  At  least  ten  grains  should  be  continued 
daily  for  three  or  four  days  in  succession. 


[.  The  thermometer  is  a  sure  guide  in  the  eaily  detection 
of  Kiver  Fever. 

2.  Whenever  a  man  shows  any  indisposition  after  a  stay 
on  the  river  during  the  months  of  August,  September  and 
October,  apply  the  fever  thermometer,  and  if  he  has  100°  or 
over,  you  may  look  out  for  more  fever  the  next  day-. 
■  3.  Quinine  should  be  given  in  live  grain  doses  until 
twenty  grains  are  given  before  noon.  No  time  should  be 

4.  Relapses  canlie  prevented  h\  continuing  the  medicine 
four  days  in  succession  after  the  last  indications  of  fever. 

*See  formulas  on  tlio  last  pago. 


FoiiMULA  1.  — Quinine  Pillsi, 
Take  of 

Quinine,  two  scruples  or  forty  grains, 
Tartaric  Acid,  ten  grains, 
Griycerine,  twenty  to  twenty-live  drops. 
Mix  well,  and  make  twelve  pills.     Roll  in  magnesia  be- 
fore putting  in  a  box. 
One  pill  every  hour  until  six  are  taken  a  dny. 

2. — Quinine  Solution, 
Take  of 

Quinine,  forty  grains, 
Tartaric  Acid,  thirty  grains. 
Water,  two  ounces  or  four  tablespoonsfuL 
Mix  and  make  a  solution. 

A  teaspoonful  every  hour  until  six  doses  are  g  ven  each 

3.— Bromide  Solution. 
Take  of 

Bromide  of  Potassium,  one  ounce. 
Sugar,  two  tablespoonsfuL 
Dissolve  the  bromide  in  the  water  and  add    the  sngar 
until  all  is  dissolved. 

The  dose  for  headache,  and  for  the  excitement  caused  by 
quinine  is  a  teaspoonful  every  two  hours. 

A  little  lemon  juice  or  hydrobromic  acid  makes  the  solu- 
tion pleasanter  to  take. 

4.^QuiNQUiNiA  Solution. 

Take  of 

Quinquinia,  one  ounce, 

Tartaric  Acid,  half  an  ounce, 

Water,  three  pints. 
Mix  and  make  a  solution. 
Dose,  a  tablespoonful  every  morning. 



Make  as  in  the  solution  of  quinine  and  in  the  same  qnan- 

G. — QuixQriNiA  Pills. 

Make  the  sam(^  as  qninine  pills  and  in  the  same  quanti- 
ties and  doses. 

7. — Calomel  and  Soda. 


Take  of 

Calomel,  six  grains, 

Bicarbonate  Soda,  twenty  grains. 
Make  a  powder  and  mix  in  a  spoon  with  syinp. 

8— Epsom  Salts  and  Table  Salt. 

Take  of 

Epsom  Salts,  one-half  to  one  onnce. 
Table  Salt,  one  teaspoonful. 
Mix  and  make  a  solution  in  a  cup  of  water.     To  be  taken 
before  Ibreakfast.  . 

The  following  remarks  on  the  subject  of  remittent  fVver, 
kindly  furnished  me  by  the  authoi',  Dr.  Fairfax  Irwin, 
Passed  Assistant  Surgeon  in  Charge  of  our  Marine  Hos- 
pital, will  be  interesting  in  this  connection.  It  will  be 
observed  that  he  agrees  substantially  with  the  other 
anthority  quoted. 

"Remittent  fever,  or  as  it  is  popularly  called  on  the  Cape 
Fear,  'ri^er  fever,'  is  so  common,  and  aside  from  its  dan- 
gerous character,  so  expensive  to  ship-masters  and  owners 
that  a  few  remarks  on  its  character  and  treatment  will  not 
s<?em  out  of  place,  especially  at  this  its  chosen  season.  This 
article  is  based  on  the  results  obtained  from  the  treatment 
of  ninety  cases  of  remittent  fever  during  the  past  eighteen 
months,  all  of  wjiich  have  recovered  with  an  average  dura- 
tion of  tivatnipr.t  of  about  nine  days  pei-  man. 

\vrL:MiN(;TON,  noiitii  catjolina.  17 

These  cases  were  all  treated  in  the  Marine  Hospilal  in 
Wilmington,  N.  C,  and  were,  as  a  result,  in  a  very  favora- 
ble situation  for  observation.  To  the  treatment,  followed 
with  little  variation  in  all  cases,  the  favorable  result  is  at- 
tributed. That  too  much  is  not  claimed  will  be  readily  al- 
lowed by  any  wiio  are  acquainted  with  the  character  of  the 
malarial  fever  in  this  region,  and  especially  when  it  is  re- 
membered that  this  disease  is  clinically  the  same  as  the 
billions  fever  of  thiity  or  forty  )-ears  ago,  which  was  itself 
so  fatal.  -' 

The  river  fever  is  seen  but  in  isolated  cases  before  August 
and  from  that  time  increases  in  virulence  until  the  kindly 
hand  of  frost  is  bxid  npon  it. 

The  most  severe  cases  are  seen  among  the  sailors,  espe- 
cially those  unacclimated,  and  is  directly  traceable  to  ex- 
posure at  night  to  the  poisonous  exhalations  from  the  rice 
fields  along  the  river.  Tlie  sailors  sleeping  upon  the  ves- 
sel-decks on  warm  nights  are  soon  attacked,  while  the 
captains  sleeping  ashore  usually  escape  entirely.  Seamen 
from  foreign  vessels  fall  an  easy  prey,  and  give  the  largest 
percentage  of  malignant  cases. 

It  is  nqt  to  be  forgotten,  however,  that  sailors  in  addition 
to  exjDOSure  are  usually  filthy  in  their  habits,  reckless  and 
dissipated  to  a  degree.  Before  passing  to  a  short  sketch  of 
the  natural  history  of  this  fever  it  may  be  well  to  refer  to  a 
common  idea  held  by  seafaring  men,  that  salt  water 
'brings  out  the  fever,'  a  vessel  after  remaining  for  ten  days 
or  two  weeks  in  the  Cape  Fear  River  usually  drops  down 
to  Smithville  at  its  mouth,  to  complete  loading,  and  here 
frequentl}^  after  having  been  healthy  all  of  the  time  spent 
above,  the  crew  succumb  almost  suddenly  to  fever,  hence 
the  notion  of  salt  water  'driving  it  out.'  I  believe  this  is 
nothing  more  than  a  coincidence,  the  outbreak  of  the  dis- 
ease after  its  regular  period  of  incubation.  Sailors  have 
died  at  sea  after  leaving  Wilmington,  of  the  fever,  though 
healthy   on   departure   and   with  such    malignant   sym]> 


toms  as  to  cause  masters  to  report  them  as  cases  of  yellow 

Remittent  I'ever  as  I  have  seen  it  here,  after  an  incuba- 
tion of  from  ten  days  to  two  weeks  breaks  out  quite  sud- 
denly and  with  alarming  symptoms  from  the  first.  Per- 
liaps  iu  some  cases  a  certain  lassicude  and  weakness  for  a 
few  days  may  precede,  but  as  a  rale  the  onset  is  sudden. 

Contrary  to  the  statement  in  most  works  on  the  subject, 
there  is  no  initial  chill  ;  this  did  not  occur  in  any  of  the 
ninety  cases  treated.  Many  men  were  brought  into  the 
hospital  insensible,  having  been  taken  sick  duilng  the 

The  prominent  symptoms  were  a  dull,  stolid  countenance; 
wear}^,  slouching  gait ;  acnte  lancinating  pains  in  the  head 
and  back,  dull  pains  in  the  limbs,  tenderness  on  pressure 
over  the  region  of  the  stomach  with  great  irritability  of 
that  organ  ;  a'^characteristic  tongue,  large,  llabb}^,  showing- 
indentations  of  the  teeth,  and  thickly  coated  with  bluish 
white  fur,  rarely  dry  except  in  protracted  cases,  and  often 
so  large  as  apparently  to  till  the  mouth.  The  coating  was 
often  absent,  but  the  bluish-white  tint  was  invariablj^ 

The  full  Jupid  pulse,  throbbing  carotids,  and  moist  sur- 
face showed  the  excited  circulation.  The  sweats  were  in 
most  cases  as  copious  and  as  debilitating  as  in  phthisis. 
The  temperatui-e  ranged  from  100°  to  105°  (38'  to  40.4°C.) 
or.  the  first  evening,  the  average  being  104°  (40°  C.) 

There  was  a  marked  tendency  to  congestion  of  various 
organs,  especially  tlie  lungs,  but  an  implication  of  the  liver 
to  any  appreciable  extent  was  not  observed  ;  the  yellow 
hue  of  the  skin  so  often  spoken  of  in  books  was  not  seen. 
Albumen  was  not  discovered  iu  the  urine  in  any  case.  De- 
lirium was  rarely  present,  severe  cases  were  moie  apt  to 
become  comatose.  The  irritation  of  the  stomach  was  fre- 
quently most  severe  and  difficult  to  manage,  everytliirg 
being  rejected  and  passed  on  to  tlie  vomiting  of  pure  bile. 
Thei-e  was  no  eruption. 

WI].:MINGT()N,     NOKTJl    CAUOLINA.  19 

There  is  little  clanger  of  a  mistake  in  diagnosis  :  the  sea- 
son of  the  year,  the  sudden  seizure,  the  steel-colored  tongue, 
acute  pains  in  the  head  and  back,  and  distinctly  remittent 
range  of  temperature  are  characteristic. 

There  was  rarely  more  than  one  exacerbation,  owing,  it  is 
believed,  to  the  large  doses  of  quinia  used.  When  a  second 
exacerbation  followed,  it  was  always  found  to  be  due  to  an 
insufficient  use  of  quinia.  In  the  whole  number  of  cases 
treated  there  was  little  variation  of  symptoms,  but  a  few 
interesting  exceptions  may  be  mentioned. 

Epistaxis  was  somewhat  common  and  one  case  required 
plugging  of  the  nares  to  prevent  exhaustion  from  loss  of 
blood.  Hemorrhages  from  the  bowels  was  present  in  a 
case  which  lasted  two  weeks  ;  there  were  no  other  symp- 
toms of  typhoid  fever,  however.  One  case  so  strongly  sim- 
ulated cerebro-spinal  fever  as  to  leave  the  diagnosis  in  doubt 
for  a  few  days  ;  there  was  well  marked  opisthotonos,  but 
recovery  followed  in  due  course. 

A  case  in  private  practice  seen  in  consultation  with  Dr. 
Geo.  Ct.  Thomas,  of  Wilmington,  had  the  Cheyne-Stokes' 
breathing  perfectly,  and  presented  the  appearance  of  ap- 
proaching dissolution.  Large  doses  of  quinia  were  being 
given  but  the  disease  had  advanced  so  far  before  advice 
was  asked  for  that  it  seemed  as  if  the  nervous  system 
would  be  overwhelmed  by  the  poison  before  the  remedy 
had  time  to  act.  A  blister  was  applied  to  the  back  of  the 
neck  and  atropia  sulphate  ((),001{)  gramme)  given  every 
three  hours,  Avith  good  effect,  and  recovery  followed. 
Atro^Dia  was  given  to  counteract  the  slow  sjjasmodic  breath- 
ing ;  the  besoin  de  respirer  being  almost  absent,  as  in 
opium  poisoning. 

The  treatment  used  in  the  ninety  cases  to  which  this  paper 
chiefly  refers  was  based  on  the  principle  that  remittent 
fever  is  caused  by  a  poison  now  known  as  malaria,  which 
ispiesentin  almost  overwhelming  degree,  and  to  which 
quinia  is  a  direct  antidote  if  used  in  large  doses. 


Cases  showing  the  usual  eveninnj  temperature  of  40°  C, 
and  upward  were  given  from  30  to  45  grains  (2  to  H 
grammes)  of  quinia  sulphate,  usually  in  solution  witli 
dilute  sulphuric  acid,  and  largely  diluted  with  ice  water. 
As  the  stomach  in  many  cases  was  fjo  irritable  as  to  reject 
this  really  nauseous  dos>:\  the  quinia  was  then  given  in 
pills  freshly  made  with  glycerine  ;  when  these  were  reject- 
ed, as  was  often  the  case,  the  drug  was  administered  hypo- 
dermicall}^,  the  dose  in  this  case  being  from  10  to  15  grains 
(0.666  to  1  gramme).  The  solution  for  hypodermic  use  was 
made  with  citric  acid,  and  although  many  times  used,  no 
abcess  ensued  in  any  case. 

This  large  dose  almost  invariably  reduced  the  tempera- 
ture from  one  to  three  degrees  by  morning,  the  quinia  was 
then  given  in  doses  of  5  grains  (0.333  gramme)  thrice  daily, 
and  the  lai-ge  dose  again  repeated  at  night  if  the  tempera- 
ture rose.  This  method,  with  a  few  exceptions,  cut  short 
the  fever  in  from  three  to  five  days,  as  the  average  dura- 
tion of  nine  days  for  the  whole  number  of  cases  will  show. 
Some,  especially  where  there  was  an  existing  organic  dis- 
ease, were  more  rebellious,  and  required  large  quantities 
of  quinia  before  convalescence  was  established. 

As  much  as  465  grains  (30  grammes)  of  quinia  were  given 
in  eight  daj^s  in  two  different  cases,  and  no  ill  effects  were 
observed  ;  in  fact  in  no  case  did  quinia  cause  any  disturb- 
ance beyond  deafness  which  soon  passed  away  under  ces- 
sation of  the  drug  and  small  doses  ot  hydrobromic  acid. 
Dimness  of  vision  was  never  complained  of. 

If  the  bowels  were  inactive,  an  enema  was  given  at  once, 
but  no  preparatory  treatment  was  ever  used.  As  the  skin 
and  kidneys  were  active,  opium  or  diaphoretics  were  not 
called  for.  To  moderate  the  heart's  action  fluid  extract  of 
aconite-root  in  one  drop  doses  every  four  hours  was  given 
in  most  all  cases  ;  this,  with  ice  compresses  to  the  head, 
was  about  all  the  treatment. 


The  irritable  stomacli  was  best  controlled  by  creasote 
or  vin.  ipecac.  (5  minims)  0.333  cc.  every  two  or  three 

Rigid  milk  diet  was  given  and  no  stimulants  used.  It  is 
desired  to  insist  upon  the  Heedlessness  of  the  almost  uni- 
versal custom  of  preparing  the  system  for  the  action  of 
quinia,  much  valuable  time  is  lost  in  an  unnecessary  pro- 
cedure, and  it  is  thought  that  opium  is  positively  contrain- 
dicated  by  the  symj)toms. 

In  conclusion,  the  fact  should  not  be  lost  sight  of  that 
remittent  fever  is  eminently  a  disease  to  be  prevented. 
While  vessels  are  in  the  river  the  crews  should  be  required 
to  sleep  ashore.  Captains  should  be  furnished  with  clini- 
cal thermometers,  with  instructions  for  their  use,  and  on 
the  first  indication  of  fever,  a  dose  of  at  least  30  grains 
(2  grammes)  of  quinia  should  be  given. 

The  total  number  of  cases  observed  during  eighteen 
months  was  ninety,  total  number  of  days  treatment  four 
hundred  and  forty,  average  per  i^atient  nine  and  one-third 


The  present  government  of  the  City  is  composed  of  the 
Board  of  Aldermen  and  Board  of  Audit  and  Finance. 

The  Board  of  Aldermen  is  composed  of  the  following 
named  gentlemen  :  Hon.  E.  D.  Hall,  Mayor,  and  Messrs. 
G.  J.  Boney,  Samuel  Bear,  John  L.  Dudley,  S.  H.  Fish- 
blate,  William  L.  DeRosset,  WilHam  H.  Chadbourn,  Isham 
Sweat,  Valentine  Howe  and  John  J.  Gnyer. 

The  Board  of  Audit  and  Finance  is  a  branch  of  the  city 
government  created  by  an  act  of  the  General  Assembly, 
28th  February,  1877,  and  is  at  i^resent  comj^osed  of  the 
following  named  gentlemen :  Mr.  R.  J.  Jones,  Chairman, 
and  Messrs.  AVilliam  Calder,  O.  A.  Wiggins,  W.  R.  Kenan 
and  John  S.  McEachern. 


Since  Wilmington  was  incorporated  as  a  city  by  the 
General  Assembly,  1st  February,  1860,  the  following  named 
have  filled  the  office  of  Mayor  : 

Mr.  A.  H.  VanBokkelen,  elected  in  March,  1866. 

Mr.  John  Dawson,  elected  in  January,  1867, 

Mr.  Jos.  H.  Neff,  appointed  by  the  Provisional  Governor 
of  the  State  in  July,  1868,  and  elected  in  January,  1809.     ^ 

Mr.  S.  N.  Martin,  elected  in  January,  1870. 

Mr.  James  Wilson,  elected  in  May,  1872. 

Mr.  W.  P.  Canaday,  elected  in  May,  1873. 

Mr.  John  Dawson,  elected  in  June,  1877,  and  resigned 
in  Februar}^,  1878. 

Mr.  S.  H.  Fishblate,  elected  in  February,  1878. 

Mr.  \Y-  L.  Smith,  elected  in  March,  1881. 

Mr.  E.  D.  Hall,  elected  in  March,  1883. 

The  following  comprises  a  list  of  the  present  officers  of 
the  city,  with  their  pay  : 

Hon.  E.  D.  Hall,  Mayor ;  salary  $1,200  per  annum. 

Mr.  R.  J.  Jones,  Chairman  of  the  Board  of  Audit  and 
Finance,  and  Commissioner  of  the  Sinking  Fund,  for 
which  he  receives  a  yearly  salary  of  $400,  and  gives  a  bond 
for  $5,000. 

Mr.  Henry  Savage,  Clerk  and  Treasurer,  salary  $000  per 
year,  and  also  Tax  Collector;  estimated  salary  j^l,500  per 
annum,  out  of  which  he  has  all  clerk  hire  to  i^ay  ;  he  gives 
a  bond  of  $20,000. 

Mr.  John  Cowan,  Clerk  of  the  Board  of  Audit  and 
Finance  ;  salary  $600,  and  Clerk  of  the  Police  Department, 
with  a  salary  of  $600  a  year. 

Mr.  H.  C.  Brock,  Chief  of  Police  ;  salary  $1,200. 

Dr.  F.  W.  Potter,  Superintendent  of  Health ;  salary 

Mr.  Charles  D.  Myers,  Chief  of  Fire  Dei^artment ;  salary 

Mr.  L.  M.  Williams,  Clerk  of  Market ;  salary  $400. 

A.  W.  Wiggs,  Cax^tain  of  Police;  pay $55.00 permonth. 

Three  Sergeants  of  Police,  at  $1.60  per  day  each. 

Twenty-live  Privates  of  Police,  at  $1.50  per  day  each. 


Three  Health  officers  at  $35.00  per  month  each. 
Two  Janitors,  at  |40.00  i^er  month  each. 
One  Superintendent  of  Street  Force,  at  $40.00  per  month. 
The  other  employees  of  the  city  vary  in  numbers  and  are 
paid,  say  for  street-cleaners,  &c.,  83^  cents  per  day. 


At  the  beginning  of  the  fiscal  year,  April  1st,  1882,  the 
net  bonded  debt  of  the  city,  after  deducting  the  amount  of 
bonds  held  by  the  Commissioners  of  the  linking  Fund, 
was  ^528,800,  all  in  Coupon  Bonds,  interest  payable  Janu- 
ary and  July  each  year. 

Of  the  above  amount  of  bonds  outstanding,  there  was  of 
those  issued  for  subscription  to  the  Wilmington,  Charlotte 
and  Rutherford  Railroad  stock,  past  due  and  never  present- 
ed for  payment,  though  repeatedly  advertised  for,— $8,500. 

On  July  1,  1882,  $60,400  of  the  bonds  matured,  and  the 
City  Government  has  just  accomplished  the  payment  of 
them  by  the  sale  of  six  per  cent,  bonds,  authorized  by 
the  last  General  Assembly,  so  that  the  bonded  debt  of  the 
City  now  stands,  say  : 

$263,900,  in  eight  per  cent.  Coupon  Bonds,  and  $288,300, 
in  six  per  cent.  Coupon  Bonds,  making  $552,200,— total 
bonded  debt  of  the  City,  of  which  $44,400  is  now  held  by 
the  Commissioner  of  the  Sinking  Fund  as  per  his  last  an- 
nual statement  herewith,  which  would  leave  the  net  debt 
$507,800,  subject  to  a  further  deduction  of  the  amount  to 
go  to  the  Sinking  Fund  from  the  unexpended  balances  of 
the  appropriations  of  the  years  ending  March  31,  1881  and 
March  31,  1882. 

The  Commissioner  of  the  Sinking  Fund  receives  a  semi- 
annual income  of  $1,379  from  the  bonds  he  now  holds,  this 
amount  being  re-invested  in  City  bonds  as  fast  as  the  same 
is  paid,  thereby  increasing  the  fund  and  its  income  semi- 

24  wil:mington,  noetii  caeolina. 

There  is  no  floating  debt,  all  bills  against  the  City  being 
paid  on  presentation. 

The  Cit}^  has  recently  purchased  the  two  pieces  of  prop- 
erty known  as  the  New  Market  Houses,  for  which  it  iias 
issued  its  notes  for  $30,000— payable  twenty  years  after 
January  1st,  1883,  with  interest  at  the  rate  of  six  per  cent, 
per  annum.  Many  jDersons  are  of  the  opinion  that  the  pro- 
perty fully  represents  the  amount  of  the  notes,  and  if  judi- 
ciously managed,  the  income  from  the  same  will  j)ay  the 
interest  and  gradually  sink  the  principal  by  its  maturity. 

The  taxable  value  of  the  Real  and  Personal  property  as 
per  the  tax  book  of  1882  is  $5,017,983,  and  the  rate  one 
and  three-fourths  per  cent. 

The  value  of  the  non-taxable  property  within  the  City 
limits,  such  as  Churches,  Schools,  Wilmington  &  Weldon 
Railroad,  and  Public  Buildings,  is  estimated  at  $650,000, 
of  which  the  City  owns  $105,000,  The  income  for  the  year 
ending  March  31st,  1882,  from  Real  and  Personal  property 
tax.  Merchants  License  and  back  taxes,  was  $111,450,  which 
is  a  fair  indication  of  what  the  income  will  be  this  year. 

The  interest  for  July,  1882,  and  January,  1883,  was  $40,- 
782.     It  will  be  for  the  coming  year  $38,410. 

The  appropriation  for  expenses  for  the  year  ending- 
March  31st,  1883,  is  $63,490. 

There  are  two  items  included  in  the  expenses  for  this 
year  which  have  never  occurred  before, — the  Water  Works 
$6,750,  and  the  City  Hospital  11,000,  the  two  amounting  to 
$7,750,  which  if  deducted  from  the  amount  appropriated, 
$63,490,  would  leave  $55,740  as  the  ordinary  expenses  of  the 
City,  by  which  to  make  a  comparison  with  former  years. 
It  would,  appear  that  this  great  reduction  in  the  value  of 
the  Real  Estate  made  by  the  Assessor,  was  more  in  the  in- 
terest of  the  tax-payers  than  of  the  City,  as  all  the  sales 
of  Real  Estate  made  since  the  new  assessment  have  been  at 
an  advance  of  about  tliirty-three  and  one  third  per  cent., 
making  tlio  n  arkct  value  oL"  the  Real  Estat(^  al)()nt 


111  1S77  the  City  bonds  were  selling  at  seventy  cents  or 
less  on  the  dollar. 

Now  the  six  per  cents,  are  worth  par,  and  the  eight  per 
cent,  bonds  cannot  be  bought  for  less  than  107.  In  1877 
the  coupons  were  bought  up  at  a  discount  ranging  from 
ten  to  twenty  per  cent,  and  j^aid  into  the  Tax  Collector' s 
office  for  taxes  at  par. 

Now  the  coupons  are  regularly  paid  as  they  mature. 

All  merchants'  license  taxes  have  been  reduced  since 
1877,  on  an  average,  thirty-five  i^er  cent. 

The  current  expenses  for  the  year  ending  May  12th,  1877, 
were  $79,359.57,  and  the  same  class  of  expenses  for  the 
present  year,  as  stated  above,  will  be  155,740.. 

I  am  indebted  substantially  for  the  foregoing  particulars 
to  our  efficient  and  obliging  Treasurer,  Maj.  Henry  Savage, 
who,  unlike  many  modern  public  officials,  is  always  ready 
to  furnish  information  with  reference  to  his  department,  for 
reasonable  purposes. 

I  desire  also  to  acknowledge  official  courtesies  from 
Mayor  Smith,  Capt.  Cowan,  Capt.  Brock,  and  Chief 
Engineer  Robinson. 


As  the  establishment  of  the  Board  of  Audit  and  Finance 
in  1877  brought  a  most  gratifying  and  substantial  change 
for  the  better  in  our  city  finances,  and  as  the  administra- 
tion of  this  important  branch  of  our  municipal  government 
has  been  characterized  by  a  degree  of  efficiency  and  public 
spirit  most  iiraiseworthy  to  its  members,— especially  to  the 
original  Board,  upon  whom  devolved  in  its  organization  a 
very  difficult  and  responsible  task,— I  have  thought  it  my 
duty,  as  well  as  a  privilege,  to  append  with  a  copy  of  the 
Act  of  Assembly  creating  the  Board,  a  correspondence 
published  last  year  upon  the  retirement  of  Mr.  Norwood 
Giles,  who  served  as  the  first  Chairman  of  the  Board  ;  and 
to  whom,  with  his  colleagues,  Messrs.  D.  Gr.  Worth,  R.  J. 
Jones,  W.  D.  Mahn,  and  T.  W.  Player,  we  are  indebted 


in  a  groat  measure  for  the  present  highly  satisfactor}^  con- 
dition of  our  municipal  credit. 

A7i  Act  to  establish  a  Board  of  Audit  and  Finance  for  the 
City  of  Wilmington. 

Section  1.  The  General  Assembly  of  North  Carolina 
do  enact^  That  in  the  month  of  March,  A.  D.  one  thousand 
eight  hundred  and  seventy-seven,  and  biennially  thereaf- 
ter, the  Governor  of  this  State  shall  appoint  five  discreet 
and  jiroper  parsons  among  the  electors  of  the  city  of  Wil- 
mington, one  from  each  of  the  five  wards  of  said  city,  who 
shall  constitute  and  be  styled  "the  Board  of  Audit  and 
Finance  of  the  city  of  Wilmington,"  and  the  persons  so 
appointed  shall  continue  in  office  for  two  years,  and  until 
their  successors  are  duly  appointed  and  qualified.  No 
person  holding  an  ofliice  or  appointment  under  the  Board 
of  Aldermen  of  said  city,  or  under  any  law  in  reference  to 
said  city,  or  who  may  be  a  contractor  for  any  work, 
materials,  supplies  or  other  things  whatever  for  the  use 
of  said  city,  shall  be  eligible  as  a  member  of  said  Board, 
or  qualified  to  act  as  one  of  its  members.  Any  vacancy 
occurring  among  the  members  of  said  Board  during 
their  term  of  office,  shall  be  filled  by  the  remaining 

Sec.  2.  Said  Board  shall,  from  their  body,  elect  a  chair- 
man, who,  with  the  clerk  hereinafter  j)rovided  for,  shall 
sign  and  certify  all  orders  of  the  Board  ;  and  in  case  such 
chairman  shall  be  absent  at  any  meeting  of  the  Board,  a 
temporary  chairman  shall  be  chosen,  who,  during  such 
meeting,  shall  exercise  the  powers  of  the  regular  chairman. 
The  chairman  of  said  Board  shall  have  i^ower  to  administer 
oaths,  and  issue  subpoenas  for  witnesses  to  appear  before 
the  Board,  who  shall  be  required  to  appear  and  testify, 
under  like  pains  and  penalties  as  if  summoned  to  any 
Superior    Court.      Before    entering  on   their  duties,     the 


members  of  said  Board  sliall,  before  some  jastiee  of  the 
peace,  take  and  subscribe  the  oath  of  office,  prescribed  in 
section  four  of  article  six  of  the  constitution,  and  cause  the 
same  to  be  filed  in  the  office  of  the  Clerk  and  Treasurer  of 
said  City. 

Sec.  3.  The  Board  shall  appoint  a  Clerk,  prescribe  his 
duties,  and  require  him  to  give  bond,  payable  to  the  City 
of  Wilmington,  in  such  sum  as  said  Board  may  consider 
sufficient,  secured  by  two  or  more  good  sureties,  and  con- 
ditioned for  the  faithful  performance  of  the  duties  of  his 
office.  The  said  Clerk  shall  hold  office  at  the  pleasure  of  said 
Board,  shall  have  power  to  administer  oaths,  and  shall 
receive  such  compensation,  not  exceeding  six  hundred 
dollnYS  per  annum,  as  said  Board  may  establish. 

Sec.  4.  Said  Board  shall  hold  regular  meetings  twice 
every  month,  and  oftener  if  necessary,  in  some  room  in 
the  City  Hall  at  such  times  as  the  Board  may  determine, 
and  of  which  due  notice  shall  be  given  by  advertisements 
.to  be  posted  at  the  Court  House  door,  and  ten  other  public 
places  in  the  city.  Said  meetings  shall  be  opened  to  the 
public,  and  the  times  of  holding  the  regular  semi-monthly 
meetings  shall  not  be  changed,  unless  ten  days  notice  of 
such  change  shall  be  given  as  aforesaid.  The  Clerk  shall, 
in  proper  books,  keej)  a  minute  record  of  the  i)roceedings 
of  said  meetings,  recording  the  names  of  the  members  pres-' 
ent,  the  character  and  amount  of  all  claims  and  demands 
against  the  city,  and  the  names  of  the  claimants.  All  such 
claims  and  demands  shall  be  made  out  in  distinct  items, 
verified  by  the  affidavit  of  tlie  claimant  or  his  agent, 
stating  that  the  claim  is  Just  and  due,  that  the  articles 
were  furnished  or  services  rendered,  as  the  case  may  be, 
and  that  no  part  of  the  same  has  been  satisfied.  Notwith- 
standing such  affidavit,  the  said  Board  may  require  further 
proof  as  to  the  validity  of  any  claim  ;  and  any  person  who 
shall  knoAvingly  or  wilfully  offer  or  cause  to  be  offered  for 
audit   by   said  Board,   any  false  or  fraudulent  claim  or 


demand  against  the  City  of  Wilmington,  shall  be  deemed 
guilty  of  a  misdemeanor ;  and  any  person  who  shall 
wilfully  swear  to  any  false  statement  before  said  Board, 
shall  be  guilty  of  perjury. 

Sec.  5.  It  shall  be  the  duty  of  said  Board  to  audit  and 
X)ass  upon  the  validity  of  all  claims  and  demands  against 
the  City  of  Wilmington,  and  no  claim  or  demand  against 
said  city  shall  be  i)aid  by  the  treasurer  of  said  cit}^,  or  by 
any  other  person,  out  of  any  funds  belonging  to  said  city, 
until  the  same  has  been  duly  audited  and  approved  by 
said  Board,  and  a  warrant  signed  by  the  Chairman  and 
Clerk,  given  for  the  payment  of  the  same.  All  claims, 
demands  and  accounts  presented  to  said  Board  to  be 
audited,  shall  be  treated  and  proceeded  with  in  all  re- 
spects as  is  provided  in  section  twelve,  chapter  twenty- 
seven,  of  Battle's  Revisal,  in  reference  to  claims  or  ac- 
counts against  counties.  Any  member  of  said  Board  who 
shall  knowingly  vote  to  allow  any  fals(?,  fraudulent  or 
untrue  claim  or  demand  against  said  city,  shall  be  deemed 
guilty  of  a  misdemeanor,  and  upon  conviction,  shall  be 
punished  by  a  fine  of  not  less  than  five  hundred  dollars, 
and  by  imprisonment  for  not  less  than  one  j^ear. 

Sec.  G.  No  ordinance  of  the  Board  of  Aldermen  of  said 
city,  levying  any  tax  whatever,  shall  be  valid  or  of  any 
effect  unless  an  estimate  and  the  rate  of  assessment  of 
the  taxes  so  to  be  levied,  shall  be  first  submitted  to  said 
Board  of  Audit  and  Finance,  and  approved,  by  at  least 
three  of  its  members.  The  estimates  aforesaid  shall  specify 
the  amount  required  during  the  next  coming  fiscal  year  to 
pay  interest  on  the  debt  of  said  cit}^  and  to  provide  a  sink- 
ing fund  for  its  ultimate  payment,  and  the  amount  which 
will  be  required,  as  nearl}^  as  can  be  ascertained,  to  meet 
the  necessary  exj)enditures  for  the  several  departments  of 
the  city  government,  and  the  amounts  to  "be  expended 
under  said  estimates  shall  be  apportioned  by  said  Board  of 
Audit  and  Finance,  according  to  the  specifications  accom- 


panying  the  same,  among  the  several  departments  of  the 
city,  of  which  apportionment  a  copy  shall  be  delivered  to 
the  Clerk  and  Treasurer  of  said  city.  All  warrants  which 
may  be  drawn  on  account  of  any  duly  audited  claim  or 
demand,  shall  specify  the  particular  fund  from  which  the 
same  is  to  be  paid,  and  no  such  warrant  shall  be  paid  from 
any  other  fund,  than  the  one  designated  therein  ;  and  if 
any  such  warrant  shall  be  paid,  in  violation  of  this  pro- 
vision, or  if  any  claim  against  said  city  shall  be  paid  or  be 
received  on  account  of  any  indebtedness  to  said  city, 
before  a  proper  warrant  for  the  same  has  been  issued,  the 
Treasurer  of  said  city,  or  any  other  person  paying  the 
same  out  of  any  funds  belonging  to  said  city  shall  be  liable 
for  the  amount  so  paid,  and  shall  be  deemed  guilty  of  a 

Sec.  7,  The  said  Board  of  Audit  and  Finance  shall,  once 
in  every  three  months,  cause  to  be  posted  at  the  Court 
House,  and  ten  other  public  places  in  said  city,  a  state- 
ment of  all  claims  and  demands  against  said  city,  audited 
by  said  Board,  giving  the  respective  amounts  claimed  and 
allowed,  the  character  of  said  claim  and  the  name  of  the 

Sec.  8.  It  shall  be  the  duty  of  said  Board  of  Audit  and 
Finance,  and  it  shall  have  the  exclusive  power  to  fix  the 
salaries  or  other  compensation  of  all  officers  and  employees 
of  said  city,  and  to  pass  upon  and  approve  the  official 
bonds  of  such  officers ;  and  no  contract,  even  for  the 
necessary  expenses  of  said  city,  nor  any  bond,  note  or 
other  obligation  in  behalf  of  said  city,  shall  be  valid  or  of 
any  effect,  unless  the  same  be  ajjproved  by  said  Board,  and 
such  approval  be  endorsed  thereon.  Any  officer  of  said 
city  who  is  required  to  give  a  bond  for  the  faithful  per- 
formance of  his  duties,  who  shall  enter  upon  the  discharge 
of  the  duties  of  his  office,  or  in  any  way  intermeddle  there- 
with, before  the  official  bond  siiall  be  duly  approved  as 
aforesaid,  shall  be  deemed  guilty  of  a  misdemeanor,  and 


on  conviction  shall  he  lined  not  less  than  five  hnndred 
dollars,  and  imprisoned  not  less  than  six  months,  and  shall 
further  forfeit  his  office. 

Sec.  il  Said  Board  shall,  at  such  times  during  each  year 
as  may  be  deemed  judicious,  and  at  the  end  of  each  iiscal 
year,  audit  and  cause  to  be  settled  the  accounts  of  the  City 
Treasurer,  and  of  all  other  persons  holding  any  funds 
belonging  to  said  cit}^  ;  and  on  all  such  settlements,  all 
interest,  benefit,  advantage  received  or  to  be  received, 
directly  or  indirectlj^,  from  the  use,  disposal  or  deposit  of 
any  funds  belonging  to  said  city,  by  any  officer  or  agent 
of  the  city,  shall  be  duly  accounted  for.  Such  officers  or 
agents  upon  making  any  sucli  settlements  shall  be  required 
to  make  and  file  with  said  Board  an  affidavit,  declaring  as 
the  fact  may  be,  whether  he  has  or  has  not  received,  or  is 
not  to  receive  directly  or  indirectly,  any  interest,  benefit  or 
advantage  from  the  use,  deposit,  or  any  disposal  of  said 
funds,  and  shall  also  be  examined  orally  on  the  mattei's 
referred  to.  In  the  event  that  any  officer  of  said  city, 
upon  the  investigation  of  his  accounts  as  aforesaid,  shall 
be  found  to  be  in  default,  said  Board  of  Audit  and  Finance 
is  hereby  authorized  and  emx)Owered  to  declare  his  office 

Sec.  10.  The  Board  of  Aldermen  of  the  said  city  shall, 
annually,  at  least  one  month  before  the  time  of  the  annual 
assessment  of  taxes  by  said  Board,  and  at  such  other  times 
as  may  be  necessary,  advertise  for  proposals  for  all  labor 
and  for  all  materials  required  by  said  city  for  the  opening, 
guttering,  grading  and  cleaning  or  paving,  or  otherwise 
improving  the  streets,  alleys  or  sidewalks  of  said  city  ; 
for  lighting  and  repairing  the  lami:)S  of  the  city  ;  for  all 
labor  and  materials  for  the  rei:)air  or  construction  of  all 
buildings  belonging  to  the  city ;  for  all  printing  and 
advertising  required  by  the  city  ;  for  all  supplies  of  any 
kind  required  for  the  use  of  the  city,  or  any  department 
thereof  ;  and  shall  contract  for  the  same  with  the  lowest 


biddej',  who  considered  lit  and  competent ;  but  no 
sucli  contract  shall  be  binding  on  the  city  till  api^roved  by 
the  said  Board  of  Audit  and  Finance,  by  which  all  sucli 
contractors  shall  be  required  to  enter  into  bonds  secured  to 
its  satisfaction,  for  the  faithful  performance  of  their  several 

Sec,  11.  The  Chairman  of  the  Board  of  Audit  and  Finance 
shall  be  "the  Commissioner  of  the  Sinking  Fund  of  the  City 
of  Wilmington,"  and  shall  liave  all  the  powders  and  per- 
form all  the  duties  incident  to  that  office  by  any  and  all 
acts  of  the  General  Assembly  authorizing  or  requiring  the 
appointment  of  such  an  officer.  He  shall  enter  into  bond, 
with  two  or  more  good  and  sufficient  sureties,  to  be  ap- 
i:)roved  of  by  the  Board  of  Aldermen  of  said  city  in  such 
sum  as  said  Board  of  Aldermen  shall  fix,  and  payable  to 
the  city  of  Wilmington,  and  conditioned  for  the  faithful 
performance  of  all  the  duties  incident  to  said  office,  or 
which  may  be  hereafter  imposed  on  such  officers.  The 
Chairman  of  said  Board,  as  Commissioner  of  the  Sinking 
Fund  of  the  city  of  Wilmington,  shall  in  the  months  of 
January  and  July  of  each  year  cause  to  be  published,  in 
one  or  more  of  the  newspapers  in  said  city,  a  statement 
showing  the  true  condition  of  said  Sinking  Fund,  giving  the 
amount  and  character  of  the  investments  of  the  same,  and 
the  place  of  deposit  of  the  securities  belonging  to  it. 

Sec.  12.  The  Treasurer  of  the  said  city,  upon  a  j^roper 
warrant  to  be  drawn  on  him  as  is  hereinbefore  provided, 
shall  pay  over  to  the  said  Commissioner  of  the  Sinking 
Fund  the  amounts  which  may  from  time  to  time  be  col- 
lected from  taxes  assessed  and  levied  for  the  Sinking  Fund 
of  said  city,  and  also  all  sums  which  may  have  been 
assessed  and  collected  for  any  other  department  of  the  city 
government,  and  which  may  be  remaining  in  his  hands 
unexpended  and  unappropriated  at  the  end  of  any  fiscal 
year.  The  sums  of  money  which  may  be  paid  as  aforesaid 
to  theCommissioner  of  the  Sinking:  Fund,  shall  be  invested 


and  managed  as  required  by  law  ;  and  in  making  invest- 
ments of  the  same,  and  of  all  sums  accruing  from  securi- 
ties in  wliicli  the  same  may  be  invested,  pieferenco  shall 
be  given  to  such  of  the  bonds  of  said  city  which  will  yield 
the  largest  income  on  the  amount  invested  ;  all  of  such 
bonds  of  the  city  of  AYilmington  which  may  be  purchased 
for  the  purpose  aforesaid  and  all  the  coupons  thereto, 
shall  be  immediately  and  indelibly  stamped  with  the  words: 
"the  Sinking  Fund  of  the  City  of  Wilmington;''  and  the 
number,  amount  and  date  of  issue  of  every  such  bond  shall 
be  recorded  by  said  Commissioner  in  a  proper  book  kept 
by  said  Board  of  Audit  and  Finance  for  that  purpose  ;  and 
a  duly  certified  copy  of  such  record  shall  from  time  to  time, 
as  additional  investments  for  said  fund  shall  be  made,  be 
furnished  b}^  said  Commissioner  to  the  Board  of  Aldermen 
of  said  city,  who  shall  cause  the  same  to  be  filed  by  the 
clerk  and  treasurer  of  said  city,  and  recorded  in  a  proper 
book  in  his  office.  All  bonds  as  aforesaid,  and  all  other 
securities  purchased  as  investment  of  any  fund  belonging 
to  said  sinking  fund,  and  all  intei'est  accruing  thereon, 
shall  be  held  exclusively  for  the  use  of  and  as  part  of  said 
Sinking  Fund,  and  shall  not  be  disposed  of  or  transferred, 
or  in  any  way  used  for  any  other  purpose  whatever.  The 
chairman  of  said  Board  of  Andit  and  Finance,  as  compen- 
sation for  his  services  as  Commissioner  of  the  Sinking  Fund 
of  the  City  of  Wilmington,  shall  be  entitled  to  a  salary  of 
four  hundred  dollars  per  annum  ;  and  the  Treasurer  of 
said  city,  upon  the  proper  warrant  as  aforesaid,  signed  by 
the  Chairman  and  Clerk  of  said  Board  of  Audit  and 
Finance,  shall  pay  the  necessary  expenses  of  said  Board, 
the  salary  of  their  Clerk,  and  the  salary  as  aforesaid  of  its 

Sec.  13.  The  Treasurer  of  the  city  of  Wilmington  shall 
at  the  end  of  every  month,  cause  to  be  posted  at  the  Court 
House  and  at  ten  other  public  places  in  said  city,  a  state 
nient  dul}^  verified  by  his  oath,  in  which  shall  be  set  forth 


the  names  of  all  persons  to  whom  he  has  x^^ici  any  amount 
during  that  month,  the  amount  so  i)aid  to  each  person,  the 
particular  fund  from  which  such  pajnnent  has  l'>een  made, 
and  the  whole  amount  of  money  belonging  to  the  city  then 
remaining  in  his  hands. 

Sec.  14.  That  all  laws  and  parts  of  laws  in  conflict  with 
the  provisions  of  this  act  are  hereby  repealed,  and  this 
act  shall  be  in  force  from  and  after  the  ratification  of  the 

Ratified  the  28th  day  of  February,  A.  D.  1877. 

City  Finances — Meioort  of  the  Commissioner  of  the  Sink- 

ing  Fund,  and  Accompanying  Statement  of 

the  City  Clerk  and  Treasurer. 


City  of  Wilmington,  N.  C,  January  4th^  1882. 

The  Honorable,  the  Mayor  and  Aldermen,  City  of  Wit- 
onlngton : 

Gentlemen: — As  reqnired  by  law^  I  beg  to  report  present 
status  of  the  Sinking  Fund. 

securities  held. 

Of  Bonds  maturing  February  1st,  1892, 8  2,500  00 

"       "  "  January    1st,  1897, 3,300  00 

"       "  "  January    1st,  1899, 1,000  00 

"       "  "  January    1st,  1901, 10,000  00 

"       "  ''  January    1st,  1904, 25,000  00 

Cash  uninvested, 55  00 

Total, $41,855  00 

All  of  above  has  been  accumulated  since  the  establish- 
ment of  the  Board  of  Audit  and  Finance,  in  1877. 

The  possession  of  a  Sinking  Fund  of  above  proportion  is 
of  itself  a  matter  of  gratulation,  but  when  it  is  coupled 
with  the  fact  that  lolthln  the  same  time,  the  debt  of  the 


City  has  actually  been  reduced  more  than  one  hundred 
thousand  dollars^  the  tax-payers  cannot  fail  to  appreciate 
the  management  of  City  affairs  since  1877. 

Not  only  has  this  immense  debt  reduction  been  accom- 
plished, but  the  tax  on  Real  Estate  has  been  reduced  one- 
quarter  of  one  per  cent.,  notwithstanding  the  fact  that  the 
assessed  value  thereof  has  been  reduced  $637,832.  The 
license  taxes  have  also  been  materially  reduced. 

The  above  concise  statement  of  important  financial  items 
is  highly  gratifying,  and  of  iuterest  to  every  citizen,  for  not 
only  has  the  municipal  credit  been  restored,  but  a  continu- 
ation of  economical  administration  and  proper  aj)plication 
of  revenue,  must  undoubtedly  lead  to  further  reduction  of 

All  Bonds  belonging  to  the  Sinking  Fund,  and  the 
Coupons  thereto  attached,  have  been  indelibly  stamped, 
"Sinking  Fund,  City  of  Wilmington,  N.  C,"  and  are 
dei)osited  in  the  vault  of  the  Bank  of  New  Hanover. 

Your  attention  is  especially  directed  to  the  accompany- 
ing valuable  report  of  Mr.  Savage,  your  Clerk  and  Treas- 
urer, wherein  a  comparison  is  instituted,  and  the  i^resent 
improved  state  of  finances  eatisfactorily  and  clearly 

Very  Respectfully, 

Commissioner  Sinlhing  Fund. 

City  of  Wilmington,  N.  C,  January  3rd,  1882. 

Norwood  Giles,  Esq.,  Chairman  of  Board  of  Andit  and 

Finance^  Wilmington^  N.  C: 

Sir  : — In  answer  to  your  request  of  this  date,  that  I 
furnish  you  with  a  "statement  of  the  present  condition  of 
city  finances,  as  compared  with  the  same  when  I  entered 


upon  the  duties  of  my  office,  in  July  1877,"  I  respectfully 
submit  the  following  report : 

By  the  city  tax  book  of  1877  I  find  Real  Estate  assessed 
at  13,832,890,  and  the  rate  of  taxation  two  per  cent. 

On  July  1st,  1877,  the  debt  of  the  Oity,  as  near  as  could 
be  ascertained  was  about  $673,000,  with  not  a  dollar  in  the 
Sinking  Fund.  Much  of  this  debt  was  in  past  due  bonds 
and  coupons  and  a  floating  debt  of  about  115,000.  There 
was  no  money  of  moment  in  the  Treasury  and  an  over- 
draft at  Bank  of  f  1,200.  To  pay  the  policemen  and  other 
expenses  for  June,  1877,  it  was  necessary  to  borrow  |2,300 
from  bank. 

The  bonds  were  selling  for  seventy  cents,  or  less,  on  the 
dollar,  and  the  coupons  were  bought  up  at  a  discount 
ranging  from  ten  to  twenty  per  cent.,  and  paid  into  the 
Tax  Collector's  office  by  the  purchasers  for  taxes  at  par. 

The  current  expenses  of  the  City  for  the  fiscal  year  end- 
ing May  12th,  1877,  were  -^79,359.57  ;  balance  due  Treasurer 
by  his  account  that  date,  l?l,999.72. 

I  find  by  the  tax  book  of  1881  real  estate  assessed  at 
$3,195,058,  and  the  rate  of  taxation  one  and  three-fourths 
per  cent.  The  present  debt  of  the  City  is,  all  in  bonds, 
1572,100;  the  sinking  fund  is  $41,800.  No  floating  debt 
or  past  due  coupons.  The  six  per  cent,  bonds  are  now 
at  par,  and  the  eight  per  cent,  bonds  cannot  be  bought 
at  105. 
The  Current  Expenses   for   the   Fiscal   Year 

ending  April  1st,  1881,  were I      54,480  07 

Cash  on  hand  at  that  date, 10,415  75 

Thus  we  see  that  Real  Estate  was  assessed  in 

1877  at 3,832,890  00 

The  same  Real  Estate  was  assessed  in  1881  at  3,195,058  00 

Reduction  of  assessment  on  Real  Estate 637,732  00 

Total  value   of  Taxable   Propert},   Real  and 

Personal,  in  1881, $4,856,5.57  00 


The  valuation  of  personal  proi)erfcy  is  made  by  the  tax- 
jyayers  tliemselves^  and  is  largely  in  excess  in  1881  ot  that 
returned  by  them  in  1877. 

The  City  Tax  on  Eeal  Estate  in  1877  was   I  76,657  80 

The  City  Tax  on  the  same  Real  Estate  in  1881, 

with  four  years'  improvements,  is 55,913  51 

Reduction  of  City  Tax  on  Real  Estate, %  20,1^4:  29 

In  the  matter  of  the  monthly  license  taxes  on  merchants 
1  find  that  the  following  taxes  were  paid  per  month  for  the 
respective  years  : 

1877.  1881. 

Auctioneers, $10  00  t  5  00 

Bar  Rooms, 12  50  10  00 

Bakers 5  00  2  50 

-Cemmercial  Brokers 5  00  3  00 

Commission  Merchants,  on  sales  of  from 

15,000  to  110,000 7  50  5  00 

Wholesale  and  Retail  Dealers,  on  sales  of 

from  1500  to  11,000 5  00  4  00 

And  all  other  license  taxes  have  been  reduced  in  the  same 

Upon  the  summing  up  I  find  the  Sinking  Fund  increased 
141,800  ;  the  debt  reduced  1100, OCO;  the  tax  on  Real  Estate 
reduced  33^  i)er  cent. ;  the  Merchants'  License  tax  reduced^ 
35 per  cent.;  the  City  Bonds  at  and  above  par,  an  advance 
of  50  per  cent. 

Very  Respectfully, 

ClerJi.  and,  Treasurer. 



Wilmington,  N.  C,  January  2ncl,  1883. 

To  the  Honorable,  the  Mayor  and  Aldermen.,  City  of  Wil- 
mington : 

Gentlemen  :— As  required  by  law,  I  herewith  submit 
statement,  showing  the  condition  of  the  Sinkinc^  Fund  oi 
your  city  : 
Securities  Held — 

Of  Matured  Bonds S  1,700 

Of  Bonds  Maturing  February  1st,  1892, 3,000 

-'          January     1st,  1897, 3,700 

January     1st,  1899 1,000 

"       ''            "          January     1st,  1901, 10,000 

January     1st,  1904, ^5,000 

Cash  Uninvested 29 

Total,  .  - $44,529 

The  value  of  maintaining  this  fund  as  an  important  factor 
in  sustaining  our  city  credit  is  fully  recognized  by  erery 
one  who  deals  in  our  city  securities,  or  is  at  all  interested 
in  the  good  faith  of  the  oitj  toward  its  creditors,  as  it  forms 
a  part  of  the  contract  under  which  our  bonds  were  issued. 
For  it  must  be  borne  in  mind  that  the  several  acts  of  the 
Legislature  authorizing  the  City  to  issue  bonds,  provided 
for  the  creation  and  maintenance  of  a  Sinking  Fund  for 
their  gradual  payment.  Bat  it  was  not  until  the  creation 
of  the  Board  of  Audit  and  Finance — whose  Chairman  was 
made  ex  officio  Commissioner  of  the  Sinking  Fund — that 
any  attention  was  ever  given  to  the  subject.  Hence,  in 
1877  when  the  Board  of  Audit  and  Finance  was  organized, 
its  chairman  found  no  such  fund  in  existence.  While  the 
XDressing  demands  upon  the  City  Treasury — which  was  tJieii 
laboring  under  the  heavy  burden  of  over  a  hundred 
thousand  dollars  ^a^/  due  indebtedness,  gave  no  encour- 
aging x^rospects  of  establishing  one— yet  the  law  required 


it  should  be  done,  and  the  necessary  machinery  was  set  to 
work  by  tax  assessment  for  that  purpose.  As  the  money 
is  collected  and  paid  over  to  the  Commissioner  of  the  Sink- 
ing Fund,  it  is  invested  in  the  City  Bonds,  which  are  regis- 
tered and  stamped— both  bonds  and  coupons — "Sinking 
Fund,  City  of  Wilmington,"  and  now  form  a  permanent 
Fund,  the  interest  of  which  is  invested  semi-annually. 
That  it  has  grown  to  its  present  x)roportions  is  certainly  a 
matter  for  congratulation,  and,  if  prudently  managed,  it 
will  go  on  increasing  until  our  bonded  debt  is  entirely  ab- 
sorbed by  it,  while  it  gi^^s  assurance  meanwhile  to  our 
creditors  that  the  City  is  mindful  of  its  obligations  and  is 

preparing  to  meet  them. 


Commissioner  Sinlcing  Fund. 


The  following  comprise  existing  contracts  with  the  City, 
and  their  nature,  for  fiscal  year  ending  March  81,  1883, 
to  wit : 

Clarendon  Water  Works  Co.,  for  use  of  Fire  Hydrants 
(there  are  now  105)  16,750  per  annum. 

City  Hospital,  ((^ity  paying  two-fifths  of  expenses,  County 
three-fifths)  $1,000  per  annum. 

T,  J.  Southerland, — feeding  mules,  keeping  carts  and 
harness  in  repair,  and  furnishing  drivers, — ti32.50  per 
month  for  each  mule  and  cart.  There  are  now  six  mules 
(and  one  horse  at  $12.50  per  month)  $207.50  jier  month,  or 
$2,490  per  annum. 

Wilmington  Gas  Light  Co., — furnishing  gas  at  $2.00  x^er 
month  for  each  street  lamp.  There  are  now  189  street 
lami)S,  making  1378  per  month,  or  $4,536  per  annum.  Geo. 
W.  Batson,  Lamp  Lighter,  $1,008  per  annum. 

J.  L.  Winner,  keeping  City  Clock  in  order,  $120  per 

J.  W.  Taylor,  furnishing  lumber,  $14  |)er  M  feet. 


J.  A.  Walker,  rent  of  wliarf  and  small  lot  opposite, 
^350  per  annum. 


The  organization  of  the  Police  Force  consists  of  one 
Chief,  one  Captain,  three  Sergeants,  twentj^-five  Privates, 
one  Detective  and  one  Clerk. 

The  api)ropriation  for  this  department  for  the  fiscal  year 
ending  March  31st,  1883,  including  incidental  expenses  and 
equipments  for  the  Force — such  as  whistles,  uniforms,  over- 
coats and  hats,  as  well  as  pay  tot  extra  policemen  during, 
elections,  holidays,  and  times  of  public  excitement,  is 
$19,440,  of  which  sum  there  has  been  expended  to  date 
(March  1st)  $15,086.83. 

The  number  of  arrests  made  for  the  past  year  were  479 
and  amount  of  fines  collected  $389.51. 

There  were  44.5  men,  women  and  children,  who  applied 
for,  and  were  accommodated  with  lodging  at  the  Station 
House.  Of  this  number  many  were  "tramps,"  passing 
through  the  country,  others  were  honestly  seeking  work ; 
all  without  money  or  a  home  here. 

A  considerable  quantity  of  stolen  property  has  been 
recovered  by  the  Force  and  restored  to  rightful  owners. 

The  majority  of  arrests  reported  were  for  violations  of 
City  ordinances,  yet  quite  a  large  number  were  for  infrac- 
tions of  State  laws  ;  and  the  aid  rendered  to  Coun'y 
officials  in  the  discharge  of  their  duties  in  this  particular 
has  been  material. 

While  the  Chief  prefers  that  an  exacting  ]3ublic  should 
judge  of  the  efficiency  and  worth  of  the  Police  Force,  he 
desires  to  bear  testimony  to  their  collective  merit,  and  to 
the  manner  in  which  they  have  discharged  the  duties 
assigned  them. 

The  municipal  strength  of  the  Police  Force  of  this  City 
has  always  been  regarded  as  too  small.  There  is  a  large 
scope  embraced  in  the  corporate  limits  to  be  patrolled.    In 


the  more  populated,  or  business  parts  of  the  city,  for  the 
proper  protection  of  i3roi:)erty,  their  stations  must  necessa- 
rily be  close  together  at  night,  one  on  a  block,  thus  leaving 
.  vei'y  few  to  be  distributed  on  the  outskirts,  or  even  in  the 
central  portion  of  the  city. 

As  compared  with  the  pay  of  the  police  in  other  Southern 
towns,  their  remuneration  is  small. 

The  three  Health  Officers,  who  are  placed  under  the 
surveillance  of  the  Chief  of  Police,  have  also  discharged 
their  duties  in  a  creditable  manner.  Not  always  meeting 
individual  expectation  as  regards  promptness  in  the  removal 
of  rubbish,  or  abating  a  temporary  nuisance,  they  have 
been  steadily  on  the  alert,  and  have  evinced  a  care  and 
judgment  in  the  discharge  of  their  disagreeable  duties, 
which  has  resulted  in  keei^ing  the  city  in  a  cleanly  and 
good  sanitary  condition. 


There  are  at  present  in  service  three  Steam  Fire  Engines, 
all  in  excellent  order.  Two  of  them  have  hydrant  connec- 
tions with  the  Water  Works,  which  have  operated  satis- 
factorily. There  is  also  one  hand  engine  in  good  order,  but 
which  is  never  jised.  These,  with  a  Hook  and  Ladder 
Company,  two  Bucket  Companies,  one  Hose  Company, 
3,500  feet  of  good  hose,  and  about  500  feet  of  old  hose  (not 
reliable),  constitute  the  available  means  of  protection 
from  fire. 

The  Department,  now  in  charge  of  Chief  Engineer  Charles 
D,  Myers,  has  always  maintained  the  highest  character  for 
promptness,  efficiency  and  reliability.  It  is  composed  of 
vigorous,  public-spirited  young  men  (white  and  colored) 
of  the  best  class,  and  can  always  be  depended  ux^on.  The 
service  is  entirely  voluntary,  and  although  our  citizens 
generally  admit  its  effectiveness,  it  has  merited,  for  years,  a 
more  substantial  recognition  at  the  hands  of  property- 
holders,  and  especially  of  underwriters  of  local  fire  risks. 


Capt.  F.  G.  Robinson,  the  recently  retired  chief,  brought,  as 
a  guarantee  of  his  capacity,  an  experience  of  many  years 
as  Foreman  of  the  Little  Giant  Engine  Co.  No.  1,  and  his 
responsible  duties  have  been  performed  with  credit  to  him- 
self and  honor  to  the  Dei^artment.  For  six  years  the 
duties  of  this  office  devolved  upon  Col.  Roger  Moore, 
whose  administration  was  characterized  by  an  efficiency 
probably  equal  to  any  paid  Fire  Department  in  the  United 
States.  A  clearer  head,  a  better  executive,  or  a  more 
patriotic  servant  of  the  x)ublic  has  never,  in  the  opinion  of 
many  of  our  citizens,  been  elected  in  this  community. 

The  following  list  comprises  the  present  Fire  Depart- 
ment : 

CHAS.  D.  MYERS, CJuef  Engineer, 

Howard  Relief  Fire  Engine  Compa:>v,  No.  1. 

A.  Adrian, Foreman, 

H.  Hintze, First  Assistant, 

M.  Rathgen, Second  Assistant, 

Little  Giant  Fire  Engine  Company,  No.  1. 

E.  G.  Parmelee, Foreman. 

W.  C.  VonGlaiin, First  Assistant. 

M.  Newman,  . . Second  Assistant, 

Cape  Fear  Fire  Engine  Company,  No.  3.     (Colored.) 

Valentine  Howe, Foreman. 

Ben.  Siiepard, First  Assistant. 

J.  Bland, Second  Assistant. 

Hook  and  Ladder  Company,  No.  1. 

R.  H.  Grant, Foreman. 

N.  A.  Quince, First  Assistant. 

B.  G,  Empie Second  Assistant. 



The  Wilmington  City  Hospital  was  opened  for  reception 
of  patients,  November  1,1882.  By  an  act  of  the  Legisla- 
ture, the  Hospital  is  a  joint  institution  of  the  county  and 
city,  the  former  bearing  three-fifths  of  the  expense,  and 
the  latter  two-fifths. 

Up  to  date,  about  100  patients,  afflicted  with  various  med- 
ical and  surgical  diseases,  have  been  received  and  cared  for, 
and  quite  a  number  of  important  surgical  operations  have 
been  performed  successfully. 

Several  pay  patients  have  availed  themselves  of  the 
accommodations  of  the  Hospital  for  treatment,  and  have 
I)aid  therefore  about  two  hundred  dollars. 

The  Hospital  rates  for  board  and  nursing,  including 
hiedicines,  are  from  70  cents  to  $1.60  per  day.  Surgical 
operations  are  charged  for  extra,  as  agreed  upon  by  the 
patients,  in  accordance  with  their  means. 

The  Dispensary,  located  in  the  main  Hospital  building, 
furnishes  all  needful  medical  supplies  to  the  inmates, 
besides  giving  many  prescriptions  to  the  outside  county 
and  city  poor.  The  surgeon  in  charge  resides  on  the 
premises,  and  gives  the  most  of  his  time  to  the  manage- 
ment of  the  institution  and  grounds. 

The  surgeon  makes  a  monthly  report  of  expenses,  articles 
furnished,  number  and  condition  of  the  patients,  to  a 
Board  of  Managers,  consisting  of  three  members  of  the 
Board  of  County  Commissioners,  and  two  of  the  Board  of 
Aldermen.  All  accounts  are  promptly  audited,  endorsed 
by  the  Chairman,  and  paid  each  month. 

The  Hospital  greatly  needs  more  room  for  patients,  a 
well-lighted  operating  room,  and  a  mortuary,  or  proper 
temporary  receptacle  for  the  dead.  A  report  representing 
these  wants  has  been  made  to  the  Board  of  Managers,  and 
arrangements  are  being  made  to  construct  the  building. 
The  officers  consist  of  a  resident  physician,  a  steward  and 
a  matron. 


The  present  suro-eon  in  charge  is  Dr.  Wm.  Walter  Lane, 
whose  capacity  and  fitness  for  this  responsible  duty  is 
generally  acknowledged  by  the  profession,  and  whose 
energy  and  carefulness  with  reference  to  details  has  been 
repeatedly  complimented  by  the  county  and  city  govern- 
ment. He  desires  me  to  say  that  it  is  his  purpose  to  make 
this  institution  a  credit  and  honor  to  the  city,  as  well 
as  a  boon  to  those  unfortunates  who  may  seek  its  ben- 
efits. There  is  no  more  worthy  object  of  benevolence  in 
our  community  ;  and  I  take  pleasure  in  commending  it 
most  heartily  to  our  generous  x^eople  as  worthy  of  their 

The  present  public  allowance  is  clearly  inadequate,  and 
any  private  contributions  will  be  appropriated  by  the 
surgeon  in  accordance  with  the  wishes  of  the  donor. 


The  administration  of  the  County  Government  is  vested 
in  five  Commissioners,  viz  ; 

Horace  A.  Bagg,  Chairman, 

B.  G.  Worth, 

Roger  Moore, 

James  A.  Montgomery, 

E.  L.  Pearoe, 
who  are  elected  by  the  Board  of  Magistrates  of  the  county 
for  the  term  of  two  years,  and  are  styled  The  Board  of 
Commissioners  of  the  County  of  !N"ew  Hanover.  They  hold 
their  meetings  on  the  first  Monday  in  each  month  and  are 
paid  $2  per  diem  for  their  services. 

The  Sheriff  of  the  county  is  S.  H.  Manning,  who  gives 
bonds  in  the  sum  of  195,000,  with  D.  L.  Russell,  E.  J. 
Pennypacker,  E.  E.  Burruss,  H.  E.  Scott,  and  A.  W.  Shaf- 
fer as  his  sureties.     Paid  by  fees  of  his  office. 

The  Treasurer  of  the  county  is  Owen  Birney,  who  gives 
bond  in  the  sum  of  $40,000  with  E.  E.  Burruss,  Alfred 
Martin,  H.  M.  Bowden  and  Wm.  Larkins  as  his  sureties. 
Paid  by  commissions. 


The  Coroner  of  the  county  is  David  Jacobs,  who  gives 
bond  in  the  sum  of  12,000,  with  H.  E.  Scott  and  S.  H. 
Manning  as  his  sureties.     Paid  by  fees  of  his  office. 

The  Register  of  Deeds  of  the  county  is  Jos.  E.  Sampson, 
who  gives  bond  in  tlie  sum  of  $5,000,  with  F.  W,  Foster 
and  S.  H.  Manning  as  his  sureties.  He  is  also  ex  officio 
Clerli  of  the  Board  of  Commissioners.  Paid  by  the  fees  of 
his  office  and  $2  per  diem  as  said  Clerk. 


There  are  two  terms  of  two  weeks  each  of  the  Superior 
Courts  of  the  State  held  in  the  county  of  New  Hanover 
on  the  thirteenth  Monday  after  the  first  Monday  in  March 
and  September  of  each  year.  In  this  Court  only  civil 
actions  are  tried.     The  Judges  are  paid  by  the  State. 

The  Clerk  of  this  Court  is  Stacey  Van  Amringe,  who  gives 
bond  in  the  sura  of  $10,000  with  George  Chadbourn  and 
H.  E.  Scott  as  his  sureties.     Paid  by  fees  of  his  office. 

There  are  six  terms  of  the  Criminal  Court  of  New  Hano- 
ver county  held  on  the  first  Monday  in  April,  June, 
August,  October  and  December,  and  on  the  second  Mon- 
day in  Febraar}^  The  Judge  of  this  Court  is  Hon.  O.  P. 
Meares,  who  is  paid  a  salary  by  the  county  of  $2,500. 

The  Clerk  of  this  Court  is  John  W.  Dunham,  who  gives 
bond  in  the  sum  of  $10,000,  with  F.  AV.  Kerchner,  W.  B. 
McKoy,  Henry  P.  West  and  Wm.  Larkins  as  his  sureties. 
Paid  by  fees  of  his  office. 

The  Solicitor  of  this  Court  is  Benj.  R.  Moore,  who  is 
paid  by  the  fees  of  his  office.  He  is  also  the  attorne}^  for 
the  Board  of  Commissioners,  and  as  such  is  paid  a  salary 
of  $500  per  annum. 

The  attorneys  residing  in  the  City  of  Wilmington  and 
practising  in  these  Courts  are 

Georgk  Davis, Licensed  in  1840. 

Maugeii  London, "        "  184L 

DiT.\cAN  K.  McRak, ''        -'  1S41. 


and  Thos.  W.  Strange, Licensed  in  1878. 

constituting  the  firm  of  McRae  &  Strange. 

John  L.  Holmes, ' "  "  1849. 

DuBrutz  Cutlar, "  "1853. 

Duncan  J.  DeVane, "  "1858. 

Daniel  L.  EussELL, "  "1866. 

and  A.  Gf.  Ricaud, "  "  1879. 

constituting  tlie  firm  of  Russell  &  Ricaud. 

Chas.  M.  Stedman, "  "1866. 

WiLLiAN  Latimer, "  "  1877. 

and  Edward  S.  Latimer, "  "1879, 

constituting  the  firm  of  Stedman  &  Latimer. 

Marsden  Bellamy, "  "1866. 

Junius  Davis, "  "1868. 

Eugene  S.  Martin, "  "1874. 

Frank  H.  Darby, "  "1874. 

John  D.  Bellamy,  Jr., "  "  1875. 

AVm.  B.  McKoY "  "1879. 

John  C.  Davis, "  "1882. 

Ed.  H.  King, "  "1882. 

COUNTY  magistrates. 

The  following  is  the  list  of  Magistrates  recently  appointed 
by  the  Legislature  for  New  Hanover  county  : 

WILMINGTON   township. 

John  M.  Henderson,  Wm.  H.  Strauss,  John  R.  Melton, 
John  Cowan,  Wm.  W.  Harriss,  Sol.  Bear,  E.  D.  Hall, 
John  S.  James,  John  L.  Cantwell,  James  W.  King,  Lemuel 
H.  Bowden,  Walker  Meares,  Matthew  J.  Heyer,  David  G. 
Worth,  Charles  H.  Robinson,  Abram  David,  Owen  Fen- 
nell,  Jr.,  James  Madden,  John  C.  Millis,  Charles  A.  Pnce, 
J.  D.  K.  Klander. 


B.  S.  Montford,  A.  J.  Johnson,  A.  B.  George. 


Jacob  H.  Home,  John  Canady,  Elijah  Williams, 



Oscar  M.  Filyaw,  AVm.  Cromwell,  John  E.  St.  George. 


Charles  H,  Alexander,  E.  W.  Manning,  (George  Harper. 


Receii^ts  exclusive  of  Seliool  Fund  as  shown  in  settle- 
ment of  Sheriff  with  Treasurer,  January  18th,  1883, 

Amount  in  hands  of  Treasurer  on  that  date $  31,050.62. 

Debt  of  County  evidenced  by  Bonds  at  6  per 

cent  interest  due  March  1st,  1887, 13,000.00. 

Estimated  expenses  of  County  for  ensuing  fiscal 

year,  ending  November  30th,  1883, 26,250.00. 

Expenses  for  the  last  fiscal  year, 26,582.55. 

There  is  no  floating  debt. 

Included  in  the  $31,050.62  is  $13,000  which  is  set  aside  to 
l^ay  the  bonds. 

The  Tax  Levy  the  past  year,  1882,  was, 

State  Tax  on  property,  on  $100  valuation $    .40^^ 

County"    "         "  "     "  "         34i 

Total, ...  $    .75 

Included  in  the  40i  cents  levied  by  tlie  State  is  12^  cents 
for  the  School  Fund. 

State  Tax  on  each  poll, $  1.2U 

County"    "      "       " 1.03i 

Included  in  the  $1.21|^  levied  by  the  State  is  37^  cents  for 
the  School  Fund. 



Of  the  Board  of  Commissioners  for  the  County  of  New  HanOver,  for  th^ 

Fiscal  Year  Beginning  the  ist  day  of  December,  1881,  and 

Ending  the  30th  day  of  November,   1882. 


tfie:a.sx7Re:r*s  report. 

General  Fund  Account,  New  Hanover  County  in  Account  with  Elijah  Hewlett, 
Treasurer,  from  December  1st,  1881,  to  November  3Uth,  1882. 

DR.  • 

To  amount  transferred  to  Special  Fund Sl.OOO  00 

"         "  "  '•  "         1,800  00 

•'         "        paid  Warrants 25,990  03 

"         "         paid   Commissions 760  22      3i29,0r>5  25 

Balance 20,475  8.} 

S55,531  08 

Dy  Balance  December  1st,  1881 120,298  00 

"  S.  H.  Manning,  Sheriff,  General  Tax $27,631  65 

"  S.  H.  Manning,  Jury  Tax !7  3o 

"  S,  H.  Manning,  Schedule  B  Tax 0,500  00 

"  J.  E.  Sampson,  Register,  Marriage  License  Tax 227  05 

"  S.  VanAmringe,  C.  S.  C,  Jury  Tax 17  00 

"  Delinquent  Tax 781  40 

"  Cronly  d- Morris,  nett  sale  Stove 07 

"  Amount  from  Columbus  County 55  50      :;f35,233  02 

lj.55,531  C8 

Special  Fund,  New  Hanover  County,  in  Account  with  Elijah  Hewlett,  County 
Treasurer,  from  December  1st,  1881,  to  November  30th,  1882. 


Paid  for  Bonds  and  Premiums S  7,773  60 

"      for  Coupons 915  00 

"      Treasurer's  Commissions 147  46        18,836  06 

Balance S145  65 

18,981  71 

By  Balance  December  1st,  1881 $3,573  38 

'■    Amount  transferred  from  general  fund , [fl.OOO  00 

'•  "  1,300  00 

"    S.H.  Manning,  Sheriff 3,108  33        $5,408  33 

$8,981  71 


County  TrG.vsiirer's  Report  of  Receipts  and  Disbursements  of  .School   Fund  from 
December  1st,  1881,  to  November  30th,  1882. 


Balance  on  hand  as  per  last  report... $  8,5J6  00 

Received  General  .State  and  County  Poll  Tax,  188J 3,49(i  60 

Property  School  Tax,  1882 5,970  63 

"  from  Fines,  Forfeitures  and  Penalties 256  61 

"  from  Liquor  License 613  60 

"  from  Sale  of  Estrays , 7  38 

S18,8C0  01 


Paid  Teachers  of  Schools  for  Whites S3,907  25 

"    Colored 5,177  50 

"      for  School  Houses  (white) 405  17 

"     ^        "          (colored) 1,450  36 

"    Countj'  Superintendent 408  00 

"    Register  of  Deeds 75  00 

"    County  Commissioners 96  50 

'•    Treasurer's  Commissions 274  38 

Total  Disbursements 111,881  16 

Balance $  7,006  78 


Judge »2,500  00 

Clerk 1,014  39 

Solicitor , 553  50 

Sheriflf. , 724  05 

Jurors 2,601  45 

Witnesses 973  31 

?S,300  70 


Clerk $  199  07 

Sheriflf 22  25 

Jurors 588  80 

Witnesses 1  60 

812  32 

Attorney 535  00 

Commissioners 853  60 

Coroner 217  10 

Constables 228  94 

Justices  of  Peace 698  05 

Register  of  Deeds 434  09 

Advertising 126  00 

Roads  and  Bridges 375  81 

Clerks,  Auditing  Committee,  Janitor,  Ice,  <fec 1,272  OS 

Elections ; 618  22 

Poor  House 2,806  55 

Out  Door  Poor 2,400  97 

Jail 1,682  6(» 

Public  Buildings 1,1(!(;  ;i9 

Stationery  and  Printing 362  76 

Tax  Listing 1,039  00 

Tax  Remitted 47  52 

Old  Claims „ 26  74 

Clerks  of  other  Counties 29  50 

Sheriffs  of  other  Counties 38  95 

Superintendent  of  Health 90O  GO 

Hospital 1,510  00 

$26,582  .55 


Current  Expenses  proper  of  County $25,042  4d 

County  Proportionate  part  of  Expenses  of  City  Hospital l.oJO  OG 

S,582  55 


Bonded  debt  due  March,  1887 S15,80() 

Floating  debt ()0,0U0 

TAX  LEVY  OF  1883. 

State  Tax  on  Property 4014 

County  Tax  on  Property 341^ 

Total 75 

State  Tax  on  Poll 81.211^ 

(Jounty  Tax  on  Poll 1.033^ 

Total $2.25 


District  No.  1,  White $  226  20 

"     2,       " ],.31t)  <)7 

"           "     3,        "      78  (iS 

"     4,        "      72  4(5 

"           "     5,        "      249  5!t 

"           "     6,        "      2  73 

Total  White $1,976  61 

District  No.  1,  Colored $3,944  58 

"     2,        "        447  Si 

"     3,        "        71  10 

'     "     4,        "         255  81 

"     5,        "         259  77 

"     6,        "        6  04 

Total  Colored, $4,985  11 

Total  White 1,976  64 

Balance  general  School  Fund 45  03 

$7,006  78 

B.  G.  WORTH,  Chairman,    \ 

ROGER  MOORE,  V  Auditing  Committee. 

H.  A.  BAGG,  j 

Treasurer's  report  shows  on  hand  to  General  Fund 
$26,475.83  out  of  which  the  County  is  prepared  to  jDay  the 
Bonded  debt  and  is  anxious  to  do  so,  in  fact  will  pay  pre- 
mium for  Bonds  of  1  per  cent,  and  accrued  interest,  $2,800 
of  the  115,800  of  indebtedness  have  been  bought  at  this 
premium  since  1st  January. 


From  the  following  tables,  it  is  apparent  that  the  increase 
in  our  population  for  the  last  decade  is  of  a  steady  and 
healthy  growth.  We  can  therefore  reasonably  estimate 
our  present  population  at  about  19,000. 

























































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No.  Of 



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No.  attending 



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No.  of  School 

Children  6  to  21 

years  of  age. 





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We  have  good  cause  to  congratulate  ourselves  on  the 
flourishing  condition  of  our  Public  or  Common  Schools. 
Elementary  education  is  now  within  the  reach  of  every 
child  amongst  us,  with  no  cost  to  the  parents,  and  there  are 
but  few  children  (at  least  of  the  white  population)  who  do 
not  avail  themselves  of  this  privilege.  These  schools  are 
provided  with  competent  teachers,  and  are  under  the  con- 
stant supervision  of  Mr.  M.  C.  S.  Noble,  whose  education, 
experience  in  teaching,  and  indomitable  industry,  in  every 
way  qualify  him  for  this  responsible  position. 

The  management  of  our  Common  Schools  is  in  the  hands 
of  the  five  County  Commissioners.  These  Commissioners 
form  the  County  Board  of  Education,  and  appoint  three 
School  Committeemen  for  each  District,  and  the  School 
Committee,  in  their  turn,  appoint  teachers  and  oversee  the 
general  management  of  the  schools. 

The  County  Superintendent  is  appointed  by  the  Board 
of  Justices  of  the  Peace. 

The  s^^stem,  surrounded  in  this  manner,  by  all  the  safe- 
guards necessary  to  protect  both  the  interests  of  the  chil- 
dren and  those  of  the  tax-payer,  works  well  in  this  city. 

Wilmington  township,  which  is  coextensive  with  the  citj" 
of  Wilmington,  has  two  school  districts,  in  each  of  which 
is  one  for  the  whites  and  one  for  the  blacks. 

District   (No.    I)   White,   lies  North  of  Market   Street. 
(No.  2).      "  "     South    " 

"  (No.  1)   Black       "     North  of  Chestnut  Street. 

(No.  2)       "  "     South    "        '• 

Hemenway  Graded  School,  District  No.  1,  white  race, 
is  on  Fourth  Street,  between  Red  Cross  and  Campbell. 

Peabody  Graded  School,  District  No.  1,  colored  race, 
is  on  Fifth,  between  Red  Cross  and  Campbell  streets. 

Union  Graded  School,  District  No.  2,  white  race,  is  on 
Sixth,  between  Nun  and  Church  streets. 


Williston  Graded  Scliool,  District  No.  2,  colored  race, 
is  on  Seventh,  between  Ann  and  Nun  streets, 
Naniber  of  children  of  school  age  in  District  No.  1, 

white 1,009 

Number  of  children  of  school  age  in  District  No.  2, 

white 943 

Total 1,952 

Amount  apportioned $3,904 

4         Number  of  children  of  school  age  in  District  No.  1, 

colored 1,606 

Number  of  children  of  school  age  in  District  No.  2, 

colored 1,510 

Total 3,116 

Amount  apportioned $6,232 

Average  daily  attendance  in  white  schools  about 300 

"            "            "            "  colored   "           "      425 

Number  of  teachers  in  white  schools 8 

"  colored  "        12 

In  a  speech  by  Senator  Blair,  of  New  Hampshire,  June 
13,  1882,  allusion  was  made  to  the  disproportionate  attend- 
ance of  scliool  children  in  North  Carolina  to  the  popula- 
tion, in  the  following  language:  "Wilmington.  North 
Carolina,  has  an  enrollment  of  866,  or  18  per  cent.,  while 
82  per  cent,  of  the  children  of  that  city  would  api3ear  to  be 
without  means  of  public  education.'*  This  reflects  unjustly 
upon  our  public  school  system. 

The  scliool  laws  of  Massachusetts  require  the  attendance 
of  children  between  the  jiges  of  5  and  15  years-  those  of 
North  Carolina  between  6  and  21  years. 

It  is  well  known  that  the  greater  number  of  both  male 
and  female  children  leave  school  before  they  reach  the  age 
of  17  years;  and,  as  all  over  that  age  are  registered  as 
attending  no  school,  it  would  appear  that  there  is  a  want 


of  proper  interest  in  the  matter  of  education  ;  whereas  both 
sexes  generally  attain  all  the  elements  of  an  education  at 
or  about  17  years  of  age,  at  which  time  they  are  generally 
obliged  to  work  for  a  livelihood. 

The  cost  of  each  pupil  j)er  school  year  in  Wilmington  is 
about  $8.50— in  New  York  city  it  is  about  $30. 

It  may  interest  some  of  our  people  to  know  that  Golds- 
boro'  levies  a  special  tax  for  its  Graded  School,  and  al- 
though a  town  of  only  3,300  inhabitants,  has  an  average 
daily  attendance  of  447. 

Wilson,  a  town  of  1,400  inhabitants,  has  an  average  of 
nearly  400  attendants,  and  has  raised  by  private  subscrip- 
tion in  the  past  two  years  16,000  for  the  support  of  its 

Special  features  of  the  Wilmington  schools  consist  in 
the  fact  that  they  are  all  thoroughly  graded,  and  con- 
ducted on  the  same  general  principle.  The  teachers  are. 
well  qualified,  and  many  of  them  have  made  special  prepa- 
ration by  attending  the  State  Normal  School.  The  Prin- 
cipal conducts  four  teachers'  meetings  during  each  month- 
two  for  the  white  teachers  and  two  for  the  colored  teachers. 
At  these  meetings,  school  government  and  methods  of 
teaching  are  discussed,  and  work  for  the  next  two  weeks 
is  properly  assigned.  While  the  schools  are  in  session,  the 
Principal  goes  from  room  to  room,  takes  notes  on  the 
teachers'  manner,  and  the  decorum  of  the  pupils,  and  at 
times  conducts  the  recitation  himself ;  and  while  inspecting, 
forms,  in  a  great  measure,  the  subject  of  discussion  at 
teachers'  meetings.  Occasionally,  to  illustrate  any  new 
method  of  instruction,  the  teachers  are  resolved  into  a 
model  class,  wTien  the  recitation  is  first  conducted  by  the 
Principal,  and  afterwards  by  the  teachers  in  turn.  In  this 
way  the  x^eculiarities  of  each  teacher  are  brought  to  view, 
criticised,  and  then  approved  or  disapproved,  according  as 
they  are  good  or  bad. 

The  members  of   the  District  School  Committees  from 


time  to  time,  either  in  a  body  or  individually,  visit  the 
schools  and  inspect  the  character  of  the  work  done. 

The}^  pay  particular  attention  to  the  most  economical 
methods,  and  are  careful  to  employ  only  thoroughly  capa- 
ble teachers. 

In  this  way,  and  with  the  aid  of  instructors  working  for 
a  reputation,  they  hope  to  make  the  schools  under  their 
charge,  an  honor  and  an  ornament  to  the  cit}',  and  an  object 
of  interest  to  visitors  from  abroad. 

The  members  of  the  School  Committee  are  : 
District  No.  1 — Donald  MacRae,    Chairman ;   Wm.  M. 
Parker,  Jos.  E.  Sampson. 

District  No.  2 — James  H.  Chadbourn,  Chairman  ;  Walker 
Meares,  John  Norwood. 

The  question  as  to  the  effect  of  education  upon  therising 
generation  of  colored  people  is  not  easy  to  solve.  Sufficient 
time  has  not  elapsed  since  their  emancipation  to  determine 
how  much,  if  any,  benefit  has  resulted.  For  several  years 
after  the  war,  this  field  seemed  to  commend  itself  in  a  pecu- 
liar sense  to  the  philanthropy  of  the  North.  The  disor- 
ganized state  of  civil  affairs,  and  the  impoverished  condi- 
tion of  the  Southern  people,  p)revented  them  from  educating 
their  own  children,  and  no  money  could  therefore  be  raised 
for  the  education  of  the  negroes.  Race  prejudice,  inten- 
sified by  the  institution  of  slavery,  cramped  subsequent 
efforts  of  our  people  to  accomplish  anything  in  this  direc- 
tion. The  negroes  being  freed  by  the  act  of  the  Northern 
people,  were  therefore  regarded  in  a  special  sense  as  their 
wards,  and  they  were  under  obligations  to  meet  that 
responsibility.  Peculiar  difficulties  have  attended  the 
efforts  of  Northern  philanthropists,  such  as  a  natural 
antagonism,  aggravated  by  political  emissaries  coming  in 
some  instances  in  the  garb  of  teachers,  and  the  wide- 
spread and  profound  ignorance  and  superstition  of  the  ne- 
groes themselves.     In  spite  of  this,  there  has  been  a  steady 


improvement,  most  marked  where  the  efforts  at  real  instruc- 
tion have  been  thorough  and  permanent.  In  the  first  few 
years  of  the  experiment,  the  worlv  was  sadly  marred,  not 
only  by  the  political  bias  and  aspirations  of  its  projectors, 
but  by  a  show  and  parade  on  public  occasions  highly  offen- 
sive to  the  intelligent  and  dignified  class  of  our  citizens. 

In  later  years,  beginning  with  the  administration  of  the 
Rev.  Mr.  Blake,  careful  observers  in  our  community — gen- 
tlemen who  have  had  good  opportunity  for  observation — 
have  noted  a  marked  improvement  in  the  habits,  the  morals 
and  industry  of  many  of  the  negro  school  children. 

Mr.  Dodge's  system  requiring  a  nominal  fee  for  tuition, 
has  proved  an  excellent  plan,  insuring  regular  attendance 
and  fostering  a  spirit  of  independence  perhaps  surx)rising 
to  many  who  are  familiar  with  the  dependent  nature  of  the 
race.  Whatever  may  be  the  technical  details  of  the  methods 
adopted  in  Mr.  Dodge's  school,  the  effect  is  beyond  ques- 
tion a  good  one,  as  the  boys  after  leaving  this  institution 
get  employment  more  readily  than  others,  because  their 
moral  principles  are  higher,  and  because  they  are  generally 
better  fitted  for  intelligent  occupation  than  the  majority  of 
those  who  profess  to  have  received  an  elementary  edu- 

The  people  of  Wilmington  have  great  cause  for  thank- 
fulness that  our  negro  x^opulatlon  is  so  law-abiding  and 
faithful  to  duty  ;  and  to  take  courage  from  the  results 
already  accomplished  in  a  transition  so  violent— from  a 
life  of  slavery  to  that  of  freedom  and  citizenshii)  in  the 
eyes  of  the  law.  The  utmost  harmony  has  prevailed  be- 
tween the  races  for  many  years  past,  and  instances  of  dis- 
agreement between  emxDloyers  and  employes  are  far  more 
rare  than  among  the  whites  in  the  North.  With  direct 
reference  to  this  subject,  I  have  requested  the  Agent  of 
the  American  Missionary  Society  in  Wilmington  to  give 
me  a  short  outline  of  his  work  in  our  community,  which 
is  herewith  appended,  and  I  doubt  not,  a  large  number  of 


our  intelligent  citizens  who  read  this  will  be  surx)rised  at 
the  ma.^nitude  of  the  undertaking,  and  the  efficiency  of  its 

"Dear  Sir  :— In  compliance  with  your  request  for  a  con- 
densed statement  of  the  work  and  expenditures  of  the 
American  Missionary  Association  in  this  city,  I  have  the 
honor  as  their  agent,  of  giving  you  the  following  report : 

The  American  Missionary  Association  began  its  work 
among  the  Freedmen  in  this  city  in  the  month  of  April, 
1865.  The  object  of  this  work  was  to  impart  intellectual 
and  moral  instruction,  and  to  teach  an  orderly  Christian 
life.  To  this  end  a  corps  of  eight  teachers  oj^ened  public 
free  schools  in  different  localities  in  the  city.  The  number 
of  teachers  has  varied  from  time  to  time,  sometimes  being 
more  and  sometimes  less  than  at  the  beginning.  At  the 
same  time,  afternoon  schools  for  women  and  night  schools 
for  both  sexes  were  opened.  Sunday  School  work  was 
carried  on  in  connection  with  these  schools  from  the  first. 

This  work  was  sustained  alone  by  the  Association  till 
1869,  when  the  School  Board  of  Wilmington  began  to 
co-operate  with  it  in  sustaining  free  schools,  and  continued 
to  do  so  until  1873,  when  the  local  authorities  concluded  to 
discontinue  further  co-operative  school  work,  and  to 
establish  public  schools  of  their  own.  This  led  to  tlie 
re- organization  of  the  Association's  work,  and  to  the  estab- 
lishment of  the  Preparatory  Dei^artments  of  the  present 
Normal  School,  which  were  opened  for  the  admission  of 
pupils  October,  1873,  with  a  small  tuition  fee  of  one  dollar 
per  month.  The  various  departments  of  our  work  were  at 
that  time  condensed  into  what  we  could  do  in  the  one  build- 
ing on  the  corner  of  Nun  and  Seventh  streets  as  it  then 
stood  ;  but  we  soon  became  uncomfortably  crowded.  The 
need  of  establishing  regular  and  orderly  worship  became 
apparent,  and  for  a  time  this  was  conducted  in  the  school 
room.  Through  the  representations  of  Mr.  Woodworth,  of 
Boston,  Mr.  Gregory,  of  Marblehead,  Mass.,  became  inter- 
ested in  our  wants,  and  gave  the  money  to  build  the  church 


edifice  which  now  stands  on  Nun  street.  This  led  to  a  visit 
from  Mr.  Gregory  at  the  time  of  the  dedication  of  the 
church.  Upon  examining  the  work  done  under  unfavora- 
ble conditions,  he  was  so  impressed  with  the  importance  of 
the  work  itself,  and  the  need  of  enlarged  facilities,  that  he 
furnished  the  means  for  building  the  Home  which  the 
teachers  now  occuj)y,  and  for  the  renovation  and  enlarge- 
ment of  the  old  building  for  school  work  ;  thus  giving  us 
our  present  appointments,  which  seem  well  adapted  to  the 
work  to  be  done. 

The  entire  expenditure  of  the  Association  for  the  work 
at  this  station,  including  Mr.  Gregory's  liberal  gift,  is  in 
round  numbers  $90,000.  $18,800  of  this  amount  has  been 
expended  since  1879  in  enlargements  and  improvements. 
At  the  time  of  the  discontinuance  of  co-oj^erative  work  with 
the  Association,  the  city  bought  the  building  known  as  the 
"Williston  School"  of  the  Association,  for  the  sum  of 
13,000.  $500  of  this  purchase  money  was  given  to  the 
city  by  the  Association  to  be  expended  in  repairing  the 

In  addition  to  any  advantage  which  may  have  come  to 
the  city  from  the  work,  more  than  one  hundred  of  our 
pupils  have  gone  out  as  teachers  among  their  people, 

Now,  while  I  do  not  claim  perfection  for  the  methods,  or 
that  the  workers  have  always  been  the  wisest  and  the  best, 
I  am  willing  to  submit  the  question  of  the  usefulness  of 
our  work  in  this  city  to  the  decision  of  the  good  people  of 
Wilmington,  and  to  abide  by  their  verdict. 

Yours  Respectfully, 

D.  D.  DODGE. 
Agent  A.  M.  A. 


It  ajppears  from  reliable  data,  that  the  question  of  build- 
ing this  public  school  house,  was  brought  to  the  attention 
of  the  citizens  of  Wilmington  through  Mr.  John  W.  Barnes, 
Sr.,  in  the  summer  of  1856.  A  meeting  of  citizens  was  held, 
and  a  subscription  list  opened  for  j)rocuring  means  to  pur- 


cliase  a  lot  and  material  necessary  for  the  construction  of  a 

Mr.  S.  N.  Martin  headed  the  list  with  a  subscription  of 
1100,  and  Mr  Miles  Costin  presented  the  lot,  the  estimated 
value  of  which  w^as  ^290.  Other  subscriptions  soon  followed, 
and  in  a  short  time  a  sufficient  amount  was  realized  to 
warrant  the  erection  of  the  building,  which  was  finished 
during  the  winter,  and  styled  the  ''Union  Free  School.'" 

Messrs.  A.  H.  Van  Bokkelen,  P.  W.  Fanning  and  B.  G. 
Worth, — who  were  always  identified  with  the  best  inter 
ests  of  Wilmington,  and  to  whom  this  place  is  indebted  in 
the  past  for  numberless  acts  of  benevolence, — gave  the 
undertaking  a  hearty  and  steady  support,  and  were  after- 
wards more  closely  identified  with  the  school  as  com- 

The  deed  for  the  lot  was  executed  by  Mr.  Costin  to  James 
G.  Green,  John  W.  Barnes,  and  Thomas  J,  Freshwater,  as 
Trustees,  November  Brd.  1856,  and  recorded  December  31st, 
of  the  same  year.  This  deed  empowers  the  County  Court 
to  aijpoint  successors  in  case  of  death  or  resignation. 

In  April  of  the  ensuing  year  (1857),  a  meeting  of  the 
subscribers  was  held  in  the  new  building,  in  which  it  was 
determined  to  start  the  school  on  the  1st  of  May^  and  to 
continue  three  months,  experimentally.  To  this  end 
Messrs.  S.  N.  Martin,  A.  H.  Van  Bokkelen  and  P.  W. 
Fanning  were  constituted  a  committee  to  receive  contribu- 
tions, employ  a  teacher  and  p>ut  the  "Union  Free  School*' 
in  operation. 

The  committee  i^roceeded  to  secure  and  furnish  a  supply 
of  school  books  (which  was  replenished  from  time  to  time 
during  the  existence  of  the  school)  and  employed  Mr.  John 
W.  Barnes  as  teacher. 

At  the  close  of  this  short  session,  the  committee  being- 
impressed  with  the  necessity  of  continuing  the  school,  the 
first  annual  session  was  accordingly  commenced  October 
1st,  1857. 

\VILMINGT01S%    NOltTIl    CAROLIN.X.  59 

Owing  to  want  of  harmony  between  the  State  Common 
School  Committee  and  the  "Union  Free  School"  Committee, 
the  apportionment  of  the  Common  School  Fund  for  this 
District  (No.  2)  could  not  be  made  available  for  the  enter- 
prise during  this  year. 

In  the  spring  of  the  ensuing  year,  however,  in  response 
to  a  petition  from  citizens,  the  "Board  of  Superintendents 
of  Common  Schools"  for  New  Hanover  County  remodelled 
the  town  districts  (then  two  in  number),  dividing  each  into 
two  districts,  and  appointing  new  committees  in  the  low^er 
or  southern  districts  (Nos.  2  and  58),  in  which  this 
school  was  situated,  whereby  it  would  receive  the  benefit 
of  the  funds  appropriated  for  both,  and  also  the  advantage 
of  two  co-operating  committees— lending  an  influence  to 
the  enterprise  wiiich  secured  its  continuance  until  July  1st, 
1863 — a  period  of  six  years. 

The  committees  appointed,  as  above  mentioned,  were  the 
original  "Union  Free  School"  Committee  for  District  No.  2, 
and  John  W.  Barnes,  George  M.  Bishop  and  W.  H.  Biddle 
for  District  No.  58. 

In  consequence  of  the  absence  of  Mr.  Martin  from  the 
State  during  the  year  1862,  B.  G.  Worth,  Esq,  was 
appointed  as  his  successor,  and  nobly  sustained  the  school 
from  his  private  means,  in  connection  with  the  amount 
received  from  the  Common  School  Fund  during  its  last 
annual  session. 

The  school  house  originally  seated  about  one  hundred 
pupils.  During  the  vacation  of  1859,  however,  the  teacher 
succeeded  in  procuring  money  sufficient  to  build  an  addi- 
tional room,  capable  of  holding  forty  small  scholars.  Prior 
to  this,  many  were  refused  admission  for  want  of  room. 
The  w^hole  number  of  pupils  in  attendance  during  the  six 
years  was  380.  Of  this  number  192  were  males  and  188 

The  largest  number  in  attendance  at  one  time  was  145. 
The  smallest  number,   except  during  the  months  of  June 


and  July  of  each  year,  was  not  less  than  100,  and  this 
was  before  the  additional  room  was  built  for  primary 

During  the  winter  of  1865-66,  there  was  a  free  school  in 
the  Union  School  House,  taught  by  the  Rev.  Mr  Thurston, 
and  supported  by  the  Soldiers  Memorial  Society  of  Boston, 

In  December  1866,  Miss  Amy  M.  Bradley  came  to  Wil- 
mington under  the  auspices  of  the  American  Unitarian 
Association,  and  the  above  named  society'',  and  on  January 
9th, 1867,  opened  the  Union  School  House  with  a  beginning 
of  3  pupils,  which  was  shortly  increased  to  157.  She  was 
assisted  the  first  term  ending  June  30,  by  Miss  Gerrish  and 
Miss  Rush,  and  during  the  term,  built  a  recitation  room  at 
an  expense  of  $141.50,  which  'was  paid  for  by  the  private 
contributions  of  a  few  citizens  of  Wilmington.  The  remain- 
der of  expenses,  total  $1,594.07,  was  paid  by  her  principals 
in  the  North. 

During  the  second  year  the  number  of  pupils  was 
increased  to  188,  and  the  expenses  to  $1,731.74,  of  which 
$233  was  contributed  in  Wilmington,  and  the  remainder  by 
Northern  people. 

The  third  term  was  divided  by  her  charge  of  Union 
School  (223  pupils),  Hemenway  School  (157  pupils),  and 
Pioneer  School  (45  pupils),  at  an  expense  of  7,328.55, 
during  which  she  bought  land  for  the  site  of  Hemenway 
School,  '1i^l,000  being  given  by  Wilmington  citizens,  and 
tlie  remainder  of  expenses  contributed  by  Northern 

Her  fourth  term  was  classed  Normal  School  (60  j)upils), 
Union  School  (211  pupils),  Hemenway  School  (176  pupils), 
expenses  $4,866.59,  during  which  she  built  a  Norrnal 
School  room,  and  received  toward  salaries  of  7  assistants, 
$1,500  from  the  Peabody  Fnnd,  and  the  remainder  from 
lier  friends  in  the  North. 

The  fifth  term,  October  10th,  1870,  to  June  30th,  1871, 
Union     and    Hemenway    Schools,     expended     $5,983.81, 


(of  vvhicli  the  State  provided  11,286.70,  and  the  Peabody 
Fund  $1,000)  retaining  7  assistant  teachers  and  enrolling 
192  and  205  pupils,  respectively. 

In  addition  to  their  annual  report,  November  23rd,  1871, 
the  School  Committee  of  the  Township  of  Wilmington, 
James  H.  Chadbourn  being  Chairman,  made  the  following 
statement : 

''In  the  first  communication  of  the  committee  to  your 
Board,  you  were  informed  that  there  were  no  school-houses 
within  the  limits  of  the  township  belonging  to  the  State  or 
county ;  and  in  a  subsequent  communication,  dated 
February  8,  1870,  a  proposition  was  made  to  you  for  the 
purchase  of  two  school-houses  (one  for  each  race),  for  the 
sum  of  $3,000  each,  and  you  were  requested  to  levy  a  tax 
upon  the  property  of  the  township,  which  would  produce 
the  sum  of  $6,000  for  that  purpose. 

The  proposition  was  agreed  to,  and  a  tax  levied,  which 
yielded  the  sum  of  $5,738.61. 

The  Committee  with  the  approval  of  your  Board  and  the 
Superintendent  of  Public  Instruction,  purchased  the 
Hemenway  school-house  of  Miss  Amy  M.  Bradley,  for 
$3,000,  with  the  promise  on  her  part,  that  the  money  she 
received  for  it  should  be  expended  in  continuing  her  two 
schools  then  in  successful  operation.  This  understanding 
was  carried  out  in  good  faith,  and  to  the  entire  satisfaction 
of  the  committee. 

The  cost  of  sustaining  the  Union  and  Hemenway  Gfram- 
mar  Schools  for  the  past  two  years,  has  been  $10,850.40, — 
$1,266.70  of  this  sum  was  received  from  the  State,  2,500 
from  the  Peabody  Fund^  $3,000  from  the  sale  of  the 
Hemenway  school-house, -and  the  balance,  $4,083.70,  from 
the  friends  of  Miss  Bradley  and  her  work. 

Seven  teachers  have  been  constantly  employed  for  a  term 
of  nine  months  each  year.  The  number  of  scholars  has 
been  over  400,  and  the  average  attendance  about  300. 
These  schools  have  attracted  the  attention  of  all  who  feel 


any  interest  in  free  schools  in  this  city,  and  by  good  judges 
who  have  visited  them,  have  been  compared  favorabl}-  witli 
the  best  grammar  schools  in  the  country." 

In  October,  1871,  agreeably  to  the  foregoing  understand- 
ing, the  advanced  divisions  of  the  Union  and  Hemenway 
schools  were  united  under   the  name  of 

thp:  tileston  normal  school, 

and  the  session  opened  in  the  Union  School  House, — 
the  Hemenway  School  House  having  been  ijurchased  by 
the  county.  In  October,  1872,  this  school  was  moved  into 
the  new  building  on  Ann  street,  erected  by  that  distinguish- 
ed philanthrox^ist  and  friend  of  education,  Mrs.  Augustus 
Hemenway,  of  Boston,  under  the  supervision  of  James 
Walker,  builder,  of  Wilmington,  at  a  cost  of  $30,000.  Mrs. 
Hemenway  subsequently  ai)propriated  annually  $5,000 
to  the  support  of  the  school,  aggregating  at  present  the 
sum  of  $90,000  for  the  benefit  of  the  education  of  the  white 
children  of  Wilmington,  in  recognition  of  which,  to  the 
shame  and  reproach  of  our  city  and  State,  no  public 
acknowledgement  has  ever  been  made. 

In  the  earlier  part  of  her  work.  Miss  Bradley's  object 
was  often  misunderstood  by  our  sore-hearted  people;  but 
in  recent  years,  hundreds  of  homes  in  our  midst  bear  cheer- 
ful testimony  to  the  genuine  and  substantial  good  she  has 
accomplished.  The  system  and  course  of  instruction  has 
been  thorough,  practical  and  comprehensive;  the  discipline, 
by  moral  suasion,  inflexible  and  effective  ;  and  the  result, 
— the  graduation  of  hundreds  of  our  young  people  of 
limited  means,  in  all  the  essential  branches  of  an  educa- 
tion which  compares  favorably  with  that  of  any  institution 
in  the  State,  fitted  for  any  walk  in  life,  elevated  in  tone  and 
morality,  and  impressed  with  natural  feelings  of  grateful- 
ness to  her  through  whose  instrumentality  they  were 
saved  from  a  life  of  comx^arative  ignorance  and  obscurity. 


One  of  the  noblest  and  most  effective  aims  of  the  institu- 
tion, has  been  the  preparatory  education  of  boys  for  the 
mechanical  professions.  AVitli  unusual  discernment  Miss 
Bradley  saw  that  the  avenues  of  the  learned  professions 
were  being  crowded  with  mediocrity,  and  that  our  count- 
ing-houses were  filled  to  overflowing,  with  little  i^rospect 
of  advancement,  and  that  the  mechanical  trades, — degraded 
in  public  estimation  by  false  notions  of  the  dignity  of 
labor, — were  offering  extraordinary  attractions  in  remu- 
nerative and  abundant  work,  with  every  encouragement 
for  excellence  in  all  dex:)artments  of  skilled  workmanship. 

With  this  in  view,  many  of  our  boys  have  been  pre- 
pared by  her  efficient  instruction,  for  intelligent  appren- 
tices as  machinists,  boiler-makers,  carpenters,  masons,  and 
blacksmiths  ;  others  for  matriculation  at  the  Boston  School 
of  Technology,  with  higher  aims  as  mechanical  and  mining 

There  is  nothing  superficial  in  the  work  of  this  school. 
An  hour's  visit  will  convince  the  most  skeptical  that  the 
Principal  is  thoroughly  in  earnest,  that  her  assistants  are 
imbued  with  the  same  spirit,  efficient  in  the  highest  de- 
gree, forbearing  and  patient,  and  that  the  good  it  has 
accomplished  is  simj^ly  incalculable. 

The  present  mumber  of  pupils  is  over  800,  and  the 
government  and  course  of  study  is  as  follows  : 

MISS  AMY  M.  BRADLEY, Principal. 

teachers : 

Mrs.  Mary  E.  Russell,  Miss  Ida  Earns, 

Miss  Atta  L.  Nutter,  Miss  Kate  L.  Alderman, 

Miss  Marie  R.  Simonds,  Miss  Minnie  Bogart, 

Miss  Josephine  Folger,  Miss  Emma  McDougall. 
Miss  Mary  L.  Alderman, 




Self  Government. 


Physical  Geography 






Vocal  Music. 






Natural  Philosophy 
























Civil  Government. 








English  Literature, 


History  United  States. 












General  History. 




There  is  pirobably  no  place  in  the  State  where  the  Sab- 
bath is  more  hallowed,  or  the  attendance  upon  Divine 
worship  more  general  in  proportion  to  the  poiDulation  than 
in  Wilmington.  There  are  38  places  of  public  worship  ; 
the  principal  church  buildings  being  St.  James'  (Episcopal), 
St.  John's  (Episcopal),  St.  Paul's  (Episcopal),  St.  Mark's 
(colored  Episcopal),  First  Presbyterian,  Second  Presbyte- 
rian, Chestnut  Street  Presbyterian  (colored),  St.  Thomas' 
Pro  Cathedral  (Roman  Catholic),  Front  Street  Methodist, 
Fifth  Street  Methodist,  St.  Stephens'  (colored  Methodist), 
St.  Luke's  (colored  Methodist),  First  Baptist,  Second  Baj)- 
tist,  First  Baptist  (colored).  Temple  of  Israel  (Hebrew), 
Congregational  and  Lutheran.  The  average  Sunday  at- 
tendance of  whites  is  estimated  at  3,600,  and  that  of  the 
negroes  6,000.  The  value  of  church  property  is  estimated 
between  1265,000  and  1270,000. 



There  are  twenty-eight  benevolent  organizations  in  the  city 
of  Wilmington,  of  which  twenty-two  are  white,  and  six  col- 
ored. First  in  order,  as  in  age,  is  St.  John's  Lodge  No.  1 
F.  &  A.  M.  This  was  probably  the  first  Lodge  organized 
in  North  Carolina,  as  the  register  of  the  Grand  Lodge  of 
England,  published  in  1762,  contains  the  following :  ''  213. 
A  Lodge  at  Wilmington,  on  Cape  Fear  river,  in  the  Pro- 
vince of  North  Carolina,  March  1755."  In  1791  the  Grand 
Lodge,  after  a  full  investigation  of  the  claims  of  all  the 
Lodges  to  priority,  in  the  award  of  numbers,  gave  St. 
John's  Lodge  at  Wilmington,  the  "No.  1,"  thus  showing 
that  it  has  claims  to  antiquity,  which  claims,  the  records 
sustain.  It  is  to  be  regretted  that  we  have  not  the  record 
containing  the  names  of  its  first  members,  but  we  know 
that  they  were  among  the  most  prominent  of  our  citizens. 
For  more  than  a  century,  this  Lodge  has  been  active  in  good 
works,  and  in  its  green  old  age,  still  flourishes  with  as  much 
vigor  as  in  the  early  days  of  its  youth. 

Cape  Fear  Lodge  No.  2,  I.  O.  O.  F.  (Independent  Order 
of  Odd  Fellows)  was  instituted  by  dispensation  from  the 
Grand  Lodge  of  the  United  States,  in  the  town  of  Wil- 
mington, on  the  13th  of  May,  1842.     Its  first  officers  were  : 

W.  S.  G.  Andrews,  Noble  Grand. 
Valentine  Hodgson,  Vice  Grand. 
Wiley  A.  Walker,  Secretary. 
Alexander  McRae,  Treasurer. 

The  Lodge  was  organized  on  the  second  floor  of  a  build- 
ing owned  by  the  late  Aaron  Lazarus,  on  the  corner  of 
North  Water  street  and  Ewing's  sdley,  and  had  only  va- 
cated those  quarters  about  two  or  three  months  for  their 
new  one,  on  Front  street,  now  occupied  by  J.  L.  Boat- 
wright,  Esq.,  when  the  great  fire  of  1843  burned  every 
building  on  the  wharf,  from  Ewing's  alley  to  the  depot  of 
the  .Wilmington  &  Weldon  Railroad  Company. 


On  the  26tli  of  April,  1870,  the  Lodge  commenced  the 
erection  of  tlieir  new  Hall,  on  Third  street,  and  on  the  1st 
of  January,  1871,  formally  occupied  the  same  as  their  per- 
manent home.  It  numbers  now  51  members,  and  the 
officers  are  : 

J.  W.  Hawkins,  Noble  Grand. 

E.  E.  Malpass,  Vice  Grand. 

A.  J.  Yopp,  Secretary, 

W.  L.  Smith,  Financial  Secretary. 

John  Maunder,  Treasurer. 

The  other  societies  are  as  follows  : 


Wilmington  Lodge  No.  319. 
Concord  Cliax)ter  No,  1. 
Wilmington  Council  No.  4. 
Wilmington  Commandery  No.  1. 

L  O.  O.  F. 
Orion  Lodge  No.  67. 

Oriana  Lodge,  Daughters  of  Eebecca,  No.  3. 
Wilmington  Degree  No.  1. 
Campbell  Encampment  No.  1. 


Stonewall  Lodge  No.  1. 
Germania  Lodge  No.  4. 


Clarendon  Council  No.  67. 

R.  H.  Cowan  Lodge  No.  549. 

I.  0.  RED  MEN. 

Wyoming  Tribe  No.  4. 

I.  O.  B.   B.  (Hebrew). 
North  State  Lodge  No.  222. 



K.  S.  B.  (Hebrew). 
Manhattan  Lodge  No.  158.  \ 


Cornelius  Harnett  Council  No.  231. 

Carolina  Lodge  No.  434. 

The  colored  associations  are : 

Griblem  Lodge,  Mt.  Nebo  Lodge  No.  14,  Free  Love  Lodge, 
Golden  Lyre  Lodge,  Good  Samaritans,  Love  and  Charity 
Benevolent  Association. 


One  of  the  chief,  and  probably  the  oldest  of  the  charita- 
ble institutions  of  Wilmington,  is  the  "Ladies'  Benevolent 
Society."  This  Society  was  organized  early  in  1845,  chiellj^ 
through  the  efforts  of  Mrs.  M.  M.  Martin,  Mrs.  William  B. 
Meares,  Mrs.  John  Walker,  Mrs.  J.  A.  Taylor,  and  other 
benevolent  ladies,  and  had  for  its  primary  object  furnish- 
ing food  to  the  destitute  poor  ;  but  it  was  always  the  desire 
of  its  originators  to  extend  the  usefulness  of  the  organi- 
zation by  providing  a  home  for  widows  and  orphans.  In 
185'2  Mr.  Miles  Costin,  a  wealthy  and  charitable  citizen, 
presented  the  Society  with  a  lot  in  the  southeastern  por- 
tion of  the  city,  upon  which  such  a  Home  was  to  be  erected. 
This  made  it  necessary  for  the  Society  to  become  incorpo- 
rated, and  in  1852  it  received  a  charter  as  "The  Ladies' 
Benevolent  Society  of  Wilmington,  North  Carolina." 

About  the  same  time  Mr.  P.  K.  Dickinson,  a  friend  of 
every  benevolent  enterxDrise,  donated  to  the  Society  ten 
shares  of  Wilmington  &  Weldon  Railroad  stock,  to  be 
used  for  the  same  purpose. 

The  dividends  from  this  stock  were  carefully  saved,  until 
they  amounted  to  $1,200,  when  the  entire  amount  was  lost 
b}^  the  failure  of  the  bank  in  which  it  was  deposited. 


During  the  war,  the  operations  of  the  Society  were  en- 
tirely suspended,  but  in  1863  a  reorganization  was  effected, 
and  Mrs.  C.  Gr.  Kennedy  elected  President.  This  lady  has 
been  successively  reelected,  and  to  her,  more  than  to  any 
one  else  in  Wilmington,  is  the  success  of  the  Society  due, 
almost  her  whole  time  beii>g  devoted  to  its  work.  In  1872 
the  lot  which  had  been  donated  to  the  Society  was  sold,  and 
one-half  the  proceeds  given  to  the  family  of  the  donor,  who 
were  left  much  impoverished  by  the  war.  Theremaininghalf, 
together  with  the  proceeds  of  the  railroad  stock,  was  used 
to  purchase  a  more  suitable  place  for  the  Home  which  the 
Society  wished  to  organize,  and  in  1881  was  established  the 
"Old  Ladies'  House  of  Rest."  The  President,  in  her 
annual  report  for  1881  says  :  "The  House  is  rather  small, 
and  is  now  occupied,  almost  to  its  full  extent,  by  respect- 
able and  w^orthy  ladies,  to  whom,  as  yet,  we  can  only  give 
a  comfortable  shelter,  not  having  funds  for  the  support  of 
those  who  are  received,  but  hope  to  be  sustained  in  our 
efforts  to  make  it  altogether  what  its  name  imports.  It  is 
even  now  a  harmonious  and  peaceful  home — not  denomi- 
national, bat  guarded  by  Christian  principles." 

The  Society  is  supported  entirely  by  voluntary  contribu- 
tions of  money,  wood  and  provisions,  from  benevolent  citi- 
zens, and  the  dues  of  its  members,  which  are  one  dollar  a 

It  is  noticeable  that  of  late  years  the  contributions  have 
fallen  far  below  those  of  previous  years,  while  the  demands 
upon  the  Society  for  aid  have  increased,  and  it  has  been 
with  the  utmost  difficulty  that  the  calls  of  absolute  want 
have  been  supplied. 


This  is  a  charitable  society,  and  was  instituted  in  1871. 
Its  object  is  to  relieve  and  aid  sick  and  distressed 
Englishmen  and  Scotsmen.  The  members  of  this  society 
wish  to  alleviate  all  suffering  amongst  their  fellow  country- 
men.    The  Treasurer  has  expended  about  $1,500  in  such 


charities  since  the  society  was  founded.  The  present 
membership  numbers  34.  None  but  Englishmen,  Scots- 
men, or  the  sons  or  grandsons  of  native  English  or  Scots 
are  admitted  as  resident  meml^rs. 


Alex.  Sprunt, President. 

RoBT.  Sweet, Vice  President. 

John  Colville, Treasurer. 

H.  (Jr.  Smallbones, Secretary. 

T.  F.  Wood, Physician. 

The  regular  meetings  are  held  on  the  second  Monday  of 
each  month,  and  the  annual  meeting  on  the  21st  of 
March.  The  fees  are  50  cents  per  month,  and  the  life 
members  are  required  to  pay  $50,  which  relieves  them  from 
all  other  dues. 


was  organized  in  1866  for  the  purpose  of  relieving  sickness 
and  distress  among  its  members,  and  also  to  assist  stran- 
gers, their  fellow-countrymen,  who  would  otherwise  be  a 
burthen  to  the  community.  The  present  membership  is 
about  50.  j 

The  Society  is  not  a  secret  organization,  but  purely 
benevolent,  and  includes  in  a  bond  of  good  fellowship 
neatly  all  of  the  most  respectable  Irishmen  of  our  commu- 
nity: many  having  risen  to  wealth  and  honor  and  not  a  few 
of  whom  have  been  identified  in  the  past  with  the  material 
progress  of  our  city. 

The  officers  are  elected  yearly,  and  are  at  present  as 
follows : 

Frank  H.  Darby, President. 

James  Reilly, Vice  President. 

T.  DoNLAN, Treasurer. 

James  Corbett, Secretary. 



In  1853  a  number  of  benevolent  and  enterprising  citizens 
organized  a  Society  in  Wilmington  "  to  improve  the  social, 
moral  and  religious  condition  and  cliaracter  of  seamen;" 
which  appears  at  that  time  to  have  been  most  deplorable, 
and  in  recent  years  to  have  relapsed  into  as  bad  a  condition. 

For  several  years  the  work  prospered  ;  a  Methodist  min- 
ister. Rev.  Mr,  Langdon,  was  employed  as  a  travelling 
agent  for  the  Society,  and  collected  in  Wilmington  and 
other  parts  of  the  country,  money  to  pay  for  the  j^rojDerty 
known  as  the  "Seaman's  Home,"  on  Dock  and  Front 
streets,  now  valued  at  $20,000,  upon  which  a  bonded  debt 
of  15,400  still  remains. 

In  1856  Capt.  Gilbert  Potter  built  a  Bethel  on  the  gronnd 
adjoining  the  Home,  on  Dock  street,  and  owned  by  the 
Association,  at  an  expense  of  about  $6,000,  which  he  pre- 
sented to  the  Society,  and  for  many  years  Divine  service 
was  regularly  conducted  in  it  to  good  congregations  of 
sailors  b}^  local  ministers,  and  by  the  Society's  chaplain. 

In  those  years,  the  Home  was  in  charge  of  a  most  worthy 
man,  Capt.  George  W.  Williams,  who  not  only  wrought  a 
good  work  among  the  crews  of  foreign  and  domestic  vessels, 
but  who  kept  an  attractive  and  well-ordered  house,  Comforta- 
ble^and  cleanly  rooms,  good  substantial  fare,  an  inviting, 
well-found  reading-room,  and  by  his  experience  of  many 
years  as  a  ship-master,  his  well-known  character  as  an  up- 
right, honest  man,  and  his  influence  as  an  humble  Christian, 
accomplished  so  much  good  in  this  shipping  community,  that 
the  Society  was  esteemed  a  boon  among  our  business 
people,  and  supported  accordingly. 

In  recent  years,  the  good  work  of  the  Society  has  been 
greatly  retarded  by  inefficient  and  mercenary  superinten- 
dents, who  rented  the  Home  upon  speculation  for  their  own 
benefit  as  a  boarding-house,  and  by  a  degree  of  indifference 
among  the  members  most  deplorable,  when  we  consider 
the  wide  held  of  usefulness  which  is  open  to  improvement. 


Al though  a  chaplain  has  been  annually  elected  by  the 
Board  of  Trustees  for  several  years  past,  and  his  salary 
($400)  paid  by  the  Seaman's  Aid  Society  of  New  York,  it 
is  a  lamentable  fact  that  during  the  past  year,  the  Home 
chapel  has  been  closed  week  days  and  Sundays,  because, 
as  the  Secretary  informs  me,  "the  chaplain  could  not  get  a 
congregation,  and  finally  abandoned  the  effort;"  although 
a  few  weeks  ago,  and  in  this  Christian  community,  there  were 
no  less  than  4o0  foreign  and  220  American  seamen  in  port, 
X)robably  not  a  dozen  of  whom  attended  religious  services 
on  Sunday  in  Wilmington.  This  is  a  serious  matter,  and 
commends  itself  to  our  local  ministers  as  well  as  to  the 
members  of  the  Seaman's  Friend  Society.  In  the  mean- 
time have  sprung  up  along  our  wharves,  those  mushroom 
curses  known  as  sailors'  boarding-houses,  with  attractive 
bar-rooms  and' depraved  women,  who,  with  regularly  paid 
runners,  professing  to  be  friends  of  poor  Jack,  entice  him 
to' these  dens,  entertain  (?)  him  until  his  last  cent  is  ex- 
pended, and  then  mercilessly  ship  him,  appropriating  not 
only  his  available  cash,  but  also  his  advance  wages.  So 
bold  have  these  runners  become  in  their  nefarious  work, 
that  very  frequently,  and  in  my  own  business  experience, 
an  entire  shi^^'s  crew  has  been  enticed  to  desert  immedi- 
ately upon  arrival;  and  although  a  State  law  has  been 
passed  for  the  relief  of  masters  and  owners  of  vessels, 
making  this  enticement  an  indictable  offense,  such  is  the 
ingenuity  and  duplicity  of  the  runners,  and  the  dej)ravity 
of  the  sailors  themselves,  that  by  their  perjury  or  false 
swearing,  nearly  every  effort  to  prosecute  has  thus  far  been 

With  reference  to  this  great  evil,  Mr,  Barker,  a  Wil- 
mington shix)  agent,  says:  "I  agree  with  you  that  this 
outrage  should  be  stopped.  Manj^  ship-masters  consigned 
to  me  have  complained  of  it,  and  I  believe  that  united 
action  by  ship -masters  and  merchants  here  will  prevail 
against  it." 


Mr.  Alexander  Sprunt,  British  Vice  Consul,  says  :  "For 
many  years  complaints  have  frequently  been  made  to  me 
by  British  ship-masters  of  desertion  among  their  crews, 
caused  by  boarding-house  runners,  who  infest  the  harbor, 
and  I  have  repeatedly  advised  them  to  j)rosecute  suspected 
persons,  but  to  no  purpose.  The  Seaman's  Friend  Society 
should  take  this  matter  in  hand." 

Mr.  E.  Peschau,  German  Consul,  says:  "German  ship- 
captains  and  ship-owners  have  suifered  much  trouble  and 
loss  in  Wilmington  by  the  enticement  of  their  sailors  by 
men-stealers  on  shore.  I  have  tried  repeatedly  to  bring 
some  of  these  wretches  to  justice,  but  they  have  evaded 
me.  I  would  gladly  join  you  in  an  attempt  to  remedy 
the  evil." 

Mr.  R.  E.  Heide,  Vice  Consul  of  Norway,  Sweden  and 
Denmark,  saj^s :  "I  am  glad  to  know  that  you  have 
brought  this  matter  before  the  Exchange.  My  peox)le 
suffer  much  from  these  bad  influences  on  shore.  Scandi- 
navian sailors  are  known  all  the  world  over  as  law-abiding 
and  capable  seamen,  but  they  are  often  misled  here  by  bad 
influences,  and  suffer  more  from  it  than  the  owners  do,  as 
they  often  desert  their  vessels,  leaving  much  wages  due 
them.  I  agree  with  you  in  all  you  have  said  about  the 
Seaman's  Friend  Society,  although  I  am  one  of  the  Execu- 
tive Council,  and  I  am  sure  much  moregood  could  be  done." 

Mr.  C.  P.  Mebane,  ship-broker,  says:  "Your  remarks 
upon  the  desertion  of  sailors  are  timely.  For  some  years 
past  it  has  been  a  growing  evil,  encouraged  by  the  failure 
of  prosecutors  and  the  boldness  of  boarding-house  runners. 
It  seems  to  me  that  this  trouble  might  be  stopped  by  the 
city  authorities,  or  by  the  influence  of  the  Seaman's  Friend 
Society,  which  is  now  doing  so  little  for  the  avowed  object 
of  its  organization." 

The  Society  formerly  numbered  over  one  hundred  paying 
members  ;  at  present  there  are  only  twenty-five.     Let  the 


good  work  have  better  encouragement.  I  have  made  refer- 
ence to  it,  not  in  a  carping  si^irit,  but  with  a  wholesome 
desire  to  revive  its  former  efficiency  and  usefulness. 

Already  there  are  indications  of  a  decided  improvement 
in  its  affairs :  the  Home  having  been  recently  renovated, 
new  furniture  supplied,  and  a  Superintendent  elected,  who 
begins  his  duty  w^ell,  and  it  is  to  be  hoped  will  continue 
faithful  to  his  trust.  Norwegian  services  are  held  in  the 
Bethel  every  Sunday,  conducted  by  the  Superintendent, 
Capt.  Christiansen,  and  it  is  the  purpose  of  the  newly 
elected  Chaplain,  Capt.  W.  J.  Potter,  to  j)rosecute  his  work 
vigorously — in  which  it  is  to  be  hoped  they  will  be  sus- 
tained by  all  the  friends  of  this  good  cause. 

The  officers  of  the  Society  are  as  follows : 

George  R.  French,  Sr., .President. 

George  Harriss, Vice  President. 

George  R.  French,  Jr., Secretary  and  Treasurer. 

Capt.  W.  J.  Potter, Chaplain. 

Trustees — Messrs.  George  R.  French,  George  Harriss, 
R.  E.  Heide,  E.  T.  Hancock,  H.  B.  Filers,  B.  F.  Mitchell, 
George  R.  French,  Jr.,  E.  S.  Martin,  Edouard  Peschau, 
Roger  Moore,  Edward  Kidder,  Alexander  Sprunt,  F.  AV. 
Kerchner,  W.  I.  Gore,  C.  H.  Robinson. 

Executine  Committee — Messrs.  E.  T.  Hancock,  H.  B. 
Eilers,  R.  E.  Heide. 


"In  the  Spring  of  1867  Dr.  A.  J.  DeRosset,  Senior 
AVardenof  St.  James'  Parish,  Wilmington,  N.  C,  conveyed 
to  the  vestry  of  the  parish,  an  entire  city  square  with  a  two 
story  double  wooden  house  thereon,  as  a  free  gift,  for 
religious  and  benevolent  use.  The  active  exertion  of  the 
parishioners,  aided  by  the  liberality  of  friends  in  different 
portions  of  the  United  States,  and  supplemented  by  a  very 
successful  fair,  enabled  the  vestry  to  restore  the  residence 


which  had  been  seriously  damaged  during  the  war  of 

In  1870,  a  Sunday  and  day  school  were  opened  in  the 
building,  for  the  gratuitous  instruction  of  the  poorer  white 
children  of  the  city.  The  object  of  the  school,  was  the 
instruction  of  such  children  as  might  be  reached  by  it  in 
the  more  fundamental  branches  of  an  ordinary  English 
education,  in  connection  with  the  direct  inculcation  of 
moral  and  religious  principles,  with  a  view  not  merely  to 
prepare  its  scholars  for  respectability  and  success  in  the 
world, but  therewith  also  to  make  them  good  orderly  citizens, 
both  of  the  commonwealth,  and  of  the  church. 

Since  its  commencement,  the  school  has  been  maintained 
without  interruption,  except  for  the  ordinary  vacations. 
So  far  as  the'existing  records  of  attendance  supply  material 
for  the  estimate,  it  is  calculated  that  from  600  to  800  chil- 
dren of  both  sexes  have,  up  to  the  present  time,  come 
under  the  influences,  andenjoyedthe  training  of  the  school. 
Though  at  no  time  having  room  for  any  very  large  attend- 
ance, the  numbers  of  the  school  have  steadily  increased 
from  the  first,  and  there  are  now  upon  the  roll  more  than 
100  names.  The  growth  of  the  school  required  very  soon 
after  its  first  opening,  a  separate  school  room,  which  was 
annexed  to  the  main  building.  This  has  recently  been 
enlarged  to  more  than  double  its  original  size,  and  will, 
(thanks  to  the  liberality  of  friends,'  both  in  ISTew  York  and 
Wilmington,)  in  a  few  weeks,  be  furnished  with  an  entire 
set  of  new  and  handsome  desks  of  the  most  api^roved 

Teachershave  been  employed  at  fixed  salaries  during 
much  of  the  time.  But  much  or  most  of  the  work  has  been 
(jone— and  well  done— by  the  voluntary  labor  of  educated 
women  who  have  devoted  themselves  to  good  works,  and 
who  have  had  their  home  on  the  premises.  Since  the  fall 
of  1878,  the  school  has  been  in  charge  of  members  of  the 
Sisterhood  of  the  Good  Shepherd,  whose  mother  house  is 


in  New  York,  and  whose  work  in  this  connection  has  been 
beyond  all  praise.  The  order  and  discipline  maintained, 
have  been  snch  as  would  compare  favorably  with  that  of 
any  other  school  in  the  country,  and  the  advances  in  educa- 
tion have  been  creditable  to  both  teachers  and  scholars. 

In  connection  with  the  school,  a  general  mission  work 
among  the  poorer  classes  has  been  zealously  maintained, 
and  with  the  best  and  most  evident  results.  It  has  been  a 
part  of  the  work  of  the  ladies,  resident  at  the  Home,  to  visit 
the  poor  and  the  afflicted,  and  carry  with  them  help  and 
consolation — to  be  instructors  in  all  good  and  useful  things 
from  house  to  house,  esxDecially  aJmong  the  parents  of  the 
school  children.  A  large  and.  varied  work  of  this  sort  is 
incessantly  done. 

In  addition  to  this,  orphans,  or  half-orphans,  have  from 
time  to  time  found  a  home  in  the  house.  The  more  help- 
less and  homeless  sick  have,  in  several  instances,  been 
brought  thither  and  cared  for,  and  nursed  till  relieved  of 
their  sufferings  by  death,  and  then  decently  buried.  Inva- 
lids from  places  at  a  distance,  seeking  the  help  of  the 
skilled  physicians  of  the  city,  have  been  received  and  nursed. 
Penitent  women  have  found  a  refuge  where  the  religious 
influences  of  the  household,  have  aided  them  in  their 
attempts  at  reformation.  Beside  all  which,  the  Home  has 
been  a  nucleus  for  the  benevolence  of  the  Parish,  and  has 
given  wise  form  and  direction  to  its  alms.  Nor  should  it 
be  forgotten  that  to  carry  out  more  completely  its  influ- 
ences for  good  among  the  children  connected  with  its 
schools,  instruction  in  needle  work  and  in  cooking  have 
been  added  to  its  other  departments  of  education.  It  is  at 
this  time,  and  in  this  way  the  only  industrial  school  in  the 
city  known  to  the  waiter. 

All  this  work  has,  of  course,  involved  considerable 
expenditure,  and  at  the  same  time  required  very  rigid 
economy  in  the  administration  of  the  household. 


The  institution  has  so  far  been  supported, 

1.  By  a  regular  subscription  Ivept  up  by  a  few  gentlemen 
and  ladies  of  the  parish. 

2.  By  the  collections  in  its  behalf  of  the  Ladies'  Associa- 
tion of  the  parish, 

3.  By  xjublic  offerings  on  Ash  Wednesday  and  Thanks- 
giving Day  in  each  year. 

4.  By  occasional  contributions. 

If  to  these  resources  a  small  endowment  could  be  added 
— ^^just  enough  to  ensure  tlie  permanency  of  the  work,  inde- 
pendently of  the  fluctuations  of  individual  fortunes,  but 
not  enough  to  relieve  the  parish  of  the  duty  and  privilege 
and  habit  of  giving  to  the  maintenance  of  a  good  object — 
a  great  and  good  work  would  be  made  secure,  and  the 
minds  of  the  faithful  women  who  have  surrendered  all 
worldly  prospects  of  support,  in  order  to  do  their  Master's 
work  among  the  poor,  would  be  comforted  with  the  assu- 
rance, that  after  their  work  is  done,  and  they  have  been 
worn  out  in  doing  it,  they  will  not  be  turned  adrift  to  die, 
but  will  find  a  shelter  till  death,  in  the  institution  to  which 
they  have  given  their  lives. 

At  present  there  are  three  ladies  resident  at  the  Home, 
and  constituting  the  Sisterhood  family,  all  of  them  connected 
with  the  Sisterhood  of  the  Good  Shepherd,  and  all  of  them, 
together  with  another  lady  of  the  parish  who  comes  daily, 
actively  occupied  in  the  work." 

I  am  indebted  for  the  foregoing  particulars  to  the  Rector 
of  St  James'  Parish,  who  has  given  mucli  of  an  unselfish 
and  devoted  life  in  his  Master's  cause  to  this  most  inter- 
esting and  important  work  of  benevolence. 


If  w^e  may  believe  the  historian,  Williamson,  the  Lords 
Proprietors  and  the  Royal  Governors  were  extremely 
hostile  to  the  establishment  of  newspapers  in  the  colony, 


during  their  administration  of  affairs.  We  are  told  that 
the  Governor  of  Virginia  would  not  suffer  in  the  colony, 
under  any  pretense  whatever,  the  use  of  a  printing  press, 
and  Sir  AVilliam  Berkley,  one  of  the  Proprietors  of  North 
Carolina,  thanked  God  that  there  was  not  a  printing  office 
in  any  of  the  Southern  i3rovinces.  Doubtless  they  knew  well 
the  i)ower  of  an  unfettered  press,  and  dreaded  its  influence 
upon  the  minds  of  the  people;  but  notwithstanding  their 
opposition,  printing  was  introduced  into  North  Carolina, 
and  a  paper  published  at  Newbern,  by  James  Davis,  in 
1749,  one  hundred  and  thirty-five  years  ago.  It  was  called 
the  North  Carolina  Gazette,  and  printed  on  a  small  sheet, 
and  issued  weekly. 

The  second  press  set  up  in  North  Carolina  was  at  Wil- 
mington, in  1763,  by  Andrew  Stewart,  called  the  Cai^e 
Fear  Gazette  and  Wilmington  Advertiser.  This  papier 
was  discontinued  in  1767,  but  was  succeeded  the  same  year 
by  the  Cape  Fear  Mercury,  published  by  Adam  Boyd. 
He  was  an  Englishman,  but  a  true  friend  to  the  Colonies, 
was  a  member  of  the  Committee  of  safety  for  the  town  of 
Wilmington,  in  1775,  and  greatly  respected.  He  was  a 
prominent  member  of  the  Committee  of  Correspondence  and 
was  endowed  with  versatile  talents.  In  1776  he  entered  the 
ministry  and  was  appointed  Chaplain  of  the  Continental 

We  have  no  means  of  knowing  how  long  the  Mercury 
existed,  nor  have  we  been  able  to  find  copies  of  any  other 
publications,  prior  to  1818.  In  that  year,  Mr.  David  Smith, 
Jr.,  father  of  Col.  Wm.  L.  Smith,  the  late  Mayor  of 
the  City,  commenced  the  publication  of  the  Cape  Fear 
Recorder,  which  continued  under  his  management  until 
1835,  when  Mr.  Archibald  McLean  Hooper  assumed  con- 
trol of  its  management  and  for  a  number  of  years  it  was 
the  only  paper  published  in  this  section  of  the  State.  Mr. 
Hooper  had  large  scholarly  attainments  and  was  fond  of 
the  classics.     He  had  the  hand  of  a  ready  writer,  and  his 


style  was  characterized  by  great  ease  and  elegance,  felic- 
itons  in  exxDression,  and  clothing  his  ideas  in  language 
beautiful  and  chaste.  He  was  a  near  relative  of  Wm. 
Hooper  the  signer  of  the  Declaration  of  Independence,  and 
the  father  of  Johnson  Hooper,  so  well  known  to  fame  as  the 
author  of  "Simon  Suggs,"  "Taking-the  Census,"  and  other 
hnmorous  works. 

About  the  year  1834,  Mr.  Henry  S.  EUinwood  came  to 
Wilmington,  and  assumed  the  editorial  chair  of  the  Wil- 
mingtoii  Advertiser,  a  paper  then  published  in  the  town. 
He  was  an  educated  gentleman,  and  fitted  for  the  duties  of 
a  journalist.  He  courted  the  muses  with  considerable 
success,  and  many  of  his  jiieces,  which  are  still  in 
existence,  give  ample  evidence  of  belles  lettres  culture,  wit 
and  fancy.  His  connection  with  the  paper  was,  however, 
very  brief,  as  he  died  suddenly  a  short  time  after  taking 
charge.  After  his  death  the  paper  was  purchased  by  Mr. 
Joshua  Cochrane,  of  Fayetteville,  and  conducted  by  him 
until  the  Summer  of  1836,  when  he  died,  and  Mr.  F.  C. 
Hill  became  the  Editor  and  Proprietor,  and  continued  its 
publication  until  about  the  year  1842,  when  it  ceased  to 

Cotemporary  with  the  Advertiser ^  was  the  People's 
Press,  a  paper  published  by  P.  W.  Fanning  and  Thomas 
Loring,  the  latter  being  the  editor  in  chief,  which  position 
he  held  for  some  time,  when  he  disposed  of  his  interest  and 
purchased  the  Standard,  the  organ  of  the  Democratic  party 
of  the  State,  issued  at  Raleigh,  and  removed  to  that  city, 
assuming  control  of  its  management,  he  brought  to  the 
discharge  of  his  duties  great  energy,  perseverance,  marked 
ability  and  a  thorough  familiarity  with  political  history. 
He  was  a  man  of  sanguine  temperament  and  a  w\arm  parti- 
san, and  in  the  excitement  of  controversy,  often  indulged 
in  expressions  towards  his  i3olitical  opponents,  which,  in 
his  calmer  moments,  his  judgment  condemned.  He  wielded 
a  political  influence,  at  one  time,  second  to  but  few  men  in 


the  State,  and  was  an  acknowledged  leader  of  his  party, 
but  differing  from  them  in  1842,  in  regard  to  their  course 
towards  the  Banks  of  the  State,  he  retired  from  the  posi- 
tion he  held,  rather  than  continue  to  hold  it  at  the  sacrifice 
of  his  independence.  Returning  to  Wilmington,  he 
established  the  Tri-  Weekly  Commercial,  which  he  con- 
ducted for  a  number  of  years,  until  failing  health  compelled 
its  discontinuance. 

The  Wilmington  Chronicle  was  established  about  the 
year  1838,  by  Asa  A.  Brown.  It  was  an  exponent  of  the 
principles  of  the  Whig  party,  and  advanced  them  with 
great  zeal  and  ability.  Mr.  Brown  was  a  capable  editor,  a 
good  writer  and  a  man  of  more  than  ordinary  abilit\^  In 
1851,  he  disposed  of  the  paper  to  Talcott  Burr,  Jr.,  who 
changed  its  name  to  the  Wilmington  Herald. 

Under  his  management,  the  Herald  became  one  of  the 
leading  papers  ^n  the  State,  and  but  for  his  untimely 
death  in  1858,  would  have  taken  rank  with  any  in  the 

Mr.  Burr' s  peculiar  characteristics  as  a  writer,  were  his 
ready  wit  and  sparkling  humor,  overlaying  a  deep  vein  of 
strong,  impulsive  feeling.  Quick,  vivid  and  Hashing,  never 
missing  its  point,  yet  never  striking  to  wound,  abounding 
in  gay  and  pleasant  fancies,  and  alwaj^s  warm  and  genial 
as  the  Summer  air,  it  touched  the  commonest  topic  of  every 
day  life,  and  imbued  it  with  new  and  charming  attractive- 
ness. He  was  struck  down  by  the  shaft  of  the  great 
destroyer,  in  the  prime  of  life,  and  in  the  midst  of  an  active, 
useful  and  honorable  career. 

After  his  death,  his  brothers,  C.  E.  and  R.  Burr,  carried 
on  the  paper  for  a  year  or  two,  when  it  passed  into  the 
hands  of  A.  M.  Waddell,  and  ceased  to  exist  on  the  break- 
ing out  of  the  war. 

In  the  year  1844,  Alfred  L.  Price  and  David  Fulton, 
under  the  firm  name  of  Fulton  &  Price,  issued  the  first 
number  of  the   Wilmington  Journal,  a  paper  destined  to 


exercise  a  controllinc?  influence  for  many  years  npon  the 
political  questions  of  the  day.  The  editorial  department 
was  under  the  control  of  Mr.  Fulton,  and  very  ably  con- 
ducted until  his  death,  which  occurred  a  year  or  two  after 
the  establishment  of  the  pax3er,  when  his  brother,  James 
Fulton,  took  charge  of  its  management. 

James  Fulton  was  no  ordinary  man.  He  possessed  a 
vigorous  intellect  and  a  clear  judgment,  was  quick  at 
repartee,  and  prompt  to  take  advantage  of  any  point 
exposed  by  an  adversary,  in  tlie  controversies  incident  to 
his  position,  but  was  always  courteous,  and  rarely  indulged 
in  personalities.  He  wrote  with  great  ease,  and  liis  style 
was  chaste,  graceful  and  vigorous.  He  had  humor,  too, 
and  it  bubbled  up  continually,  not  that  keen,  pungent  wit 
that  stings  and  irritates,  but  that  which  provokes  merri- 
ment by  droll  fancies  and  quaint  illustrations.  He  had  a 
remarkable  memory  and  read  much,  and  remembered  what 
he  read,  and  could  utilize  it  effectively. 

The  Journal  was  a  power  in  the  State  while  he  controlled 
it.  In  this  section,  particularly,  its  influence  was  un- 
bounded. Mr.  Fulton  died  in  the  early  part  of  the  year 
1866,  and  was  succeeded  by  Major  J.  A.  Engelhard,  as 
editor,  who  sustained  the  high  reputation  the  paper  had 
acquired.  Upon  the  retirement  of  Mr.  Alfred  L.  Price, 
Col.  Wm.  L.  Saunders  became  connected  with  the  paper, 
the  firm  being  Engelhard  &  Saunders,  an  intellectual  com- 
bination in  journalism  seldom  surpassed.  During  the 
troublous  times,  after  the  close  of  the  war,  its  utterances 
were  manly,  outspoken  and  fearless  in  condemnation  of 
measures  regarded  as  opi^ressive  to  our  people.  It  prac- 
tised no  temporizing  policy,  but  boldly  uttered  what  the 
sincerity  of  its  convictions  might  promjDt  it  to  declare.  It 
continued  thus  until  1878,  when  adverse  circumstances 
caused  its  suspension.  It  is  now  published  as  a  weekly 
paper,  the  name,  Wilmington  Journal.,  being  retained  by 
Josh  T.  James,  Editor  and  Proprietor. 


But  few  copies  of  the  earlier  papers  published  in  Wil- 
mington, are  now  in  existence,  of  some,  not  a  copy  can  be 
found ;  hence  there  may  be,  and  doubtless  are,  omissions 
in  the  loresent  list,  but  it  is  believed  to  be  nearly  accurate, 
at  least  approximately  so.  No  mention  is  made  of  papers 
whose  existence  was  but  temjjorary. 

There  are  now  in  Wilmington  the  following  publica- 
tions : 

The  Morning  Star,  daily,  by  W.  H.  Bernard,  established 
September,  1867,  and  the  Weekly  Star,  established  in 

The  Daily  Review,  established  by  James  &  Price,  in 
October,  1875,  now  conducted  by  Josh  T.  James. 

The  Star  and  the  Review  are  the  only  daily  papers 
published  in  the  City,  the  former,  a  morning  paper,  and 
the  latter  issued  in  the  evening. 

The  Wilmington  Post,  established  in  1866,  weekly. 

The  North  Carolina  Presbyterian,  weekly,  was  first 
established  in  Fayetteville,  January  1,  1858,  the  Rev.  Geo. 
McNeill,  and  the  late  Bartholomew  Fuller,  being  the 
editors.  It  was  removed  to  Wilmington  in  November, 
1874,  John  McLaurin  being  the  editor  and  proprietor. 

The  Africo- American  Presbyter ioM,  published  in  the 
interest  of  the  colored  members  of  that  denomination,  by 
Rev.  D.  J.  Saunders,  a  colored  man  of  remarkable  attain- 

The  North  Carolina  Medical  Journal,  by  Dr.  Thomas 
F.  Wood,  was  established  January,  1878.  It  is  a  monthly 
publication,  ably  edited,  and  of  great  value  to  the  pro- 

A  comparison  between  the  papers  of  the  day  and  of  the 
past,  will  show  the  marvelous  advance  that  has  been  made 
in  science  and  in  art.  Then,  months  were  required  for  the 
transmission  of  news,  political  or  commercial;  now,  the 
lightnings  flash  has  been  made  subservient  to  the  wants 
or  caiDrices  of  man,  and  he  can  kitow  the  same  day  what  is 


transpiring  in  countries  thousands  of  miles  distant.  Do 
we  realize  the  advantages  that  we  of  this  century  enjoy, 
and  are  we  any  better,  as  a  people,  than  were  our  ances- 
tors, who  were  content  with  a  weekly  newspaper,  "no 
bigger  than  a  man's  hand,"  while  we  have  mammoth  dailies 
by  the  hundreds? 


The  Commissioners  of  Navigation  and  Pilot;age  for  the 
Cape  Fear  River  and  Bars,  were  formerly  elected  by  the 
qualified  voters  of  the  city  of  Wilmington,  but  in  1870  the 
Legislature  of  the  State  passed  an  act  authorizing  and  re- 
quiring the  Mayor  and  Aldermen  of  the  city  of  Wilming- 
ton to  appoint  every  year  five  persons,  and  the  Mayor  and 
Commissioners  of  the  town  of  Smithville  two  persons,  to 
serve  as  Commissioners  of  Navigation  and  Pilotage  for  the 
Cape  Fear  River  and  Bars,  and  providing  that  the  seven 
persons  so  appointed  should  have  power  to  do  and  perform 
all  acts  theretofore  authorized  by  law  to  be  done  by  the 
Board  of  Commissioners  of  Navigation  and  Pilotage.  The 
Commissioners  have  authority  in  all  matters  that  may  con- 
cern the  navigation  of  the  waters  from  seven  miles  above 
Negrohead  Point  downwards,  and  out  of  the  bar  ;  and 
with  respect  to  throwing  rubbish  in  the  river  at  the 
city  of  Wilmington,  and  in  the  construction  of  wharves 
have  concurrent  jurisdiction  witli  the  Mayor  and  Aldermen 
of  the  city. 

The  Commissioners  are  required  to  ajDpoint  a  Harbor 
Master,  and  prescribe  the  duties  of  his  office,  to  make  such 
rules  and  regulations  for  the  Port  of  Wilmington,  and 
respecting  the  duties  of  pilots,  as  they  may  deem  most  ad- 
visable, and  to  impose  reasonable  fines,  forfeitures  and 
penalties  for  the  purpose  of  enforcing  such  rules  and  regu- 
lations. Tliey  are  required  to  provide  for  the  examination 
by  nautical  men,  of  aijprentices  who  have  served  three 
years,  and  who  desire  to  become  pilots,  and  to  issue  com- 


missions  or  branches  to  such  as  are  found  qualitied  to  per- 
form the  duties  of  pilots,  provided  that  there  shall  not  be 
at  any  one  time  more  than  sixty-five  river  and  bar  pilots 
in  commission.  Three  classes  of  licenses  are  required  to 
be  issued — one  to  pilot  vessels  whose  draught  of  water  does 
not  exceed  nine  feet,  one  to  pilot  vessels  whose  draught 
does  not  exceed  twelve  feet,  and  one  unlimited,  or  full 
license,  to  pilot  vessels  of  any  draught  of  water. 

Every  person,  before  he  obtains  a  branch  to  become  a 
pilot,  must  give  bond,  with  two  sufficient  sureties  in  the 
sum  of  $500,  payable  to  the  State  of  North  Carolina,  for 
the  faithful  discharge  of  his  duties. 

The  number  of  pilots  for  the  river  and  bars  must  not  at 
any  one  time  be  reduced  below  forty. 

The  Commissioners  are  authorized  to  fix  the  rates  of 
pilotage,  provided  the}^  do  not  reduce  them  below  the  rates 
established  in  1869. 

Pilotage  is  compulsory  for  all  vessels  of  sixty  tons  bur- 
then and  over. 

The  present  number  of  pilots  (sixty-five)  is  about  equally 
divided  between  the  bars  and  river. 

The  Commissioners  are  required  to  regulate  the  number 
of  apiDrentices,  provided  there  shall  not  be  less  than  twenty. 
During  and  since  the  war,  it  has  been  impossible  to  comply 
with  this  provision  of  the  law,  there  having  been  at  no  time 
since  the  war  as  many  as  twenty  to  serve,  and  now  there 
are  not  more  than  three  or  four. 

A  Harbor  Master's  fee,  when  no  service  is  performed,  is 
not  compulsory  ;  but,  by  an  order  of  the  Commissioners, 
every  vessel  whose  captain  voluntarily  pays  the  Harbor 
Master  three  dollars,  on  her  arrival,  is  entitled  to  his  services 
at  all  times,  while  the  vessel  is  in  port,  without  further 

If  this  fee  is  refused,  and  the  vessel  so  refusing  requires 
the  Harbor  Master's  services,  he  is  entitled  to,  and  can  col- 
lect, 15  for  the  first  visit,  and  12.50  for  every  subsequent 


The  present  Board  is  composed  of  James  H.  Chadbourn, 
Chairman  ;  Donald  MacRae,  David  Gr.  Worth,  H.  B.  Eilers, 
and  James  Sprunt,  of  Wilmington,  and  G.  F.  Crapon  and 
Edward  Daniels,  of  Smithville.  Mr.  Chadbourn  has  served 
upon  the  Board  for  fifteen  years,  for  twelve  of  which,  he  has 
acted  with  great  acceptability  as  Chairman. 

During  his  administration,  the  character  of  the  pilots  has 
greatly  imj)roved,  and  the  present  body  will  compare  most 
favorably  with  any  of  the  profession  in  other  j)orts.  In- 
stances of  drunkenness,  neglect  or  incapacity,  are  very 
rare,  and  although  the  difficult  navigation  of  our  river  has 
of  late  been  more  perjjlexing,  in  consequence  of  the  changes 
being  wrought  by  the  engineers,  there  has  been  no  serious 
damage  sustained  by  any  vessel  for  many  years,  while  in 
charge  of  a  Wilmington  pilot. 

Rules  and  RegiClations  of  the  Port  of  Wilmington^  lie- 
vised  and  Adopted  'by  the  Board  of  Commissioners  of 
Namgation  and  Pilotage^  on  September  iWi,  1868,  for 
the  Government  of  the  Port  of  Wilmington^  River  and 
Bars  of  the  Cape  Fear,  to  go  into  effect  immediately. 

Ordered,  That  hereafter  all  vessels  arriving  in  this  Port, 
the  Master,  Agent  or  Consignee  of  which  shall  voluntarily 
pay  to  the  Harbor  Master,  the  sum  of  Three  Dollars,  they 
may  command,  at  all  times,  the  services  of  said  Harbor 
Master,  as  prescribed  by  the  Port  Regulations,  without 
further  charge,  while  the  vessel  shall  remain  in  Port ;  but 
where  such  Master,  Agent,  or  Consignee,  shall  refuse  to 
pay  said  amount  of  Three  Dollars,  the  following  fees  are 
fixed,  and^shall  be  collected  as  provided  in  Revised  Code, 
chapter  85,  paragraph  3,  page  461  :  When  called  upon  to 
perform  any  duty  required  by  law  or  Court  Regulations — 
for  the  first  visit  or  performance  of  duty,  Five  Dollars,  and 
for  each  subsequent  visit  to  the  same  vessel,  Two  Dollars 
and  Fifty  Qewts.— Adopted  Nommler  lltJi,  1869. 


1.  All  ballast,  coal,  or  other  substance  calculated  to  in- 
jure the  River,  shall  be  safely  placed  not  less  than  four  feet 
from  the  caj)  of  the  wharf ;  and  in  delivering  or  landing, 
must  be  done  under  such  precautions  as  to  prevent  the 
escape  of  any  portion  into  the  River,  under  the  penalty  of 
Fifty  Dollars.  No  ballast  or  coal  shall  be  discharged  from 
any  vessel,  while  in  this  Port,  after  dark  or  before  sunrise, 
under  a  penalty  of  One  Hundred  Dollars  for  each  and 
every  offence,  to  be  paid  by  the  Captain.  And  no  trash  or 
substance  calculated  in  any  manner  to  injure  the  naviga- 
tion, shall  be  thrown  into  the  River,  under  a  penalty  of 
Ten  Dollars,  for  each  and  every  offence,  to  be  paid  by  the 
party  offending. 

2.  All  vessels  crossing  the  Bars,  either  in  or  out,  or  navi- 
gating the  Rivers  from  or  to  the  sea,  shall  be  required  to 
pay  full  pilotage  to  the  Pilot  offering  his  services,  whether 
such  craft  be  in  tow  or  otherwise— and  that  any  Pilot  neg- 
lecting or  detaining  a  vessel  under  his  charge  unnecessa- 
ril}^,  shall  suffer  the  severest  penalty  of  the  law.  Ordered 
further,  That  any  person  without  the  authority  of  this 
Board,  attempting  to  pilot  a  vessel,  or  charging  for  such 
service,  shall  pay  a  penalty  of  Forty  Dollars. 

3.  Any  vessel  hoisting  her  colors  for  a  Pilot,  shall  be 
compelled  to  pay  the  Pilot  offering  his  services  full  pilotage, 
whether  such  Pilot  be  employed  or  not. 

4.  When  no  Pilot  is  in  attendance,  any  person  may  con- 
duct into  port  any  vessel  in  danger  from  stress  of  weather 
or  in  a  leaky  condition  ;  but  if  any  person  not  duly  quali- 
fied or  licensed,  shall  presume  to  act  as  Pilot  under  any 
other  circumstances,  he  shall  forfeit  and  pay  Forty  Dollars. 

5.  No  Master  of  a  vessel  having  a  Branch,  or  a  Mate 
with  a  Branch,  shall  be  compelled  to  take  a  Pilot,  said 
Master  or  Mate  first  having  a  permit  from  this  Board  for 
leave  of  absence. 

6.  Every  Master  of  a  vessel  who  shall  detain  a  Pilot  after 
the  time  appointed,  so  that  he  cannot  proceed  to  sea,  though 


wind  and  water  should  permit,  shall  j)ay  such  Pilot  Three 
Dollars  per  day  during  the  time  of  his  actual  detention  ; 
and  if  any  vessel,  which  shall  be  boarded  by  a  Pilot,  with- 
out or  within  any  of  the  inlets,  shall,  by  violence  of  the 
weather  or  otherwise,  be  driven  to  sea,  the  Master  or  owner 
of  such  vessel  shall  allow  and  pay  the  Pilot  Three  Dollars 
per  day  for  every  day  he  shall  be  on  board,  besides  the  fee 
of  pilotage. 

7.  All  vessels  at  anchor,  or  under  way,  within  the  bars 
of  Cajpe  Fear  River,  at  night,  shall  exhibit  a  light  in  some 
conspicuous  place,  at  least  ten  feet  above  the  deck,  so  as  to 
be  seen  by  vessels  or  steamboats  i3assing  up  or  down  the 
River,  under  a  penalty  of  One  Hundred  Dollars  for  each 
and  every  neglect,  and  shall  also  be  liable  for  all  damage  or 
the  amount  of  injury  sustained  by  any  vessel  or  boat 
coming  in  contact,  to  be  recovered  for  the  benefit  of  the 
injured  party.  And  it  shall  be  the  duty  of  the  Pilots  to 
notify  the  Master  of  each  vessel  coming  over  the  bar  of  the 
existence  of  this  order. 

8.  No  vessel  shall  anchor  in  the  River,  or  extend  her 
fasts  as  to  interrupt  the  navigation  of  said  River,  or  the 
passage  of  the  Ferry  Boats  to  and  from  the  usual  place  of 
landing  on  either  side  of  the  River,  under  the  Penalty  of 
Fifty  Dollars  for  each  and  every  offence,  after  notice  from 
the  Harbor  Master. 

9.  No  vessel  shall  extend  her  hull,  bowsprit,  yards,  rig- 
ging or  fasts,  so  as  to  interrupt  the  passage  into  or  out  of 
the  public  Docks,  under  the  penalty  of  Five  Dollars  for 
each  and  every  hour  said  offence  shall  continue,  after  notice 
from  the  Harbor  Master. 

10.  No  vessel  that  has  discharged,  or  that  is  not  engaged 
in  discharging  or  taking  on  board  a  cargo,  shall  keep  her 
place  at  any  wharf,  when,  for  the  convenience  of  dis- 
charging or  taking  on  board  a  cargo,  said  place  may  be 
required  by  any  other  vessel,  under  the  penalty  of  Fifty 
Dollars  for  each  and  every  day  such  offence  shall  continue. 


11.  No  vessel  shall  careen  for  tlie  purpose  of  burning, 
cleaning  or  repairing,  at  any  wharf  within  the  limits  of 
Wilmington,  except  at  regular  ship-yards,  under  a  penalty 
of  One  Hundred  Dollars  for  each  and  every  offence. 

V2.  No  Master  or  Commander  of  a  vessel  shall  disobey 
or  neglect  such  orders  and  directions  as  may  be  given  by 
the  Harbor  Master,  in  times  of  gales  of  wind,  relating  to 
the  safety  of  vessels  in  the  harbor,  under  the  j^enalty  of 
One  Hundred  Dollars  for  each  and  every  offence,  to  bex:)aid 
by  the  Master  or  Commander  of  said  vessel. 

IB.  No  vessel  having  on  board  grain,  or  articles  evidently 
in  a  state  of  putrefaction,  or  offensive,  shall  haul  to  or  lay 
at  any  wharf,  but  shall  anchor  in  the  middle  of  the  Kiver 
until  the  order  of  the  Board  shall  be  known,  under  the 
penalty  of  One  Hundred  Dollars  for  each  and  every  hour 
said  offence  shall  continue,  after  notice  from  the  Harbor 
Master.  Nor  shall  any  vessel  discharge  offensive  bilge 
water  within  the  limits  of  the  City  of  Wilmington,  under 
a  penalty  of  Fifty  Dollars. 

14.  No  vessel  shall  lay  at  any  wharf  with  her  yards  and 
booms  otherwise  trimmed  than  as  the  Harbor  Master  shall 
direct,  under  the  penalty  of  Fifty  Dollars,  for  each  and 
every  day  said  offence  shall  continue,  to  be  paid  by  the 
Master  or  Commander  of  said  vessel. 

15.  No  vessel,  whether  loaded  or  empty,  shall  lay  at 
anchor  in  the  River  opposite  the  City,  between  Mulberry 
and  Castle  Streets,  for  more  than  twenty-four  hours  at  one 
time,  under  a  penalty  of  Fifty  Dollars  for  each  and  every 
day  said  offence  shall  continue,  after  notice  from  the 
Harbor  Master. 

16.  If  a  Branch  Pilot  shall  go  off  to  any  vessel  bound  in, 
and  offer  to  pilot  her  over  the  Bar,  the  Master  or  Comman- 
der of  such  vessel,  if  he  refuses  to  take  such  Pilot  (except 
lawfully  exempt),  shall  pay  such  Pilot  the  lawful  pilotage. 

17.  When  any  Pilot  shall  see  any  vessel  on  the  coast, 
having  a  signal  for  a  Pilot,  or  shall  hear  a  gun  of  distress 


fire  off  the  coast,  and  shall  neglect  or  refuse  to  go  to  the 
assistance  of  such  vessel,  such  Pilot  shall  forfeit  and  pay 
One  Hundred  Dollars— one-half  to  the  informer,  the  other 
half  to  the  Master ;  unless  such  Pilot  is  actually  in  charge 
of  another  vessel. 

18.  The  Board  of  Commissioners  may  designate  the  place 
whereat,  within  the  waters  under  their  control,  may  be 
cast  and  thrown  ballast,  trash,  stones  and  such  like  matter  : 
and  if  any  j^erson  shall  cast  or  throw  from  any  vessel  into 
said  waters,  any  such  substances,  likely  to  be  injurious  to  the 
navigation,  he  shall  forfeit  and  pay  Two  Hundred  Dollars, 
And  if  any  Pilot  shall  knowingly  suffer  such  unlawful  act 
to  be  done,  and  shall  not,  within  ten  days  thereafter,  give 
information  to  some  one  of  this  Board,  he  shall  be  subject 
to  the  lawful  punishment. 

19.  Authority  is  vested  in  the  Commissioners  to  hear  and 
determine  all  matters  of  dispute  between  Pilots  and  Mas- 
ters of  vessels,  or  between  the  Pilots  themselves,  resi^ecting 
the  pilotage  of  vessels — appeal  in  certain  cases  to  be 

20.  On  the  arrival  of  any  vessel  at  this  port,  it  shall  be 
the  duty  of  the  Harbor  Master  to  go  on  board  and  deliver 
to  the  Captain  or  officer  in  charge  of  such  vessel,  the  Port 
Regulations,  under  a  penalty  of  Ten  Dollars. 

21.  Any  Pilot  running  a  vessel  ashore,  by  which  means 
any  injury  or  detention  is  sustained  by  such  vessel,  shall 
report  the  same  without  delay  to  the  Chairman  of  this 

22.  No  vessel  under  sixty  tons  shall  be  compelled  to  take 
a  Pilot  or  pay  pilotage,  unless  a  signal  for  a  Pilot  shall  be 

23.  Any  Pilot  intending  to  absent  himself  from  his  sta- 
tion for  over  twenty-four  hours,  shall  communicate  his 
intention  to  the  Chairman,  who  may  grant  a  permit,  and 
he  shall  likewise  make  known  his  return,  under  a  penalty 
of  Fifty  Dollars  for  such  neglect. 


24.  Should  any  liiilk,  raft,  flat,  or  other  obstructive  sub- 
stance become  sunken,  from  any  cause,  in  the  River,  tlie 
same  shall  be  immediately  removed,  under  a  penalty  of 
Five  Dollars  for  each  and  every  day  such  nuisance  shall 
remain,  after  notice  from  the  Harbor  Master,  to  be  paid  by 
the  i^arties  interested  or  concerned  ;  and  in  case  exertions 
are  not  immediately  made  for  the  removal  aforesaid,  the 
Commissioners  may  exercise  the  discretion  of  using  other 
means  of  abating  the  nuisance,  even  to  the  confiscation  or 
condemnation  of  such  obstructions. 

25.  The  Harbor  Master  shall  have  power  to  regulate  all 
fires  which  are  burning  or  kindled  on  Rafts,  Decks,  or 
Flat  Boats,  or  Lighters,  and  any  owner  or  agent  of  the 
owner,  refusing  to  obey  the  orders  of  the  Harbor  Master, 
shall  be  liable  to  a  fine  of  Fifty  Dollars  for  every  violation. 

26.  It  shall  be  the  duty  of  the  Harbor  Master  to  see  that 
all  raft  frames  be  taken  out  of  the  water  by  persons  land- 
ing wood  or  lumber,  audit  shall  be  the  duty  of  every  Agent 
or  Inspector  of  said  rafts  to  have  the  same  done,  when  so 
ordered,  or  at  all  times,  under  a  penalty  of  Fifty  Dollars. 

27.  Any  person  encumbering  either  of  the  public  docks 
with  logs,  dilapidated  hulks,  or  other  trash  or  nuisance, 
shall  forfeit  and  pay  a  fine  of  Five  Dollars,  if  not  removed 
immediately  upon  notice  from  the  Harbor  Master,  and  Five 
Dollars  for  every  additional  day  the  nuisance  remains. 
And  when  the  owner  cannot  conveniently  be  found,  the 
Harbor  Master  shall  take  the  most  speedy  method  to  clear 
the  dock. 

28.  The  Bar  Pilots  shall  be  divided  into  classes  of  not 
less  than  four  each,  whose  dut}''  it  shall  be  by  turns,  to 
ascertain  the  depth  of  water  at  the  several  navigable  points, 
and  to  report  to  this  Board  by  the  first  regular  meeting  in 
each  month,  being  Tuesday — penalty  for  neglect.  Ten 

29.  In  all  violations  of  these  Ordinances,  wherein  no  for- 
feiture is  specified,  a  penalty  not  exceeding  Fifty  Dollars 
may  be  imposed,  according  to  the  aggravation  of  the  case. 


30.  During  the  recess  of  tlie  Board,  the  Chairman  shall 
be  empowered  to  try  and  determine  all  cases  of  delinquency 
occurring,  and  an  appeal  from  his  decision  to  this  Board 
being  allowed ;  and  all  matters  connected  with  the  naviga- 
tion and  regulations  of  the  Port,  during  the  recess  of  the 
Board,  shall  be  under  his  immediate  supervision  and 

31.  No  apprentice  is  allowed  to  pilot  any  vessel  drawing 
over  six  feet  of  water,  without  permission  from  the  Chair- 
man of  this  Board. 

32.  Any  Pilot,  who,  after  having  been  notified  for  the 
purpose,  shall  fail  to  be  on  board  any  vessel  at  the  time  set 
for  sailing,  shall  forfeit  and  pay  the  Captain  Ten  Dollars 
for  each  day's  delay  (unless  at  the  time  he  shall  have  per- 
sonal charge  of  some  other  vessel),  and  the  further  sum  of 
one  day's  expense  of  such  vessel.  Pilots,  however,  may 
require  advance  pay  for  pilotage. 

33.  Pilots  navigating  vessels  into  Port,  shall  be  entitled, 
exclusively,  to  navigate  such  vessels  out  of  Port,  provided 
a  Pilot  be  in  attendance  when  a  vessel  is  ready  to  sail ; 
otherwise  the  Captain  may^  employ  any  other  suitable 
Pilot.  Any  Pilot  or  other  person  navigating  a  vessel  con- 
trary to  the  meaning  of  this  regulation,  shall  forfeit  and 
pay  the  injured  Pilot  Forty  Dollars. 

34.  Neglect  to  repair  dilapidated  wharves  shall  subject 
the  owners  or  parties  interested,  after  having  been  duly 
notified,  to  a  fine  of  Five  Dollars,  for  each  and  every  day's 
neglect  to  make  such  repairs. 

35.  All  flats,  lighters,  or  other  boats  or  vessels,  employed 
within  the  limits  of  the  City  of  Wilmington,  x^roj^elled 
wholly  or  in  part  by  gigs  or  poles,  are  hereby  prohibited 
from  using  ui)on  the  ends  of  said  gigs  or  poles,  any  iron  or 
other  metal  points  so  sharpened  as  to  make  indentation  into 
wood.  And  any  vessel,  steamer  or  package  of  goods,  re- 
ceiving damage  from  the  use  of  said  gigs  or  poles,  the 
owners  or  agent  of  the  owners  of  the  fiat  or  lighter,  shall 


be  liable  for  the  full  amount  of  damage  arising  therefrom. 
And  any  person  or  persons  employed  as  crew  of  said  fiat 
or  lighter,  who  shall  violate  this  Ordinance,  shall  be  fined 
not  less  than  Five  Dollars  for  each  and  every  offence. 

36.  Any  person  casting  loose  or  adrift,  any  Flat,  Raft  or 
Raft  of  Turpentine,  or  any  Boat  or  Vessel,  without  the 
consent  of  the  Harbor  Master,  had  and  obtained,  shall  be 
punished  by  a  fine  of  Ten  Dollars  for  each  and  every 
offence.  One-half  of  the  said  fine  shall,  when  collected, 
be  paid  to  the  i^erson  or  persons  giving  information  to  the 
Harbor  Master. 

37.  From  and  after  this  date,  any  person  piling  wood,  or 
any  other  material  or  merchandise,  in  such  manner  as  to 
prevent  or  obstruct  the  fastening  of  vessels  at  any  piling  or 
ringbolt,  placed  upon  any  wharf  for  the  purpose  of  securing 
any  vessel,  shall  forfeit  Five  Dollars  for  each  and  every 
hour  said  obstruction  shall  remain,  after  notice  from  the 
Harbor  Master;  said  fines  to  be  collected  in  the  same 
manner  as  other  fines  imposed  by  this  Board. 

All  Ordinances,  Rules  or  Regulations,  conflicting  with 
those  above  specified,  are  hereby  repealed. 

JAMES  H.    CHADBOURN,  Chairman. 
Jos.  Price,  Harbor  Master. 

Ordered  hy  the  Board  of  Commissioners  of  Namgation 
and  Pilotage  : 

That  hereafter  no 'Pilot  shall  leave  a  vessel  on  the  River 
without  the  consent  of  the  Master,  and  when  any  deten- 
tion shall  occur,  by  fault  of  the  Master  of  any  vessel,  the 
Pilot  shall  be  entitled  to  Three  Dollars  per  day  for  every 
day  so  detained. 

When  any  vessel  lying  outside  of  the  Rip,  or  at  other 
exposed  points,  shall  set  her  colors  for  a  Pilot,  the  regular 
Pilot  shall  promptly  answer  her  signal,  or  in  his  absence, 
some  other  Pilot,  who  has  a  branch  entitling  him  to  take 
charge  of  such  a  vessel,    shall  proceed  to  her  with  all 



possible  dispatch,  and  for  such  service  shall  receive  Five 
Dollars  per  day,  until  discharged  by  the  Master. 

Services  rendered  by  any  other  than  the  regular  Pilot, 
in  answer  to  a  signal,  shall  not  deprive  the  regular  Pilot  of 
his  right  to  carry  the  vessel  to  sea  when  slie  is  ready. 

Any  Pilot  failing  to  carry  out  this  order,  shall  be  liable 
to  such  fine  as  the  Board  of  Commissioners,  after  invest! 
gating  the  cause,  may  impose. 

JAS.  H.  CHADBOURN,  Chairman. 

February  17th,  1874. 

Rates  of  Pilotage  for  the  Cape  Fear  Bars  and  li'wers,  Established  on 

the  Id  day  of  August,  1870,  in  Accordance  ivith  the  Existing  Acts  of 

the  Legislature  of  North  Carolina,  to  go  into  Operation  on  Augus 

10th,  1870. 

BARS  : 

wiug  G  f 


and  uu 

11    1 
11    1 
1 1    1 
11    1 
11    1 
11    1 

11    1 
11    1 
11    1 
11    1 
11    1 
11    1 
11    1 
1 1    1 
11    1 
li    1 
11    1 

der  61  fe 
7   ' 

'  71  ' 

'   8^   ' 

'   9 

'   91   ' 

'  10   ' 

'  101   ' 

'  11 

'  111   ' 

'  12 

'  121   ' 

'  13   ' 

'   132^   ' 

'  14   ' 
'  14}  ' 
'  15 
'  151   ' 
'  16   • 
'  161   ' 
'  17   ' 
'  171   ' 
'  18 

et $  9  00 

'  9  75 


'  10  75 


'  11  50 


'  12  00 


'  VA  75 

"    9 

'  - 13  50 


'  14  50 


'  15  25 


'  17  00 


'  18  50 


'  20  50 

"    12 

'  22  50 


'  25  50 


'  28  50 


'  31  00 


'  34  00 


'  38  00 


'  ...  42  00 


'  45  00 


'  50  00 


'  55  00 


'  60  00 


'  G5  00 









vice  versa. 

From  Five 
Fathom  Hole 


vice  versa. 

r  6    J 




er  6J  feet 

$  9  50 

$  7  00 






10  50 

8  00 






12  00 

9  00 






12  50 

9  75 






13  00 

10  25 






13  50 

10  75 






14  00 

11  25 






15  00 

12  25 






16  00 

13  25 






18  00 

14  50 






19  75 

15  75 




1 1 


22  00 

16  75 


1 1 




24  00 

17  50 






26  50 

20  00 






29  00 

22  25 


1 1 




32  00 

24  25 






35  00 

26  25 






40  00 

28  25 






44  00 

30  00 

From  Smithville  to  Brunswick,  or  from  Brunswick  to  Wilmington, 
or  vice  versa,  shall  be  one- half  the  Pilotage  from  Smithville  to  Wil- 
mington. From  Smithville  to  Five  Fathom  Hole,  from  Five  Fathom 
Hole  to  B/unswick,  from  Brunswick  to  Campbell's  Island,  from 
Campbell's  Island  to  Wilmington,  or  vice  versa  one-fourth  of  the  Pilot- 
age from  Smithville  to  Wilmington:  Provided,  That  vessels  of  60 
tons  burthen,  owned  by  the  citizens  of  this  State,  shall  not  be  required 

to  take  a  Pilot. 

By  order,  JOS.  PRICE,  Clerk. 

August  10,  1870. 


An  Act  of  the  General  Assembly  passed  in  1802,  author- 
ized, emiDowered  and  directed  the  Commissioners  of  Navi- 
gation to  appoint  three  fit  persons  to  be  Wardens  of  the 
Port,  for  the  Port  of  Wilmington.  And,  in  case  of  the 
death,  refusal  to  act,  or  resignation  of  any  Port  Wardens 
so  appointed,  it  is  the  duty  of  the  Commissioners  of  Navi- 
gation, together  with  such  Port  Warden,  or  Wardens,  as 


shall  be  then  living  and  acting,  to  elect 'some  other  person 
or  iDersons  in  the  X)lace  of  the  one  so  dying  or  refusing 
to  act. 

The  act  lorescribes  the  duty  of  the  Port  Wardens  sub- 
stantially as  follows : 

On  request  made  by  the  master  or  owner  of  any  vessel 
arriving  in  port,  or  stranded  within  the  bounds  thereof,  to 
survey  and  make  report  of  the  situation  and  condition  of 
her,  and  the  causes  thereof,  and  whether  she  should 
be  repaired  or  condemned.  To  inspect  the  condition 
of  vessels  which  may  arrive  in  distress,  or  may  have 
suffered  by  gales  of  wind  at  sea.  The  condition  and 
situation  of  goods,  wares  and  merchandise,  which  may 
arrive  in  said  vessels,  or  may  have  received  damage 
at  sea,  and  to  report  thereon  and  the  probable  causes 
thereof.  To  inspect  the  stowage  of  the  cargoes  of 
vessels  arriving  in  port,  having  received  damage  at  sea, 
before  the  same  shall  be  discharged.  To  make  surveys  of 
goods,  wares  and  merchandise,  and  the  cargoes  of  damaged 
vessels,  and  to  make  and  report  estimates  of  the  amount  of 
damage  sustained.  To  make  and  report  (if  required) 
surveys  of  vessels  outward  bound,  and  to  report  whether 
they  are  seaworthy  or  not,  and  fit  for  the  voyage  intended. 
All  goods  that  are  sold  by  reason  of  their  having  received 
damage,  which  shall  have  been  surveyed  or  inspected  by 
the  Port  Wardens,  shall  be  sold  under  their  inspection 
and  direction. 

The  surveys  and  reports  of  the  Port  Wardens  are  consid- 
ered as  authentic  documents,  and  as  such,  received  as 
evidence  in  courts  of  law. 

The  present  Wardens  are  Gfeorge  Harriss,  B.  G.  Bates 
and  R.  G.  Ross  ;  and  judging  from  the  Act  of  General 
Assembly  ratified  in  1802,  creating  this  ofiice,  it  would 
appear  that  the  appointments  are  for  life. 



Wilmington  is  proverbially  a  cheap  port.  Owing  to  its 
distance  (about  thirty  miles)  from  the  sea,  the  principal 
expenses  to  vessels  are  towing  when  required,  and  pilotage, 
which  is  compulsory.  The  service  of  towage  is  efficiently 
rendered  by  the  steam  tugs  Blanche,  Italian,  Passi^ort, 
Alplia,  Tioga  and  William  Nyce,  at  the  following  rates; 

Towage  from  sea  to  sea, 35  cents  per  ton. 

"     Smithville  and  to  sea, 30     "        "      " 

"  '•    Wilmington       "     " 25     "        "      " 

There  are  no  Harbor  dues,  except  the  Harbor  Master's 
fee  of  $3.00  on  each  vessel,  wdiich  is  not  compulsory,  but 
optional  with  the  vessel,  and  which  is  recommended  to  be 
paid  in  all  instances,  as  a  retainer  in  case  of  need, — the 
Harbor  Master  being  empowered  to  charge  a  vessel,  other- 
wise, for  services  rendered,  $5.00  for  the  first  visit,  and 
$2.50  for  each  subsequent  one.  There  are  over  three  miles 
of  river  front,  about  half  of  which  affords  wharf  accommo- 
dation, free  of  charge  to  vessels,  which  are  promptly 
moored  on  arrival,  by  the  Harbor  Master. 

The  present  depth  of  water  in  the  harbor  is  10  to  45  feet, 
but  below  Wilmington,  the  river  (now  being  dredged  and 
deepened)  on  ordinary  tides  is  only  14^  feet,  so  that  vessels 
requiring  more  water,  must  lighter  the  remainder  of  the 
cargo  to  Smithville  (near  the  bar)  at  a  cost  of,  say,  8  to  12 
cents  per  barrel  rosin,  10  to  15  cents  per  cask  spirits  tur- 
pentine, 30  to  50  cents  per  bale  cotton. 

The  charges  for  stowing  cargoes  are  lower  than  in  any 
other  port ;  say,— rosin  3  cents,  tar  4  cents,  spirits  turpen- 
tine 6  cents,  cotton  40  to  50  cents,  porting  and  stowing 
lumber  50  cents.  Provisions  and  other  ship  stores  are 
about  the  same  as  in  other  Atlantic  j)orts. 

Two  years  ago  an  attemxjt  was  made  to  establish  a  line 
of  Steamers  from  Wilmington  to  Liverpool,  and  the 
Steamer  Barnesmore  was  chartered  as  an  experiment,  but 


it  was  found  tbat  the  depth  of  water  was  not  sufficient  to 
encourage  further  business. 

The  Captain  of  this  Steamer,  however,  wrote,  upon  his 
departure  for  Liverpool,  a  very  hopeful  letter  addressed  to 
Mr.  A.  H.  Van  Bokkelen,  President  of  the  Chamber  of 
Commerce,  of  Wilmington,  which  was  as  follows,  and 
which  may  serve  as  a  guide,  should  further  efforts  be  made 
for  direct  steam  communication: 

"Off  Smitiiville,  N.  C,  October  6th,  1881. 
Hon.  a.  H.  Van  Bokkelen, 

President  Chamber  of  Commerce,  Wilmington,  N.  C. 
Dear  Sir  : — 

Agreeably  to  your  request,  I  beg  herewith  to  give  you 
my  opinion  and  experience  of  the  ai)proaches  and  port  of 
Wilmington.  The  only  danger  to  be  apprehended  in 
approaching  Wilmington  bar  is  the  Frying  Pan  Shoal, 
which  is  well  marked  by  buoys  on  each  side,  and  the  Light 
Ship  at  the  extreme  end  ;  but  as  ships  bound  to  the  south- 
ern ports  endeavor  to  sight  the  Light  Ship,  the  risk  and 
danger  is  equally  great  to  them  as  if  they  were  bound  to 
Wilmington-  Any  remarks  therefore,  on  this  head,  would 
be  superfluous, as  it  is  abundantly  shown  they  can  have  all 
the  tonnage  they  require  at  any  southern  port ;  and  I  am 
quite  sure  the  approaches  would  not  be  considered  by 
owners  desirous  of  sending  their  steamers  to  this  port, 
any  more  than  to  Charleston  or  Savannah. 

The  bar  is  straight,  and  well  marked  for  crossing  by  day 
or  night— and  we  passed  in  and  out  with  perfect  ease  and 

Outward-bound,  our  draught  was— forward,  13  feet, 
4  inches  ;  aft,  14  feet,  9  inches. 

We  found  not  less  than  18  feet  of  water  on  the  bar — 
sufficient  for  a  much  larger  steamer  than  the  Barnesmore 
to  pass  safely. 

I  was  prepared  to  find  Cape  Fear  River  shallow  ;  but  I 
also  exjDected  to  find  the  navigation  intricate  and  trouble- 
some, and  in  this  I  was  agreeably  disa]ppointed,  for  except- 


ing  the  Horse  Shoe  Bend,  there  is  not  a  sharp  turn  in  the 
river  ;  and  I  do  not  think  any  steamer  that  steered  fairly 
well  would  have  any  difficulty  in  passing  this.  Indeed, 
navigating  the  Danube,  compared  with  the  Cape  Fear 
River,  is  passing  the  Horse  Shoe  Bend  all  the  time. 

The  shallowness  of  the  water,  however,  is  a  great  diffi- 
culty in  the  way  of  getting  steamers  to  run  regularly  to 
this  port.  There  are  comparatively  few  steamers  that  can 
load  a  cargo  large  enough  to  pay  them  to  cross  the  Atlantic 
on  a  draught  of  14^  feet.  If,  however,  the  river  was 
dredged  to  a  minimum  depth,  at  ordinary  tides,  of  16  feet, 
you  could  get  as  many  stean\ers  as  you  wanted  to  load  a 
cargo  of  cotton  at  this  draught ;  and  I  have  no  doubt  Wil- 
mington would  soon  become  one  of  the  first  cotton  i)orts  on 
the  coast. 

The  dock  and  wharf  accommodations  are  good,  the  cotton 
presses  as  powerful  as  any  in  the  United  States,  and  attach- 
ed to  them  are  warehouses  capable  of  storing  several 
thousand  bales  of  cotton,  where  they  are  perfectly  shel- 
tered from  the  weather,  and  the  risk  of  fire  considerably 
lessened  by  the  strict  rules  for  the  prevention  of  accidents 
of  this  nature  being  rigidly  carried  out. 

The  charges  for  compressing  and  stowing  are  about  the 
same  as  in  other  U.  S.  cotton  ports. 

There  is  a  fee  of  $3.00  to  the  Harbor  Master  ;  but  except 
this,  ships  are  free  of  all  charges  whatever  ;  there  are 
neither  harbor  nor  wharf  dues  to  pay.  The  pilotage  is 
comparatively  light,  and  referring  to  the  men  who  piloted 
my  steamer  to  and  from  Wilmington,  I  found  them  cau- 
tious and  skillful.  Provisions,  although  not  as  good  as  in 
most  American  ports,  are  moderate  in  price— and  finall}-, 
comparing  Wilmington  with  any  other  cotton-shipping 
port,  it  is  a  very  cheap  i3lace. 

The  facilities  for  loading  are  good.  We  have  been  only 
nine  days  in  taking  in  3,458  bales  of  cotton,  673  barrels  of 
spirits  turpentine  and  550  barrels  of  rosin  ;  and  on  days 


when  cotton  was  coming  forward  briskly,  we  have  received 
from  the  Champion  Press  alone,  upwards  of  600  bales. 

Another  important  matter  which  will  be  taken  into  con- 
sideration when  sending  ships  in  this  direction:  The  State 
has  passed  a  law  which  provides  for  the  arrest  and  impris- 
onment of  persons  enticing  men  away  from  their  ships,  and 
the  authorities  are  willing  and  prompt  in  locking  up 
deserters  when  properly  certified  by  the  British  Consul; 
and  I  have  no  doubt  this  will  have  the  effect  of  checking, 
and  ultimately  ending— at  least  in  North  Carolina — the 
endless  expense  and  trouble,  owners  and  shipmasters  have 
hitherto  been  subject  to,  throughout  America,  in  conse- 
quence of  this  evil.  Personally,  I  owe  the  authorities  here 
my  best  thanks  for  the  manner  in  which  they  helped  me  in 
a  matter  of  this  kind. 

I  wish  to  acknowledge  with  gratefulness  the  kind  recep- 
tion that  has  been  extended  me  by  your  most  worthy 
fellow-merchants,  whom  I  find  really  anxious  to  encourage 
any  movement  which  tends  to  the  welfare  and  progress  of 
the  place. 

Of  the  zeal  and  energy  of  Messrs.  Alex.  Sprunt  &  Son,  in 
despatching  the  Barnesmore^  there  is  no  question  ;  and  I 
am  satisfied  that  President  Murchison  and  Manager  Clark, 
of  the  Central  Railway,  are  quite  ready  to  aid,  in  the  most 
substantial  manner,  toward  establishing  a  regular  steam 
service  from  this  port. 

I  mention  these  gentlemen  because  there  is  no  mistaking 
their  cordiality  wdth  reference  to  this  subject.  But  let  the 
river  dredging  be  pushed  on  vigorously,  otherwise  there  is 
small  scope  for  individual  enterprise  and  energy.  In  con- 
clusion, I  wish  to  acknowledge  the  great  attention  and 
courtesy  of  Collector  Canaday  and  Captain  Gabrielson, 
and  to  say  I  shall  not  soon  forget  them  or  their  kindly 
offices.  I  remain,  dear  sir. 

Your  most  obedient  servant, 

Captain  of  S.  8.  Barnesmorey 



The  following  report  of  the  Collector  of  Customs  for  the 
Port  of  AVilmington,  shows  the  returns  for  the  fiscal  year 
ending  June,  1882. 

"A"  show^s  the  transactions  of  the  year,  including  the 
total  receipts  from  all  sources  and  the  number  of  persons 

"B"  the  tonnage  and  the  number  of  vessels  documented 
in  this  district  on  June  30th,  1882,  with  the  number  of 
vessels  built,  lost  at  sea,  etc. 

"C"   the  exports  to  foreign  countries  classified. 

The  U.  S.  Revenue  Steamer  Colfax  is  attached  to  the 
Customs'  Service  at  this  port ;  her  complement  consists  of 
seven  officers,  a  pilot  and  thirty  men,  and  her  cruising 
extends  from  Body's  Island,  N.  C,  to  Georgetown,  S,  C. 

Connected,  also,  with  the  Customs'  Service,  is  a  Light 
Ship  off  Frying  Pan  Shoals,  and  a  Light  House  on  Bald 
Head,  and  another  on  Fort  Caswell. 

These  lights,  together  with  the  Life  Saving  Station, 
make  arrival  and  departure  of  vessels,  to  and  from  this 
port,  comparatively  safe. 

During  the  winter  season  the  Colfax  is  on  the  lookout 
for  vessels  in  distress,  along  this  course,  and  frequently 
renders  timely  assistance,  without  any  expense  to  vessels, 
except  for  provisions  furnished,  or  fuel  expended. 

The  following  persons  are  employed  by  the  Department, 
at  this  office. 


1  Collector.  6  Other  Employees. 

1  Deputy  Collector.  1  Weigher  and  Ganger. 

2  Clerks,  6  Insi^ectors. 

1  Messenger.  Aggregate  18. 




No.  of  Vessels  entered  from  Foreign  Ports 181 

"        Vessels  cleared  for  Foreign  Ports 267 

"        Vessels  entered  from  Domestic  Ports 170 

"        Vessels  cleared  for  Domestic  Ports 110 

"        Entries  of  Merchandise  for  Duty 60 

"        Entries  of  Merchandise  free  of  Duty 26 

"        Entries  for  Warehouse 6 

"        Entries  from  Warehouse  for  ConsumjDtion 5 

"        Entries  for  Consumption  Liquidated 86 

"        Entries  for  Warehouse  Liquidated 6 

"        Certificates  of  Registry  granted „  27 

"        Certificates  of  Enrolment  granted 22 

"        Licenses  for  Coasting  Trade  granted 51 

"        Licenses  to  Vessels  under  20  tons  granted...    , 23 

Value  of  Exports— Domestic $5,793,188  00 


Duties  on  imports $81,721  45 

Tonnage 10,180  80 

Marine  Hospital  Tax 1,587  04 

Fines,  Penalties  and  Forfeitures 15  00 

Miscellaneous  Customs  Receij^ts 918  45 

Inspection  of  Steam-Vessels 567  70 

Official  Fees 2,244  79 

Total $97,235  23 



O  >A 


.  cc 

O  ^ 












Permanent  Registers — Sail,  Balance 









Temporary        "         — Sail,       " 

Permanent  Enrollments — Sail,  "        



"                  '!            —Wood  Steam,  Balance 

"                   "             Iron  Vessels, Steam,  "       

Temporary          "            Sail    Balance 



Licenses  under  20  tons.  Sail, Coasting  Trade,Balance 


Total  number  of  vessels  and  total  tonnage  of  District 



Licenses  of  Enrolled  Vessels  in  the  Coasting 

Trade— Balance 47      5267  30 

Statement  of  Vessels  Built 2        158  45 

"              Vessels  Lost  at  Sea  and  Wrecked 2       213  07 

"              Vessels  Abandoned  as  unfit  for  service  11        7  00 




Statement  of  Domestic  Commodities  Exported  to    Foreign    Ports    During 
Fiscal  Year  Ended  June  30th,  1882. 


Rosin  and 

Tar  &  Pitch.  Spts.Turpentine 





Bbls.     Dolls 


Dolls.     Galls. 


Feet.      Dolls. 






33,2531  2,850,552 


12,721,000  225,614 


Misfpl    1  Portion  Carried 

Portion  Carried 
in  Foreign 

Total  Value  of 
Exports  of  Domes- 
tic Merchandise. 

M.          Dolls. 





3,034              20,880 

3,851     1             155,772 




The  foreign  carrying  trade  of  Wilmington  is  done  prin- 
cipall}^  by  Norwegian,  German  and  British  vessels,  in  the 
order  named,  although  there  are  a  number  of  Swedish, 
Danish  and  Italian  ships  entered,  with  a  few  of  other 
nationalities  during  the  year. 

The  class  of  vessels  most  suitable  for  cargoes  of  naval 
stores,  are  from  250  tons  to  350  tons  register,  and  these  are 
generally  of  Scandinavian  nationality.  The  German  and 
British  vessels  in  our  trade,  average  about  350  tons  ;  several 
British  ships  trading  here  being  550,  700  and  950  tons  regis- 
ter resi^ectively.  It  is  well  known  that  small  sailing  vessels 
are  fast  disappearing  from  the  sea,  experience  having  proved 
that  large  vessels,  at  even  considerably  lower  rates  of  freight, 
are  more  j)rofitable,  the  ratio  of  running  expenses  being 
largely  in  favor  of  increased  tonnage.  This  fact  shows  the 
necessity  of  our  River  and  Harbor  improvement,  if  we 
would  keep  pace  with  the  changes  already  referred  to. 
River  and  Bar  lighterage  has  always  been  an  objection- 
able clause  in  our  Charter  Parties,  both  on  account  of  the 
delay  and  expense  to  the  vessel,  and  the  increased  hazard 
to  marine  underwriters. 

During  the  year  1882  the  total  number  of  Scandinavian 
vessels  entered  in  Wilmington  was  99,  aggregating  39,926 


tons  register,  and  1,053  men  ;  of  German  vessels  tliere  were 
50,  aggregating  18,481  tons,  and  525  men  ;  of  British  ves- 
sels there  were  40  arrivals,  with  a  total  registered  tonnage 
of  10,769  tons,  and  334  men. 

The  other  foreign  vessels  entered  daring  the  year  were  as 
follows  : 

8  Russian   vessels.    Tonnage 1,052 

3  Italian  "  "        1,132 

2  Austrian        "  "        744 

1  Greek  "  "        307 

1  Costa  Rican  "  "        268 

1  Haytien         '^  "        109 

2  Dutch  "  "        407 

18  4,019 

Appended  herewith  is  a  carefully  prepared  statement  of 
vessels  of  all  nationalities  and  their  registered  tonnage, 
entered  and  cleared  in  Wilmington  during  the  years  1881 
and  1882.  The  ajjparent  discrepancy  between  the  Consular 
returns  and  this  table  for  1882,  may  be  accounted  for  by 
the  fact  that  some  of  the  entries  of  the  year  1882  extend 
into  the  clearances  of  1883  : 

Classification   of  Clearances  of   Shipping  for   ths  Years  1331  and  1832. 



1881.            1 

1            1882. 





1    No. 







1881.            1 





























Haytien       ...        




:;::::::::::::::::::::....;:: i 








No.    I  Tons. 

German , 


Swedish , 





Costa  Rica 





American ,.... 








J  72 


20    t      5,962 


No.     I  Tons. 







^  157 

1881.            1  1           1882. 


Tons.  '  1    No. 


American , 



50,580'        197 
1,214            9 



1 1           1881. 

Steam  and  Sail.                            ! 

1    No.     1  Tons. 


No.    1  Tons. 

Steaniers 74          65  225 

78     !     73,591 
422        130,085 

Sailing  Vessels '       503        146,822 


In  Wilmington,  are  as  follows  : 


Frederick  J.  Lord.. 
O.  G.  Parsley,  Jr... 
Alexander  Sprunt.. 

Jacob  Loeb 

Wm.  L.  DeRosset... 

R.  E.  Heide 

George  Harriss 

Edouard  Peschau... 
W.  A.  Cummius;.... 


Vice  Consul. 

f  Vice  Consul 

t  Consul 

Vice  Consul... 




Great  Britain 




Argentine  Republic 





May,  1843. 

March  31, 1S6B 
May  29,  1807. 
March  30, 1868 

Dec.  10,  1870. 

October,  1871. 
Nov.  8,  1871. 
Dec.  7,  1874. 
March,  1874. 



Appointed  in  the  City  of  Wilmington  since  the  passage 
of  the  Act  of  1881,  whose  terms  expire,  under  the  provis- 
Bions  of  this  act,  two  years  from  the  date  of  their  qualifica- 
tion, are  as  follows  . 


Date  of 

Alex.  S.  Heide 

Wm.  L.  Smith,  Jr... 

Thos.  D.  Meares 

Jno.  W.  Atkinson... 

Wm.  A.  Willson 

Tliomas  Evans 

Andrew  J.  HowelL.. 
Elbridge  G.  Barker 
Micliael  Cronly,  Jr.. 

C.  P.  Mebaue 

Asa  K.  Wali^er 

Hanson  M.  Bowden 
Mattliew  P.  Taylor.. 

B.  G.  Empie 

H.  H.  Heide 

Louis  Poisson  Davis 

John  K.  Brown 

John  R.  Latta 

April  11th,  1881. 
May  18th,  1881. 
Julie  1st,  1881. 

June  6th,  1881. 
June  8th,  1881. 
June  15th,  1881. 
June  17th,  1881. 
June  24th,  1881. 

July  1st,  1881. 
January  11th,  1882. 
Februarv  6lh,  1882. 
July  29th,  1882. 
September  20th,  1882 
December  26th,  1882. 


The  Circuit  Court  for  the  Eastern  District  of  North 
Carolina  meets  at  Raleigh,  on  the  first  Monday  in  June 
and  the  last  Monday  in  November.  Hon.  Hugh  L.  Bond, 
of  Baltimore,  is  Circuit  Judge,  with  a  salary  of  $6,000  a 
year.  William  S.  O'B.  Robinson  is  United  States  Attorney 
for  this  District,  N.  J.  Riddick,  Clerk,  and  Joshua  B.  Hill, 

The  District  Court  meets  at  Elizabeth  City  on  the  third 
Monday  in  April  and  October  ;  at  New  Berne  on  the 
fourth  Monday  in  April  and  October,  and  at  Wilmington 
on  the  first  Monday  after  the  fourth  Monday  in  April  and 
October.  Hon.  Augustus  S.  Seymour  is  District  Judge  ; 
salary  $3,500  a  year,  with  residence  in  New  Berne.  W.  S. 
O'B.  Robinson  is  also  Attorney  of  this  Court,  and  J.  B, 


Hill,  Marshal ;  W.  H.  Shaw,  is  Clerk,  and  Joseph  H.  Neff, 
Deputy  Marshal. 

Jurors  in  this  Court  are  iDa'id  $2.00  per  day  and  mileage, 
and  witnesses  $1.50  per  day  and  mileage. 

E.  H.  McQuigg  and  E.  H.  King  are  United  States  Com- 
missioners in  Wilmington. 


Upon  the  ultimate  success  of  the  present  operations  by 
the  General  Government  for  the  deejoening  of  Cape  Fear 
River  and  Bar,  depends,  in  a  great  measure,  the  future 
prosperity  of  Wilmington.  All  classes  of  our  citizens  are 
therefore  directly  interested  in  the  accomplishment  of  this 
great  undertaking,  which  means  cheap  through  railway 
rates  on  grain  and  provisions  from  the  Western  States,  to 
be  handled  and  trans-shipped  at  less  cost  in  Wilmington 
than  in  any  other  Southern  port ;  the  develox)ment  of  our 
almost  inexhaustible  Coal  and  Iron  region  in  the  Deep 
River  Yalley,  now  waiting  a  cheap  outlet ;  the  enhance- 
ment by  one  hundred  per  cent,  in  the  value  of  real  estate, 
and  especially  of  our  three  miles  of  water  front,  which  is 
now  of  so  little  value  ;  the  substantial  encouragement  of 
all  our  manufacturing  industries  ;  the  establishment  of 
regular  steam  lines  of  first-class  ships  at  cheaper  and  more 
reliable  rates  of  freight  to  the  principal  seaports  of  the 
world,  enabling  us  to  compete  more  successfully  with  our 
Southern  neighbors  in  those  products  which  now  depend 
for  movement,  in  a  great  measure,  upon  slow  sailing  shij)s, 
extra  insurance  premiums  and  fluctuating  rates  of  freight. 
A  few  of  our  citizens,  appreciating  the  importance  of  this 
work,  have,  under  many  discouragements,  kept  their 
shoulders  to  the  wheel,  and  by  steady  perseverance  and  the 
invaluable  aid  of  our  Representatives  in  Congress,  accom- 
plished nearly  all  that  has  been  done  to  promote  the  desired 


The  late  Mr.  Henry  Nutt,  as  Chairman  of  the  Committee 
appointed  by  the  Chamber  of  Commerce,  was,  during  the 
hist  years  of  his  life,  indefatigable  in  his  unselfish  efforts, 
and  had  the  satisfaction  of  seeing  the  most  difficult  part  of 
the  scheme  —the  closing  of  New  Inlet— successfully  accom- 

The  Hon.  A.  H.  VanBokkelen,  President  of  the  Chamber 
of  Commerce,  has  for  three  years  past  given  a  great  part  of 
his  time  and  energy  to  the  uninterrupted  progress  of  tlie 
Engineers,  by  encouraging  reports  to  our  Senator,  and  by 
personal  attendance  at  Washington. 

To  Col.  Craighill,  United  States  Engineer,  we  are  greatly 
indebted,  not  only  for  his  skillful  direction  of  the  work,  but 
also  for  his  steady  support  of  the  scheme  in  his  reports  to 
the  War  Department.  Assistant  Engineer  Bacon,  in  charge 
of  the  operations  on  the  river,  has  kindly  furnished  me 
with  the  technical  information  on  this  subject. 

The  Cape  Fear  River,  from  its  mouth  nearly  to  Wilming- 
ton, is  properly  a  tidal  estuary  of  about  thirty-eight  square 
miles.  The  river  and  its  branches  drain  an  area  of  about 
eight  thousand  square  miles.  The  amount  of  fresh  water 
passing  out  at  the  mouth,  though  large,  is  insignificant 
when  compared  with  the  tidal  flow  which  alternatelj^  fills 
and  empties  this  great  reservoir.  The  mean  "fresh  water 
discharge  of  the  river  does  not  exceed  9,000  cubic  feet  per 
second,  while  the  tidalilow  at  the  entrance  averages  about 
175,000  cubic  feet  per  se'^ond.  This  is  the  real  force  which 
creates  and  preserves  the  channel  across  the  shifting  sands 
of  the  coast  at  the  mouth  of  the  river.  No  demonstration 
is  needed  to  prove  the  importance  of  concentrating  this 
force.  It  is  also  apparent  that  such  a  force  would  be  most 
efficient  in  preserving  a  passage  across  a  bar  and  shoals 
which  are  in  a  position  sheltered  from  the  prevailing  winds 
and  heaviest  storms  of  the  coast.  This  we  have  at  the 
natural  mouth  of  the  river,  which  is  wholly  sheltered  from 
northerly,    north-easterly,   and  in  a  great   measure  from 


easterly  winds,  by  its  position  in  the  bay,  protected  by 
Cape  Fear  and  the  Frying  Pan  shoals.  From  the  old  maps 
of  the  river  and  harbor  it  appears  that  there  was  at  the 
entrance  a  least  depth  of  about  14  feet  at  low  water. 
When,  therefore,  in  1761,  the  sea  made  a  breach  across  the 
narrow  sand-beach,  which  divided  the  sea  from  the  river^ 
some  seven  miles  above  the  month,  which  from  that  time 
became  known  as  the  New  Inlet,  the  deterioration  which 
afterwards  occurred  was  anticipated,  as  appears,  nega- 
tively, by  the  letter  of  Governor  Tryon,  in  February  1769, 
in  which  he  says:  "H.  M.  ship  Foly  came  in  at  the  en- 
trance at  half-tide,  drawing  14  feet  of  water.  The  New 
Inlet,  which  was  broken  through  a  few  years  since,  is  used 
only  by  vessels  drawing  7  or  8  feet  of  water.  The  New 
Inlet  seems  to  have  had  no  bad  effect  at  the  entrance."  But 
the  bad  effect  came  gradually,  as  appears  by  subsequent 
maps  and  surveys,  which  show  continual  deterioration. 
The  accurate  and  elaborate  survey  of  Lieutenant  Glynn,  in 
1839,  shows  9  feet  depth  at  low  water  at  the  Bald  Head 
channel,  and  the  same  at  the  other,  or  Western  Bar  of  the 
entrance,  and  10  feet  at  the  New  Inlet.  The  coast  survey 
of  1851  shows  8  and  7  feat  depth  at  the  Rip,  and  8  feet  at 
the  New  Inlet.  The  coast  survey  chart  of  1869  does  not 
show  much  change,  the  available  depths  appearing  to  be 
about  the  same.  The  careful  survey  of  Mr.  Vinal,  of  the 
coast  survey  of  1872,  shows  9  feet  at  low  water  at  the  Bald 
Head,  and  the  same  depth  on  the  Rip  of  the  western 
channel  of  the  entrance,  and  10  feet  at  the  New  Inlet  Bar, 
No  changes  appear  to  have  occurred  in  the  upper  river 
until  improvements  were  made.  [These  soundings  do  not 
agree  with  the  record  of  the  Commissioners  of  Navigation.] 
The  improvement  of  the  river  below  Wilmington  was 
begun  by  the  State  of  North  Carolina,  and  continued  from 
1823  to  1828,  In  1829  it  was  taken  in  hand  by  the  United 
States,  and  from  1829  to  1838  inclusive.  Congress  made 
annual  appropriations  amounting  to  $202,539,  which  were 


expended  in  improving  the  river  from  Wilmington  to 
Campbell's  (Big)  Island,  about  9  miles  belov^.  The  opera- 
tions consisted  mostly  of  pile  and  plank  jetties,  made  to 
concentrate  the  currents  ;  some  dredging  was  also  done. 
The  plans  initiated  by  the  State  were  continued  by  the 
United  States.  An  available  increase  of  about  2  feet  was 
obtained,  so  that  9  to  9^  feet  could  be  carried  at  low  water. 
Projects  for  improvement  were  revived  in  1852,  when  Con- 
gress appropriated  $20,000,  and  $140,000  was  appropriated 
in  1854.  These  appropriations  were  expended  for  the 
improvement  at  the  entrance  by  jetties  at  Bald  Head 
Point,  and  by  closing  the  breaches  between  Smith's  and 
Zeke's  Islands.  When  the  latter  works  were  nearly  com- 
pleted and  the  appropriation  exhausted,  a  great  storm  in 
September  1857,  destroyed,  to  a  considerable  extent,  the 
works  at  Zeke's  Island,  leaving  the  stone  foundations. 
Nothing  further  was  done  toward  improvement  until  1870, 
when  the  work  was  begun  again.  The  following  appropri- 
ations have  been  made  by  Congress : 

By  act  approved  July  11,  1870 $100,000 

By  act  approved  March  3,  1871 75,000 

By  act  approved  June  10,  1872 100,000 

By  act  approved  March  3,  1873 100,000 

By  act  approved  June  23,  1874 150,000 

By  act  approved  March  3,  1875 150,000 

By  act  approved  August  14,  1876 132,500 

By  act  approved  June  18,  1878, 160,000 

By  act  approved  March  3,  1879 100,000 

By  act  approved  June  14,  1880 '. 70,000 

By  act  approved  March  3,  1881 140,000 

By  act  approve  1  August  — ,  1882 225,000 

Total $1,502,500 

The  project  adopted  in  1870  was  the  closure  of  the  breach 
between  Smith's  and  Zeke's  Islands,  with  the  ultimate 
closure  of  the  New  Inlet  in  view.     In  1873  and  1874  the 

WltMlNGTOI^,    #ORTlt  CATiottNA.  -l09 

additional  work  projected  was  the  dredging  of  the  new 
channel  behind  the  Horse  Shoe  Shoals,  near  Snow's  Marsh, 
and  dredging  the  Bald  Head  Channel  (which  had  already 
begun  to  improve),  and  also  dredging  and  removing  obsta- 
cles from  the  river  between  Campbell's  Island  and  Wilming- 
ton, so  as  to  obtain  12  feet  depth  at  mean  low  water.  In 
1875  the  work  of  closing  the  New  Inlet  was  begun  in 
earnest,  A  continuous  line  of  mattresses,  composed  of 
logs  and  brush,  sunk  and  loaded  with  stone,  was  laid 
entirely  across  the  New  Inlet,  from  October,  1875,  to  June, 
1876.     This  was  the  first  foundation  of  the  dam. 

As  fast  as  appropriations  were  available,  the  work  was 
continued  from  year  to  year,  by  piling  small  stone  rip-rap 
on  and  over  this  foundation,  and  finally  bringing  it  up  to 
high  water,  and  then  covering  it  with  heavy  granite  stones 
on  the  top  and  slopes  to  low  water.  There  were  many  real 
discouragements  during  the  progress  of  the  work,  not  to 
speak  of  the  almost  universal  prediction  of  ultimate 
failure  by  the  pilots  and  others,  who  were  well  acquainted 
with  the  forces  to  be  contended  with.  The  great  rush  of 
the  tidal  currents  in  and  out  can  hardly  be  realized,  even 
now,  when  it  is  shown  that  the  alternate  difference  in  level 
on  the  sea  and  river  sides  of  the  dam  at  the  diiferent  stages 
is  usually  from  1  to  2  feet,  and  a  difference  of  3^  feet  has 
been  observed. 

This  rush  and  over-fall  caused  a  scour  on  both  sides  of 
the  foundation  to  a  depth  of  from  6  to  16  feet  below  the 
bottom  of  the  mattresses,  and  the  water  found  its  way 
under  the  mattresses,  and  the  scouring  caused  their  irregu- 
lar subsidence.  In  some  instances  the  settlement  was  10 
or  12  feet  within  twenty-four  hours.  The  only,  or  at  least 
the  best  remedy,  was  to  continue  to  pile  on  the  stone  and 
let  them  go  to  their  limit,  thus  making  the  foundation  from 
90  to  120  feet  in  width  at  the  base,  where  the  original  mat- 
tresses were  from  45  to  60  feet.  The  whole  work,  from 
stiore  to  shore.  Federal  Point  to  Zeke's  Island,  is  nearly  a 


mile  in  length.  For  about  three-foiirtli's  of  a  mile  of  this 
length  the  stone  go  to  an  average  depth  of  about  30  feet 
below  the  top  of  the  dam  ;  in  many  places  the  depth  is 
more  than  36  feet.  The  limit  of  subsidence  was  reached 
during  the  year  1878,  since  which  it  has  only  been  neces- 
sary to  widen  the  foundation  and  cover  the  dam  with  heavy 
rock.  This  was  carefully  done  by  the  use  of  three  floating 
derricks — one  of  which  was  operated  by  steam — between 
December  1879  and  July  1881.  The  stone  used  in  its  con- 
struction amounts  to  181,600  cubic  yards,  including  the 
16,756  gross  tons  of  heavy  granite.  During  the  progress 
of  the  work  the  small  stones  below  half-tide  were  being 
cemented  into  a  solid  mass  by  oysters  and  barnacles  ;  and 
now  the  whole  structure,  with  its  granite  surface,  is  like 
one  solid  rock.  Its  crest  is  above  the  level  of  ordinary 
Spring  tides,  and  there  can  be  no  question  of  its  perma- 

When  the  magnitude  and  apparent  and  real  difficulty  of 
the  work  are  considered,  the  cost  has  been  small.  The 
whole  cost,  from  its  inception,  in  1875,  to  its  thorough  com- 
pletion, in  1881,  has  not  exceeded  $480,000. 

During  the  first  three  years  of  the  construction  of  the 
dam,  it  did  not  much  affect  the  quantity  of  the  in-and-out 
flow  of  tides  at  the  New  Inlet,  but  as  it  approached  com- 
pletion, the  stoppage  was  more  and  more,  and  the  effect  on 
the  Bald  Head  channel  increased;  this  was  also  assisted 
by  the  operation  of  the  suction  dredge  Woodbury,  which 
was  thoroughly  rebuilt  and  put  in  operation  on  the  Bald 
Head  channel  early  in  April  1879,  and  continued  work  until 
October  1881,  during  which  time  169,491  cubic  yards  of 
sand  were  dredged  and  dumped  in  deep  water.  In  good 
weather  the  amount  of  compact  sand  dredged  and  carried 
to  deep  water  for  dumping,  would  often  amount  to  500  cubic 
yards  per  day,  and  occasionally  to  more  than  600  cubic 
yards.  The  large  amount  of  materials  removed  by  the 
dredge,  bore  a  small  proportion  to  the  amount  carried  out 


by  the  natural  force  of  the  tidal  currents,  as  frequent  sur- 
veys have  proved.  The  following  were  the  shortest  sound- 
ings in  the  Bald  Head  channel  at  the  end  of  the  fiscal 
years  :-  1878,  9  feet;  1879,  11  feet;  1880,  13  feet;  1881,  14 
feet ;  1882,  14  feet.  It  is  probable  that  there  would  have 
been  farther  increase  of  depth  in  1882  if  the  operations  of 
the  suction  dredge  had  been  continued.  As  it  is,  the 
results  are  gratifying,  being  greater  than  our  predictions  or 
expectations,  bringing  the  channel  into  as  good  or  better 
condition  that  before  the  breach  of  the  New  Inlet  in  1761.  It 
is  a  practical  demonstration  of  the  advantage  of  closing 
the  New  Inlet  by  the  completed  dam.  The  mean  range  of 
the  tides  being  4^  feet,  17^  feet  draft  can  be  carried  over 
the  bar  and  shoals  at  ordinary  high  water  and  18i  feet  at 
Spring  tides. 

The  available  depth  of  water  between  Smithville  and 
Wilmington  only  allows  about  14|  feet  draft  at  high  water. 
The  imjDortance  of  obtaining  a  greater  depth  was  apparent. 
An  estimate  for  it  was  placed  before  Congress  at  the 
instance  of  the  Hon.  Senator  M.  W.  Ransom,  in  January, 
1881,  and  an  appropriation  of  $140,000  designed  in  part  for 
it  was  made  by  Congress  by  act  approved  March  3,  1881, 
The  project  adopted  was  for  a  channel  to  be  dredged, 
where  dredging  was  needed  to  obtain  it,  of  270  feet  width 
and  10  feet  depth  at  mean  low  water,  from  the  deep  water 
at  Smithville  harbor  to  Wilmington. 

The  first  contract  for  dredging  was  made  in  May,  1881, 
and  it  is  not  yet  -completed.  Another  appropriation  of 
$225,000  was  made  in  August,  1882.  A  portion  of  this  is 
already  applied  to  the  dredging  referred  to,  and  the  work 
under  the  second  contract  is  to  be  completed  according  to 
its  terms,  by  June  30,  1883.  This  will  finish  the  channel 
to  16  feet  depth  about  half  the  distance  from  the  harbor  to 
Wilmington.  About  half  of  the  last  appropriation  is  reserved 
for  the  probable  requirement  to  defend  the  long  narrow 
beach  at  Smith's  Island  against  the  encroachments  of  the 


sea.  The  breaches  through  this,  though  at  present  remote 
from  the  river,  with  long  shoal  water  intervening,  might  in 
the  course  of  years  become  connected  by  deep  water  with 
the  river,  and  thus  repeat  the  history  of  the  New  Inlet  in  a 
new  location.  To  guard  against  this,  a  defence  must  ulti- 
mately be  made,  and  it  can  now  be  made  at  a  comparatively 
small  cost.  It  is  under  advisement  by  a  Board  of  Engin- 
eers, who  will  probably  decide  to  make  it,  by  a  continua- 
tion of  the  work  of  the  New  Inlet  dam,  or  the  Zeke's  Island 
works  across  the  shoal  water  to  the  Big  Marsh,  thus  cut- 
ting off  the  connection  of  the  Swashes  across  Smith's  Island 
and  the  river.  Such  a  work  would  probably  cause  tlie 
reformation  of  the  beach,  or  at  least  of  a  wide  inner  beach 
at  a  considerable  distance  from  the  defensive  work. 

If  the  needed  appropriations  are  made  by  Congress  the 
projected  channel  of  16  feet  dex)th  will  be  completed  to 
Wilmington  during  the  year  1885. 

There  is  no  doubt  that  by  a  proper  jetty  system  20  feet 
depth  at  low  water  can  be  obtained  at  the  mouth  of  the 
river  and  on  the  bar.  The  question  of  obtaining  it  from 
the  harbor  to  Wilmington  is  only  one  of  dollars  and 

It  is  greatly  regretted  that  (Congress  has  adjourned  with- 
out the  usual  appropriations  for  this  important  and  neces- 
sary undertaking,  as  it  is  of  vital  moment  that  the  opera- 
tions in  thp  Cape  Fear  are  not  retarded  at  this  important 
stage  of  the  work;  although  the  present  available  means 
will  suffice  for  a  few  months  to  come,  the  defeat  of  the 
River  and  Harbor  Bill  threatens  a  serious  blow  to  probably 
the  most  important  public  work  ever  projected  in  North 


The  following  list  comprises  the  Steam  Lines  engaged  in 
the  Wilmington  carrying  trade.  The  "New  York  and 
Wilmington  Steamship  Company"  is  a  corporation  char- 



tered  by  the  State  of  New  York,  and  owns  the  following 
iron  propellers : 

"Gulf  Stream,"  998  tons, 

"Benefactor,"     844    " 

"Regulator,"      847    " 
Mr.  Thos.  E.  Bond  is  the  Superintendent  at  Wilmington, 
and  Messrs.  W.  P.  Clyde  &  Co.  General  Agents  at  New 

The  imjoorts  and  exports  by  this  line  of  first  class  steam- 
ers for  the  year  1882  were  as  follows  : 


Cotton,  bales, 58,655.     Rice,  meal,  sacks, 

Lumber,  feet, 5,640,707. 

Shooks, 2,935. 

Shingles, 1,292,000. 

Naval  Stores,  bbls,  95,607. 
Spirits  Turpentine  "  27.400. 
Rice,  cleaned,  tcs, . .        3,950. 

"      rough,    " 
Molasses,  hlids, . . 
Peanuts,  sacks, . . 
Pig  Iron,  tons,. . . 

Yarn,  bales, 

Merchandise,  pkgs 




7  676. 


Syrup,  bbls, 1,379.     Ties,  bundles, 3,162. 

Sugar,     "     6,195. 

Bacon,  boxes, 10,318. 

Lard,  pkgs, 1,570. 

Corn,  sacks, 114,503. 

Oats,       "      7,251. 

Hay,  bales, 25,328. 

Liquor,  pkgs, , 686. 

Oil(lubricating  only) 

bbls, 144. 

Coffee,  sacks, 5,913. 

Bagging,  rolls,    ....  15,875. 

Cement,  bbls, 600. 

Water  Pipe,  pieces,  916. 

Brick, 10,200. 

Sulphur,  tons, 437. 

Railroad  Iron,  rails,  2,785. 

Merchandize,  pkgs,  143,601 

Shoes,  cases, 3,776. 

Barrels,  empty, ....  21,346. 

Guano,  sacks, 40,510. 

Express  Steamboat  Company.— Capital  $50,000. 

Wilmington  and  Fayetteville. 

"D.  Murchison,"  1,000  barrels. 
"Wave,"  800      " 



Iron  Hull 


(I               u 

114  wilmington,  north  cakolina. 

Cape    Fear    and  People's    Steamboat    Company. — 

Capital  $75,000. 

Wilmington  and  Fayetteville. 



"Gov.  Worth," 

1,200  barrels. 


Iron    hull. 

"A.  P.  Hurt," 

400       " 


u              u 

"North  State," 

700       " 


Wooden  " 

By  these  two  lines  we  have  a  daily  (except  Sunday)  boat, 
and  on  Tuesdays  and  Fridays,  two  boats. 

Wilmington  and  Fayetteville. 

capacity.  cost. 

"Bladen,"  500  barrels.        $6,000.       Wooden  Hull. 

Wilmington  and  Point  Casw^ell. 

capacity.  cost. 

'John  Dawson,"    350  barrels.        $6,500.       Wooden  Hull. 

Wilmington  and  Smitiiville. 

CAPACITY\  cost. 

"Passport,"       250  passengers.       18,000.       Wooden  Hull. 
"Minnehaha,"    200        "  7,000.  "  "    • 


From  a  report  of  Capt.  James  Mercur,  in  charge  of  the 
work,  I  learn  that  an  examination  or  survey  of  this  part  of 
the  Cape  Fear  was  directed  by  the  River  and  Harbor  Act  of 
Congress,  June  14,  1882. 

The  improvements  proposed  consisted  in  the  removal  of 
snags  and  logs,  the  clearing  away  of  overhanging  trees  on 
the  banks,  a  small  amount  of  dredging,  and  the  construc- 
tion of  jetties  or  dykes.     The  total  estimated  cost  of  the 


work  proposed  was  about  $56,000,  which,  however,  was  only 
for  a  part  of  the  work  that  will  be  required  for  the  entire 
portion  of  the  river  in  need  of  improvement.  The  Act  of 
March  3,  1881,  appropriated  $30,000  with  a  proviso  that 
$10,000  of  this  sum  was  to  be  expended  in  extinguishing 
before  December  1,  1881,  the  interest  or  franchise  of  the 
Deep  River  Navigation  Company,  which  claimed  the  right 
to  collect  tolls,  &c  ,  under  its  State  charter  ;  which  after  a 
careful  investigation  by  Capt.  Mercur,  of  the  Engineer 
Department,  was  expended  in  full  accordingly. 

In  June,  1882,  work  upon  the  river  was  begun  under  the 
direction  of  Capt.  W.  H.  James,  Civil  Engineer  of  Wil- 
mington, and  is  still  in  progress, — clearing  the  channel  of 
such  obstructions  as  sunken  logs,  snags,  stumps  and  fallen 
trees,  and  in  cutting  and  hauling  back  from  the  banks  over- 
hanging trees  on  the  channel  side,  which  were  liable  to  fall, 
or  damage  the  upper  works  of  steamers,  thrown  by  the  set 
of  the  current  near  the  banks. 

The  further  work  contemplated  by  the  Engineer  is  to 
reduce  the  width  of  the  river  channel  at  22  Shoals,  (lying 
between  Fayetteville  and  Cypress  Shoals,  a  distance  of  52 
miles)  by  the  use  of  jetties  of  timber,  plank  and  scantling, 
which  are  intended  to  scour  the  narrowest  channel  to  a 
depth  of  about  4  feet  at  ordinary  low  water. 

There  is  also  some  blasting  of  sandstone  rock,  dangerous 
to  navigation  at  points  between  the  limits  referred  to. 

Every  freshet  brings  down  trees,  logs,  snags,  and  other 
debris,  which  will  necessitate  a  moderate  amount  of  work 
in  removing  obstructions  from  year  to  year  ;  and  even  if 
the  river  was  satisfactorily  scoured  and  jettied,  new  shoals 
are  likely  to  form  at  other  points,  requiring  attention  in 
future.  Probably,  with  this  in  view,  a  further  appropria-- 
tion  was  made  by  Congress,  in  August,  1882,  of  135,000, 
the  use  of  which,  it  is  thought,  will  greatly  facilitate  the 
navigation  of  this  imi)ortant  and  historic  stream. 

As  a  matter  of  interest  in  this  connection  Ihave  appendjpd 


the  following  report  of  Mr.  George  H.  Elliot,  U.  S.  Engineer, 
which  is  so  complete  in  detail  as  to  require  no  further 
reference  to  the  subject. 

]S"oRFOLK,  Va.,  January  24th,  1881. 
Captain : — 

I  have  the  honor  to  submit  herewith  report  of  the  exam- 
ination of  the  Ca]3e  Fear  River,  North  Carolina,  between 
Wilmington  and  Fayetteville,  made  in  compliance  with 
your  instructions  in  the  early  part  of  the  present  month. 
This  examination  was  for  the  purpose  of  ascertaining  the 
cost  and  i^racticability  of  clearing  away  logs  and  over- 
hanging trees,  and  of  dredging  out  such  shoals  as  inter- 
fere with  commerce. 

A  survey  of  this  river  was  made  in  1871,  when  that  por- 
tion of  it  now  under  consideration  was  carefully  sounded. 
It  was  thought  that  no  material  change  had  taken  i)lace  in 
the  general  character  since  that  time,  and  that  a  resurvey 
would  be  unnecessary  ;  and  the  testimony  of  pilots  and 
others  conversant  with  the  river,  is  to  this  effect.  The 
examination  was  therefore  limited  to  ascertaining,  so  far 
as  j)racticable,  the  number  of  snags,  sunken  logs,  and 
overhanging  trees  to  be  removed. 

A  freshet  which  had  commenced  to  raise  the  water  in  the 
river,  prevented  the  observations  being  as  thorough  as  was 
desirable,  but  it  is  believed  that  the  information  obtained 
from  pilots  and  captains  is  as  satisfactory  with  regard  to 
the  objects  at  present  in  view,  as  could  be  had  except  from 
an  expensive  survey,  which  would  have  to  include  the 
dragging  of  the  river,  to  ascertain  with  any  exactness  the 
number  of  sunken  logs  and  snags.  Under  these  circum- 
stances, trips  were  made  up  and  down  the  river  between 
Wilmington  and  Fayetteville,  when  notes  were  taken  as  to 
the  locality  of  such  snags,  &c.,  as  they  (the  pilots)  had 
knowledge  of ;  these  are  indicated  on  the  charts  herewith. 
(11  in  number),  which  are  tracings  of  the  maj^s  of  the 
survey  of  1871,  with  such  slight  changes  as  have  been  found 


necessary.  A  tabulated  list  of  the  snags  is  also  given  at 
the  end  of  this  report. 

In  addition  to  the  snags,  &c.,  which  are  individually 
mentioned,  there  are  several  stretches  of  the  river  where 
such  obstructions  exist ;  these  are  also  stated  in  the  list. 
The  overhanging  trees  are  very  frequent  from  Fayetteville 
for  some  sixty  miles  down  the  river  ;  below  that  they  are 
less  so.  Few  of  the  trees  are  large,  and  at  present  they 
do  not  much  obstruct  navigation,  but  their  tendency  is  to 
fall  into  the  river  when  the  banks  are  weakened  by  the 
action  of  the  freshet  water;  for  this  reason  a  large  number 
of  them  ought  to  be  removed. 

The  b«d  of  the  river  for  some  66  miles  below  Fayetteville 
is  composed  almost  entirely  of  sand,  which  is  constantly 
changing  in  position  from  the  action  of  freshets.  During 
the  Summer  months  the  volume  of  water  is  insufficient  to 
give  a  continuous  channel,  the  river  then  presenting  a 
succession  of  sand  bars  and  shoals,  with  occasional  deep 
water,  principally  in  the  bends. 

Any  improvement,  to  be  permanent,  will  necessitate  the 
contraction  of  the  channel  way  in  many  of  the  straight 
reaches  over  a  large  portion  of  the  distance  named. 

With  the  exception  of  one  place  (Thames'  Shoal),  dredging 
would  be  useless,  as  the  first  freshet  would  fill  up  any 
channel  excavated  through  the  shifting  sand.  Thames' 
Shoal  is  a  bed  of  pipe-clay,  through  which  it  is  proposed  to 
dredge  a  channel  of  60  feet  in  width  to  a  depth  of  5  feet  at 
low  summer  water. 

The  bed  of  the  river  contains,  also,  many  sunken  logs, 
under  the  sand  in  some  cases,  as  is  stated  by  the  pilots 
who  have  been  engaged  in  removing  snags,  &c. ,  overlying 
each  other ;  to  what  extent  cannot  well  be  ascertained 
except  by  actual  operations  in  removing  them. 

The  im2-)rovements  needed  in  the  river  are  confined  prin- 
cipally to  the  75  miles  from  Fayetteville  down  ;  over 
this  entire  portion  the  banks  need  trimming  of  the  over- 
hanging trees,  and  snags  and  logs  should  be  removed  from 


the  river-bed.  To  accomplish  this  work  will  require  the 
employment  of  a  hoister  with  the  necessary  appliances  for 
dragging  the  bottom  to  find  and  raise  snags,  &c.  This  work 
can  only  be  done  satisfactorily  at  a  low  stage  of  water,  and 
will  cost  about  $500  per  mile ;  an  estimate  for  this  sum  is 

As  previously  stated,  there  is  no  continuous  channel 
for  some  60  miles,  and  to  x>rovide  one  will  require  the  con- 
traction of  the  water-way.  I  am  not  prepared  to  submit  an 
estimate  for  this  entire  work,  but  respectfully  suggest  that 
an  amount  of  $5,000  be  appropriated  for  the  construction 
of  experimental  jetties  or  dikes  of  cheap  character,  to  be 
placed  at  right  angles  to  the  axis  of  the  stream,  at  inter- 
vals, from  either  side,  to  be  built  a  little  above  the  ordinary 
low  summer  water,  and  to  be  placed  first  in  the  shoalest  of 
the  straight  reaches.  Dikes  of  piles  wattled  between  have 
proved  quite  successful  in  other  rivers  of  similar  character, 
and  can  be  constructed  for  about  $1  per  running  foot.  An 
estimate  is  also  submitted  for  the  excavation  of  a  channel 
through  Thames'  Shoal  (previously  mentioned). 

I  would  mention,  incidentally,  that  while  on  the  river, 
the  Steamer  Gorier  nor  Worth  struck  a  log  which  had  lodged 
ih  a  tree  near  Council's  Bluff,  and,  after  running  about  1^ 
miles,  sunk  ;  the  locality  of  the  wreck  is  indicated  on  chart. 
She  will  doubtless  be  raised  by  her  owners  as  soon  the 
freshet  subsides. 


For  clearing  75  miles  of  river,  at  $500  i)er  mile, $37,500 

For  dredging  at  Thames'   Shoal  channel,  1,900  feet 

by  GO  feet,  15,000  cubic  yards,  at  40  cents, 0,000 

For  construction  of  experimental  dike,   say  5,000 

linear  feet,  at  $1  per  foot, 5,000 

And  for  contingencies  and  engineering,  15  jiercent,      7,275 

Total, $55,775 


Fayetteville,  the  head  of  steamboat  navigation  proper,  is 
situated  about  a  mile  from  the  river,  113  miles  above 
Wilmington.  It  is  a  nourishing  town,  with  a  popluation  of 
some  7,000  and  is,  next  to  Wilmington,  the  principal  depot 
for  naval  stores  in  the  State.  Within  a  few  miles,  are 
several  cotton  and  woolen  mills,  and  others  are  now 
projected.  For  miles,  in  either  direction,  turpentine 
distilleries  are  found.  Cotton  is  raised  to  a  considerable 
extent  in  the  vicinity  ;  it  is  estimated  that  10,000  bales  will 
be  brought  in  for  shipment  this  season,  and  the  production 
is  continually  increasing.  There  is  also  quite  an  extensive 
industry  in  flouring  mills,  the  product  of  which  is  shipiied 
in  considerable  quantities.  Five  steamers  are  regularly 
engaged  plying  between  Wilmington  and  Fayetteville  ; 
these,  with  one  exception  (the  Go-oernor  Worth,  a  side-wheel 
steamer),  are  stern-wheel  boats,  with  a  load-draught  of 
something  less  than  4  feet.  There  is  also  railroad  commu- 
nication with  the  seaboard  via  Raleigh  and  Weldon,  at 
Norfolk.  Full  statistics  of  the  commerce  of  Fayetteville 
and  the  river  generally  were  expected  to  be  furnished  by 
parties  engaged  in  the  shipping  interests,  but  have  not  yet 
been  received.  This  is  to  be  regretted,  as  from  what  the 
writer  learned  in  conversation,  they  would  show  a  very 
marked  increase  over  those  obtained  in  1871. 

The  only  town  between  Wilmington  and  Fayetteville  is 
Elizabeth,  the  county  seat  of  Bladen  ;  a  small  population 
is  scattered  in  the  vicinity,  engaged  in  the  manufacture  of 
naval  stores,  which  are  brought  here  for  shipment.  River 
landings  are  very  numerous,  there  being  about  one  hundred 
on  the  river,  most  of  which  are  places  for  shipment  of  the 
staple  of  this  section. 

*  *  •«■  *  *  -5^  *  f: 

Very  respectfully,  your  obedient  servant, 

GEO.  H.  ELLIOT,  Assistant  Engineer. 
Capt.  Chas.  B.  Phillips, 

Corps  of  Engineers  U.  S.  A." 



Captain  W.  H.  James,  Engineer,  is  entrnsted  with  this 
work,  for  which  the  General  Government  has  api)ropiiated 

Until  a  petition  was  sent  to  Congress  for  improvements, 
this  stream  was  known  as  Long  Creek.  The  improvements 
consist  in  clearing  out  snags  and  logs,  cutting  down  over- 
hanging trees,  and  the  dredging  off  of  a  few  abruj^t  points, 
with  the  intention  of  securing  five  feet  of  navigable  water 
from  the  mouth  of  the  river,  where  it  empties  into  the  Cape 
Fear,  to  the  village  of  Lillington,  about  eleven  miles 

This  stream  is  very  tortuous,  and  the  natural  course  is 
similar  to  a  double  inverted  S.  The  engineers  propose  to 
cut  through  the  loops  of  the  S,  and  dredge  the  channel, 
thus  saving  both  distance  and  expense. 

Instead  of  a  gradual  slope  downwards,  towards  the 
bottom  of  the  channel,  the  banks  overhang  the  stream,  and 
the  slope  above  the  river  surface  being  soft  clay,  retards 
the  progress  of  flats  and  rafts,  and  renders  the  river  other- 
wise diificult  of  navigation,  which  these  cut-offs  are  intended 
to  obviate. 

The  estimate  for  the  work  is  $6,003.75,  and  the  following 
letter  from  Captain  Phillips,  to  the  Chief  of  Engineers, 
will  convey  a  correct  idea  of  its  importance  to  our  city  : 

"United  States  Engineer's  Office,  ) 
Norfolk,  Va.,  January  29,  1881.      f 

"General:— Your  letter  of  the  17th  of  June,  1880, 
placed  me  in  charge  of  the  examination  or  survey  of  Lil- 
lington River,  North  Carolina,  provided  for  in  the  last 
river  and  harbor  appropriation  act  of  Congress.  I  entrusted 
the  examination  to  a  party  in  charge  of  Assistant  J.  P. 
Darling,  who  took  up  and  completed  the  field  work  during 
the  month  of  August  last.         *        %        ^-        *        * 

"  His  report,  as  well  as  tracings,  two  in  number,  from  his 
original  map,  exhibiting  the  present  condition  of  the  river, 


and  the    localities  of  the    proposed    improvements,    are 
respectfully  transmitted  herewith. 

"  Lillington  River  is  a  tributary  to  the  northeast  branch  of 
the  Cai^e  Fear  River,  emptying  into  the  latter  from  the 
west,  at  a  point  about  twelve  miles  above  the  city  of 
Wilmington,  North  Carolina. 

"  Transportation  upon  the  river  is  at  present  limited  to 
rafts  of  timber  and  flat-boats,  loaded  chiefly  with  naval 
stores  and  cord-wood. 

"Above  the  village  of  Lillington,  a  little  over  eleven  miles 
from  the  mouth  of  the  river,  it  appears  to  be  impracticable 
to  attempt  any  improvement  of  the  river  ;  or  at  least  the 
amount  of  trade,  both  present  and  prospective,  does  not 
seem  to  warrant  any  expenditure  upon  the  portion  of  the 
river  in  question. 

"Below  the  village  of  Lillington,  and  from  thence  to  the 
mouth  of  the  river,  the  trade  is  of  more  importance,  and 
it  would  no  doubt  be  greatly  stimulated  if  the  produce  of 
the  vicinity  could  be  reached  by  light-draught  steamboats. 

"The  obstructions  to  a  5-foot  navigation,  outside  of  a  few 
snags  and  leaning  trees,  consist  solely  in  a  few  abrupt 
bends,  which  can  be  rectified  at  a  slight  expense  by 
dredging  at  six  points,  which  are  indicated  upon  the  accom- 
panying tracings. 

"Mr.  Darling's  estimate  for  the  whole  work,  including 
dredging  and  the  removal  of  snags  and  other  obstructions, 
amounts  to  but  $6,000.  The  estimate  seems  to  be  low,  but 
as  he  has  allowed  a  large  margin  for  contingencies,  I  think 
the  amount  sufficient  to  cover  the  cost  of  the  desired  im- 
provements ;  and  it  appears  to  me  that  the  amount  might 
well  be  devoted  to  developing  the  section  of  country  adja- 
cent to  the  river. 

"Lillington  River  is  in  the  collection  district  of  Wil- 
mington, North  Carolina.         *        ^        *        4t        * 
"  I  am.  General,  very  respectfy,  your  ob*t  serv't, 

Captain  of  Engineers. 
"  The  Chief  of  Engineers  U.  S.  A:' 



The  Empire  Sectional  Dock  was  built  in  tliis  place  several 
years  ago  by  the  present  proprietors,  Messrs.  J.  R.  Blossom 
&  Evans,  at  a  cost  of  about  $34,000. 

The  dock,  which  is  considered  one  of  the  best  in  the 
South,  comprises  three  sections,  thirty  feet  wide  and 
seventy  feet  long,  equal  to  about  1,200  tons.  The  keel 
room  is  at  present  only  150  long,  but  other  sections  will  be 
added  in  case  of  need.  Until  our  bar  and  river  improve- 
ment  work  will  admit  a  much  larger  class  of  vessels  than 
are  now  trading  to  AVilmington,  the  Empire  Dock  affords 
ample  facilities. 

The  rates  for  sailing  vessels  are  25  cents  per  ton  for 
taking  up,  with  no  further  charge  until  the  expiration  of 
twenty-four  hours,  when  the  rate  for  each  subsequent  day 
is  12^  cents  per  ton. 

Steamers  and  vessels  with  cargo  on  board  are  charged 
higher  rates,  in  proportion  to  their  weight.  There  is 
also  a 


long  established,  in  the  lower  part  of  the  harbor,  and  now 
leased  by  Capt.  S.  W.  Skinner,  whose  facilities  are  ample, 
and  the  charges  about  the  same  as  thos^  of  the  Empire 


This  railroad  was  i^rojected  solely  by  the  Wilmington 
people,  and  completed  in  1836.  Its  length  is  from  Wil- 
mington to  Weldon,  163  miles,  through  New  Hanover, 
Pender,  Dux)lin,  Wayne,  Wilson,  Edgecombe,  Nash  and 
Halifax  counties,  with  branch  roads  from  Rocky  Mount 
to  Tarboro,  a  distance  of  17  miles,  and  from  Halifax  to 
Scotland  Neck,  20  miles.  It  is  beyond  question  the  best 
equipped,  and  most  successfully  managed  road  in  the 
South,    and   will  compare  favorably   with  any  Northern 


railroad  for  travelling  comfort  and  speed,  as  well  as  in  its 
facilities  for  the  dispatch  of  freight  business,  and  in  the 
efficiency  of  its  employes.  In  response  to  my  request  for 
information  upon  matters  of  interest  discussed  by  the 
Exchange  at  a  previous  meeting.  President  Bridgers  has 
made  the  following  reply,  from  which  it  would  appear  that 
the  complaints  of  discrimination  against  Wilmington  upon 
the  local  tariff  are  hardly  justified  by  the  facts  : 

"In  consequence  of  the  enquiries  made  of  me  by  you  a 
few  days  ago,  I  instructed  our  Auditor  to  make  a  minute 
analysis  of  the  rates  we  nov^^  have,  as  com^Dared  with  those 
in  existence  before  the  war.  I  enclose  his  letter,  showing 
the  reductions  between  Wilmington  and  local  stations. 
We  could  have  gone  much  more  into  detail  on  the  various 
items,  but  it  would  have  made  too  long  a  document  for 
your  consideration. 

We  have  no  hesitation  in  saying  that  the  average  diminu- 
tion of  these  rates  is  about  40  j)er  cent.  The  reduction  in 
rates  has  been  much  more  rapid  than  the  increase  of 

So  much  has  been  said  about  the  difference  between 
"through"  and  "local"  shipments,  that  I  will  refer  briefly 
to  the  causes  therefor. 

From  the  closest  comjjarison  we  can  make,  we  find  the 
cost  of  transporting  local  freights,  with  the  extra  handling 
and  other  incidental  expenses  added,  is  about  2|-  times  the 
cost  of  transi)orting  through  freight.  To  illustrate,  a 
through  train,  having  to  make  no  stops,  goes  from  Wil- 
mington to  Weldon  in  one  day.  A  local  train  requires  two 
days.  A  local  train  burns  more  fuel  in  a  day  than  a 
through  train,  and  requires  about  three  times  as  many 

Thus,  you  see,  one  through  train  does  as  much  work  as 
two  locals,  the  latter  being  run  at  a  much  greater  expense 
by  increase  of  fuel  and  labor. 

If  you  wish  to  look  into  the  details  of  our  operations 


for  tlie  last  year,  you  will  find  them   pablislied  in  our 
annual  reports,  copies  of  wliicli  are  herewith  enclosed." 

Wilmington,  N.  C,  February  13th,  1883. 
"Hon.  R.  E.  Bridgers,  President: 

Sir  :— As  requested  by  you,  I  have  examined  the  freight 
rates  on  the  Wilmington  &  Weldon  Railroad,  and  find  that 
reductions  have  been  made  on  all  classes  of  goods  from  the 
rates  in  effect  before  the  war.  I  cannot  find  any  rates  on 
cotton  and  lumber  earlier  than  1869,  at  which  time  the 
rates  on  other  freights  were  similar  to  those  in  effect  before 
the  war — the  high  rates  having  been  cut  down  to  those  of 

The  following  will  show  the  reductions  between  Wilming- 
ton and  local  stations  : 


1^'irst  class  freight  in  1882,  compared  with  1860,  53  per  cent. 
Freight  on  Bacon,  "     "  "  "       "      60"      " 

"  Salt,      "     "  "  '•       "      53  "      " 

"        "  Flour,    "     "  "  "       "      24  "      " 

"  Cotton,  "     "  "  "     1869,  24  "      •' 

"        "  Lumber"     "  "  "       "      26  "      ''• 

Average  reduction  on  all  classes,  from  rates  of  1860,  40 
per  cent. 

Yours  Respectfully, 

\V.  A.  RIACH, 

General  Auditor.'''* 

The  reduction  in  rates  (40  per  cent.),  claimed  by  Presi- 
dent Bridgers  should  not  be  taken  as  exceptional.  I  have 
ascertained  that  the  same  ratio  of  reduction  obtains  upon 
other  roads  in  the  South,  and  that  the  proportion  is  very 
much  greater  in  favor  of  Northern  railways. 

Comparing  the  rates  on  New  York  railroads  in  1860, 
upon  such  articles  as  bacon,  salt,  fiour  and  cotton,  with 
those  now  current,  I  find  an  average  reduction  of  nearly 
70  per  cent.,  or  30  per  cent  more  than  on  the  Wilmington 


&  Weldon  Railroad.  Such  a  comparison  would  be  mani- 
festly unfair,  however,  when  the  volume  of  traffic  and  num- 
ber of  competing  lines  are  so  much  greater  in  the  North. 

President  Bridgers'  last  annual  report,  November  21st, 
1882,  sliows  : 

Gross  earnings, S  783,790.27 

Total  expenses, 574,318.30 

Leaving  a  net  of ^  209,471.98 

The  receipts  show  an  increase  of  $32,873.43  which  is  made 
up  as  follows  : 

Through  Freight, $  1,033.88 

"         Passengers, 16,877.07 

Local  Passengers, ■' 24,042.30 

Mail  and  Express, 11,930.97    $53,884.22 

Decrease  in  Local  Freight, 21,010.79 

Net  Increase, $32,873.43 

''Large  expenditures  have  been  made  during  the  year  in 
betterments— bridges,  warehouses,  new  cars  and  engines- 
amounting  to  $121,749.16. 

Also  a  large  quantity  of  material  for  the  erection  of 
machine  shops  at  Wilmington,  which  has  been  paid  for. 

It  is  very  necessary  that  improvements  should  be  made 
at  Tarboro,  during  this  year,  and  that  the  warehouse  at 
Wilmington  be  built,  and  machine  shops  completed.  So 
much  of  the  old  iron  rail  has  been  replaced  with  steel  that 
in  future  the  expenses  of  this  important  item  will  be  mate- 
rially diminished. 

New  sleeping  cars  have  been  contracted  for  and  will  be 
delivered  on  or  before  the  first  of  January.  They  will  be 
furnished  with  all  the  modern  improvements,  and  will  add 
very  much  to  the  attractiveness  of  this  route  and  to  the 
comfort  of  its  passengers^ 


The  track  of  the  main  line  has  been  very  much  im- 
proved in  every  respect  during  the  year  and  is  inline  condi- 

The  road  from  Scotland  Neck  to  Halifax  has  been  com- 
pleted at  a  cost  of  $79,950.58,  and  was  regularly  opened 
for  the  transaction  of  business  on  the  1st  day  of  October, 
1882.  Its  track  is  laid  with  forty  pound  steel  rail  and  is 
now  in  good  running  condition,  and  the  road  is  doing  a 
very  fair  business. 

There  has  been  an  exemption  from  accidents,  due  to  the 
good  condition  of  the  track  and  machinery,  and  the  faithful 
discharge  of  the  duties  of  the  employes  in  the  various 


R.  R.  Bridgers, President. 

B.  F.  Newcomer, Vice-President. 

J.  W.  Thompson, Secretary  and  Treasurer. 


W.  T.  Walters,  A.  J.  DeRosset, 

B.  F.  Newcomer,  Donald  MacRae, 

S.  M.  Shoemaker,  E.  B.  Borden, 

H.  B.  Plant,  W.  H.  Willard, 

H.  Walters,  GtEORge  Howard. 


John  F.  Divine, General  Superintendent. 

Sol.  Haas, Traffic  Manager. 

T.  M.  Emerson, Gen'l  Freight  and  Passenger  Ag't. 

W.  A.  RiACH, General  Auditor. 

John  R.  Latta, Assistant  Auditor. 

James  Knight, Master  of  Transportation. 

John  Bisset, Master  of  Machinery. 

John  Barry, Road  Master. 

E.  F.  Cason, Store-Keeper, 



This  road  is  189  miles  in  length,  and  passes  from  Wil- 
mington into  South  Carolina,  through  Brunswick  and 
Columbus  counties,  North  Carolina,  and  continues  its  route 
through  Marion,  Darlington,  Sumter  and  Richland  coun- 
ties, South  Carolina. 

The  President's  annual  report,  dated  November  21,  1882, 
gives  the  following : 

"The  gross  receipts  for  the  year  are  $692,628.52,  being  an 
increase  of  $51,672.22  over  those  of  the  preceding  year, 
which  is  made  up  as  follows  : 

Through  Freight |         6.59 

Local  Freight 20,578.41 

Through  Passengers 9,704.64 

Local  Passengers 8,272.02 

Mail  and  Express 13,110.56 

Total  increase $51,672.22 

The  expenses  are  $553,036.57,  in  addition  to  which  the 
following  amounts  have  been  paid  for  improvements  : 

Two  New  Engines $  25,898.10 

One  Hundred  and  Fifty  Box  Cars. .  .$88,471.50 

Two  Baggage  Cars 4,986.00 

Two  Postal  Cars 7,412.56    100,870.06 

Warehouse  at  Timmonsville 4,865.09 

Whiteville 4, 536. 85 

"  Wilmington 12,773.45     22,175.39 

Total $148,943.55 

Also  2,200  tons  of  steel  rail  and  necessary  fastenings  have 
been  put  in  the  track. 

For  the  present  year  we  will  not  require  more  than  1,000 
tons  of  rail,  less  than  one-half  of  the  quantity  used  last 
year.  It  is  a  subject  of  congratulation  that  we  have  replaced 
iron  with  steel  rail  to  such  an  extent  that  the  expenditures 


for  rail  will  be  considerably  less  than  for  several  years 

With  the  increased  equipment,  which  was  completed 
about  the  close  of  the  fiscal  year,  increased  recei^Dts  may 
be  expected  another  year.  The  receipts  would  have  been 
larger  with  more  motive  power  and  a  larger  number  of 
freight  and  passenger  cars.  It  is  submitted  whether  it 
would  not  be  policy  to  buy  two  locomotive  engines  and 
four  passenger  cars  during  the  current  year. 

The  warehouse  at  Wilmington,  so  long  needed,  will  be 
completed  in  a  few  weeks,  and  will  fully  meet  the  require- 
ments of  the  business. 

Contracts  have  been  made  for  the  thorough  equipment 
of  tlie  Roads  constituting  the  Atlantic  Coast  Line  with  new 
Pullman  Sleeping  Cars,  and  this  Company's  proportion  of 
the  cost  of  the  same  will  be  about  $48,000.00,  to  meet 
which,  and  to  furnish  two  additional  locomotive  engines 
and  new  passenger  cars,  it  will  become  necessary  to  increase 
the  floating  debt  or  to  suspend  dividends  for  a  limited  time. 

The  tonnage  in  freights  has  largely  increased,  and  but 
for  a  general  reduction  in  rates,  would  have  given  much 
larger  net  receipts. 

The  Central  Railroad  of  South  Carolina,  which  has  been 
leased  jointly  by  this  Company  and  the  North  Eastern 
Rail  Road  Company,  was  delivered  to  the  Lessees  on  A  pril 
1st,  1882.  Considerable  expenditures  were  necessary  to 
perfect  its  new  road-bed,  quite  equalling  what  would  have 
been  required  for  an  old  road-bed.  The  receipts  will  ai)pear 
from  the  Superintendent's  Report.  The  net  above  rental 
and  operating  expenses  has  been  83,009.02. 

The  Central  Road  has  diverted  considerable  business  at 
Sumter  and  other  near  stations  from  this  Road,  the  profits 
on  which  diverted  traffic  have  been  about  made  up  by  the 
additional  business  received  at  Columbia.  No  regular 
through  i^assenger  trains  have  been  run  between  Charleston 
and  Columbia  because  of  the  deficiency  of  motive  power 
and  cars. 


This  Road  lias  been  remarkably  free  from  accidents,  due 
to  its  good  condition  and  the  efficient  discharge  of  the  duties 
of  the  various  officers  and  employes  of  the  sevei'al 

Abstract  from  the  Superintendent's  Report, 

Wilmington,  Columbia  &  Augusta  R.  R.  Co.,  ) 

General  Superintendent's  Office,      ^ 

Wilmington,  N.  C,  November  21,  1882.  ) 

HON.  R.  R.  BRIDGERS,  President  Wilmington,  Colum 

bia  &  Augusta  Rail  Road  Company  : 

Sir  :- The  following  report  of  the  operations  of  this 
Company,  for  the  fiscal  year  ending  3()th  September,  1882, 
is  respectfully  submitted  : 



From  Through  Passengers I  89,177  45 

Local  "  80,789  69-1169,967  14 

Through  Freight $120,431  36 

Local  ''        304,305  77—  424,737  13 

Express 10,426  10 

U.  S.  Mail 68,269  35 

Telegraph 1,098  18 

Rent  of  Old  Rail 3,009  51 

Minor  Sources 25,121  11 

Total $692,628  52 


Conducting  Transportation  $100,892  23 

Motive  Power 124,795  57 

Maintenance  of  Cars 70,049  95 

Maintenance  of  Roadway 218,841  t^b 

General  Expenses ". 38,457  27-$553,036  57 

Net  Receipts $139,591  95 


General  Superintendent. 



R.  R.  Bripgers, President. 

W.  T.  Walters, Vice-President. 

J.  W.  Thompson  Secretary  and  Treasurer. 


W.  T.  Walters,  J.  D.  Cameron, 

S.  M.  Shoemaker,  George  S.  Brown, 

B.  F.  Newcomer,  H.  B.  Plant, 

George  C.  Jenkins,  R.  R.  Bridgers. 

Enoch  Pratt,  H.  B.  Short. 


John  F.  Divine General  Superintendent. 

Sol.  Haas Traffic  Manager. 

T.  M.  Emerson, Gen'l  Freight  and  Passenger  Agent. 

W.  A.  RiACH General  Auditor. 

John  R.  Latta Assistant  Auditor. 

James  Knight. Master  of  Transportation. 

John  Bisset Master  of  Machinery. 

Peter  Laughlin Road  Master  Eastern  Division. 

A.  N.  Freeland Road  Master  Western  Division. 

E.  F.  Cason Store-Keeper. 


Tlie  Wilmington,  Charlotte  &  Rutherford  Railroad  was 
chartered  February  13,  1855,  and  built  103  miles  on  the 
Eastern  Division,  and  to  Lincolnton,  on  the  AVestern 
Division,  before  the  war.  It  was  sold  April  10,  1873,  and 
reorganized  as  the  Carolina  Central  Railway  Company,  and 
completed  to  Charlotte  and  Shelby  in  the  latter  j^tart  of 
1874,  comprising  a  total  distance  of  242  miles. 

The  Carolina  Central  Mailioay  was  sold  May  31,  1880, 
and  reorganized  as  the  Carolina  Central  Rail  ^oa*^  Com- 
pany July  14,  1880. 

It  traverses  the  counties  of  New  Hanover,  Brunswick, 


Columbus,  Bladen,  Robeson,  Richmond,  Anson,  Union, 
Mecklenburg,  Gaston,  Lincoln  and  Cleaveland — a  section 
highly  productive  of  Tarj)entine,  Cotton,  and  other  articles 
of  export;  the  class  and  style  of  Cotton  grown  in  Anson 
and  Union  counties  being  superior  to  that  of  any  other 
section  of  the  State. 
The  Directors  and  Officers  are  as  follows  : 


J.   S.  Whedbee Baltimore. 

C.  M.  Stedman Wilmington. 

W.  W.  CiiAMBEKLAiNE Portsmouth. 

R.  S.  Tucker Raleigh, 

J.  M.  Robinson Baltimore. 

D.  W.  Oates Charlotte. 

J.  C.  Winder , ,  Raleigh. 

M.  P.  Leak Wadesboro. 

R.  C.  Hoffman Baltimore. 

J.  L.  Minis Baltimore. 

Severn  Eyre Baltimore. 


J.  M.  Robinson President. 

J.  C.  Winder Greneral  Manager. 

L.  C.  Jones Superintendent. 

F.  W.  Clark General  Freight  and  Passenger  Agent. 

A.  J.  Howell Auditor. 

James  Anderson Treasurer. 

W.  H.  Allen Master  of  Transportation. 


This  is  a  railway  projected  from  Point  Caswell  to  Clinton, 
the  county  seat  of  Sampson,  via  Kerr's  Landing  and  Har- 
rell's  Store,  connecting  with  the  daily  steamers  from  Point 
Caswell,  on  Black  River,  with  Wilmington,  28  miles 
distant,  for  the  purpose  of  bringing  the  produce  of  Pender 
and  Sampson  counties  to  this  market. 


The  Railroad  was  cliartered  by  our  last  Legislature, 
February  1883,  capital  stock  $150,000,  of  wliicli  $32,500 
has  been  subscribed.  The  charter  requires  that  the  Road 
shall  be  comj)leted  within  two  years,  and  proposals  are 
advertised  for  the  work,  which  will  begin  at  once.  The 
ofiicers  are  as  follows  : 

F.  W.  Kerchner, President. 

E.  W.  Kerr, Vice-President. 

J.  H.  BoATWRiGHT, Secretary  and  Treasurer. 

J.  D.  O'Hanlan, Chief  Engineer. 


was  chartered  by  the  Legislature  in  1874.  In  1873  a  project 
to  direct  the  IN'orth  East  River  (Cape  Fear  Branch)  into  a 
straight  channel  by  a  canal  through  Angola  Pocosin,  by 
way  of  Bannerman's,  to  the  mouth  of  Goshen  Swamp,  and 
thereby  draining  121,000  acres  of  overflowed  and  valuable 
land  in  Pender  and  Duiolin  counties,  was  undertaken  by 
Major  Young,  Engineer,  resulting  in  the  appointment  by  a 
number  of  Wilmington  gentlemen  of  Mr.  A.  R.  Black  and 
Mr.  W.  L.  Young  as  a  Committee  to  make  a  careful  survey 
of  the  route  proposed  and  report  upon  its  feasibility. 

THE   DUPLIN  canal. 

[Report  of  A.  R.  Black,  Esq.,  in  regard  to  the  feasibility 
of  the  Enterprise.] 

Messrs.  Edward  Kidder  and  others  : 

GrENTLEMEN  : — About  the  10th  of  November,  in  company 
with  Major  Wilton  L.  Young,  I  set  about  to  make  reconnois- 
sance  of  the  Valley  of  the  North  East  River,  jDreparatory,  as 
I  understand,  to  locating  a  canal  for  shortening  distances, 
improving  the  navigation  and  draining  the  swamp  lands 
along  and  contiguous  to  the  river ;  also  for  the  further  pur- 
2)ose  of  collecting  all  the  information  I  could  as  to  the 
character  of  the  country  and  its  resources. 


In  order  to  its  being  better  understood,  I  found  it  neces- 
sary to  prepare 

A   MAP 

in  connection  with  this  report. 

The  map  has  been  carefully  drawn,  and  is  founded  on 
the  best  information  that  could  be  obtained  without  an 
actual  survey. 

The  location  of  the  river  has  been  determined,  generally, 
by  certain  known  directions  and  distances  between  places 
on  the  river  and  railroad.  The  meanderings  of  the  river 
were  given  by  persons  in  the  neighborhoods,  who  professed 
to  be  familiar  with  its  curves,  which  are  not  fancy  sketches, 
but  are  believed  to  approximate  the  truth.  The  contour  of 
the  country,  and  general  quality  of  the  lands,  together  with 
the  growth  of  timber,  when  seen,  are  represented  as  they 
appeared,  and  when  not  seen,  they  are  represented  accord- 
ing to  descriptions  given  by  persons  well  acquainted  with 
the  country. 

The  entire  feasibility  of  constructing 


will  readily  suggest  itself  as  soon  as  a  glimpse  is  taken  of 
the  parallel  red  lines  on  the  map,  running  from  the  mouth 
of  Goshen,  in  a  southerly  direction,  along  the  margin  of 
the  flat  lands  on  the  western  side  of  the  river  to  Fed's 
Landing,  a  distance  of  about  sixteen  miles  ;  thence  across 
the  river  and  down  the  swamp  in  a  westerly  direction  one- 
half  mile,  to  "Burton's  old  field ;"  thence  in  a  southerly 
direction  across  the  main  divide  at  "Burton's  old  field," 
to  the  mouth  of  Fishing  Branch,  about  one  mile  ;  thence 
in  the  same  direction  across  the  upper  end  of  Gum  Swamp 
and  along  the  eastern  margin  of  Angola  Pocosin  ;  thence 
in  the  same  direction  across  Holly  Shelter  Creek  and  North 
East  River  to  Peggy's  Island — an  entire  distance  from  the 
mouth  of  Goshen  to  Peggy's  Island  of  about  thirty-one 

♦Reported  distance  by  the  course  of  the  river:  Mouth  of  Goshen  to  Sarecta  20 
miles,  thence  to  Hallsvi lie  16  miles,  thence  to  Chinquepin  25  miles,  thence  to  Bowses' 
16  miles,  thence  to  Kafting  Oak  15  miles,  thence  to  Abe's  Point  20  miles,  thence  to 
Bannerman's  9  miles,  thence  to  Peggy's  Island  G  miles— in  all  iU  miles. 


No  serious  obstacles  api^ear  to  be  presented  to  tlie  con- 
struction of  the  canal.  I^early  all  the  ground  on  which  it 
is  located,  from  the  ''mouth  of  Goshen"  to  "Burton's 
old  field,"  is  overflowed  in  high  freshets  ;  the  i')ortions  not 
overflowed  being  low  islands,  scarcely  rising  above  the  water. 
At  "Burton's  old  field"  there  is  a  low  divide,  which,  lam 
informed,  diiring  the  recent  September  freshet,  only  lacked 
six  or  seven  feet  of  being  covered.  From  thence  to  Peggy' s 
Island  the  cutting  will  appear  plain  and  simple. 

This  route  is  taken  only  as  a  sample ;  others  may  be 
selected  equally  practicable,  and  perhaps  more  so,  when 
the  test  of  instruments  is  applied.  It  appears  that,  in 
reality,  there  is  not  much  room  for  a  display  of  great  skill 
in  engineering.  Almost  any  old  woman  can  do  the 


to  be  affected  by  the  drainage  are  extensive,  and  most  of 
them  very  rich.  This  will  also  appear  by  an  inspection  of 
the  map.  I  heard  the  remark  repeated  several  times,  by 
intelligent  men  in  Duplin  county,  that  the  drainage  of  all 
the  swamps  in  the  county  would  be  benefited  by  the  canal, 
except  two  small  streams  west  of  the  railroad,  Stewart's 
Creek  and  Turkey  Creek.  I  found  the  swamps  more 
extensive  and  much  richer  than  I  expected.  I  have  never 
seen  better  lands  than  those  of  Grum  Swamp  and  Goshen 
Swamp,  not  to  mention  other  bodies  equally  good.  An 
abundance  of  marl  is  generally  found  underlying  or  con- 
tiguous to  the  swamps.  The  growth  is  principally  black 
gum,  sweet  gum,  cypress  and  ash,  much  of  the  cypress 
being  very  fine.  I  estimate  that  if  the  rich  swamplands  of 
Duplin  county  were  laid  down  in  one  body,  they  would 
constitute  a  belt  of  swamp  one  mile  wide  by  seventy  miles 
long.  If  the  grow^th  of  timber  could  be  separated  and  laid 
down  in  different  bodies,  I  think  it  would  average  nearly 
as  follows:  cypress  would  occupy  about  fifteen  miles  of 
the  belt,  black  gum  about  the  same,  sweet  gum  about  five 


miles,  ash  about  five  miles,  poplar  about  two  miles,  maple 
two  miles,  spruce  i)ine  two  miles,  hickory  two  miles,  birch 
one  mile,  and  holly  one  mile.  The  map  will  show  where 
bodies  of  timber  may  be  found. 


have  generally  a  clay  subsoil.  I  think  it  would  be  safe  to 
say  that  two-thirds  of  the  land  in  Duplin  county  has  a  clay 
subsoil.  Most  of  this  land  produces  good  crops,  and  is 
admirably  adapted  to  improvement,  and  with  the  vast 
amount  of  muck  and  marl  intersjDersed  throughout  the 
country,  almost  every  foot  of  this  land  may  be  made  rich. 
What  a  tidal  wave  of  prosperity  awaits  Duplin  county 
when  her  swamps  can  be  reclaimed  and  her  people  become 
fully  awakened  to  the  wonderful  agricultural  advantages 
that  surround  them. 

When  the  Duplin  Canal  is  constructed — and  it  can  only 
be  a  question  of  time  when  this  shall  be  done,  for  sooner  or 
later  this  Canal  surely  will  be  constructed — Wilmington 
will  be  greatly  benefited  by  it.  This  is  no  doubtful  enter- 
prise for  Wilmington.  It  will  not  turn  the  products  of  the 
country  away  from  her,  as  some  others  have  done,  but  as 
sure  as  water  runs  down  stream,  it  wall  jDour  them  into  her 
lap.  Cast  your  eye  over  the  map  and  note  the  green  chain 
marked  "Trade  Line."  See  what  a  scope  of  country  it 
embraces.  It  sweeps  along  within  fifteen  miles  of  Golds- 
boro,  within  twelve  miles  of  Kinston,  and  within  twenty- 
five  miles  of  New  Berne.  What  a  splendid  country  this 
is.  This  line  marks  out  the  section  of  country  that  is  likely 
to  trade  with  Wilmington  when  the  Duplin  Canal  is  com- 
pleted. All  along  the  route  of  the  Canal  will  be  found,  in 
Pender  county,  also,  large  bodies  of  excellent  land. 

We  now  come  to  speak  of 

"the   pines!    the  STATELY,    TOWERING   PINES  !" 

How  shall  we  speak  of  them  in  terms  sufficiently  lauda- 
tory ?  They  have  been  the  mainstay  of  the  people  of  all 
this  region  for  over  a  hundred  years,  and  are  still  profitable. 


I  am  told  that  turpentine  lands  worked  before  the  Revolu- 
tionary War,  still  continue  to  j^ield  profitable  crops.  By 
the  time  one  growth  of  pines  is  worked  off  another  springs 
up.  So  that,  for  the  production  of  turpentine,  the  forests 
are  not  likely  to  be  exhausted.     But  it  is  not  so  for 


Between  the  railroad  and  North  East  River  most  of  the 
large  timber  has  been  cut  off,  but  still,  in  some  places, 
large  bodies  of  excellent  timber  may  be  found,  and  a  good 
deal  of  scattering  timber  throughout  this  region.  Dr. 
Calhoun  Hill  informed  me  that  there  was  a  very  fine  body 
of  heavy  pines  in  the  fork  of  Goshen  and  North  East 
River,  supposed  to  be  ten  or  twelve  thousand  acres  in 
extent.  He  also  spoke  of  other  fine  bodies  between  these 
two  streams.  He  informed  me  that  there  was  a  splendid 
body  of  white  oak  and  ash,  reaching  for  ten  miles  along 
Goshen  Swamp,  on  the  north  side.  Good  timber  was 
reported  on  the  south  side  of  Goshen,  on  Nahungar  Creek, 
as  also  on  Persimmon,  on  Maxwell,  near  the  confluence  of 
Elder  and  Stocking  Head,  and  on  both  these  streams,  on 
the  head  waters  of  Grove,  and  on  the  back  of  Lochlin 

On  the  East  side  of  North  East  River,  between  Cypress 
Creek  and  Moore's  Creek,  on  the  east  and  south  sides,  and 
Marl  Swamp  and  Gum  Swamp  and  the  North  East  River, 
on  the  west  and  north,  large  bodies  of  excellent  timber  are 
reported,  some  of  which  I  saw. 

On  the  east  side  of  Cypress  Creek,  and  along  the  east  side 
of  the  North  East  Rivei*,  after  leaving  the  streams  two  to 
four  miles,  excellent  forests  of  large  timber  are  reported. 
I  saw  the  borders  of  some  of  these  forests,  which  were  very 
fine.  V^ast  quantities  of  lightwood,  suitable  for  the  manu- 
facture of  tan  may  be  found  throughout  all  the  region  east 
of  the  North  East  River,  also  between  Goshen  and  the 
North  East  River. 

We  found  the  people  everywhere  on  our  journey  very 


anxious  for  the  Canal.  They  fully  comprehend  its  impor- 
tance to  them.  Its  accomplishment  is  looked  forward  to 
as  the  dawn  of  the  good  time  to  come  ;  and  verily  it  will 
be  so  if  it  enables  them  to  reclaim  their  swamp  lands.  The 
people  were  everywhere  hospitable  and  obliging — anxious 
and  willing  to  furnish  any  information  in  their  power.  We 
are  greatly  indebted  to  them  for  many  favors,  and  shall 
always  retain  very  pleasant  recollections  of  our  Canal 

In  conclusion,  and  not  to  repeat  what  has  already  been 
said,   by  way  of  summary,    we  recommend  to  the   very 
favorable  consideration  of  Messrs.  Kidder  and  others,  the 
construction  of  the  "  Duplin  Canal." 
I  am,  gentlemen, 

Your  obedient  servant, 

A.  K.  BLACK," 


Island  Creek 1,200 

Lochlin  Pocosin 5,000 

Cypress  Creek  and  tributaries ,....,  1,600 

Muddy  Creek 1,000 

Maxwell  Swamp  and  tributaries 5,000 

Big  and  Little  Limestoneand  tributaries , 3,000 

Grove  Swamp 1,500 

Persimmon 500 

Dark  Branch 300 

Hell  Swamp GOO 

Goshen  Swamp  and  tributaries — 12,000 

Burnt  CoatCreek.. , 500 

Wildcat  Creek 500 

Great  Branch 400 

Green  Swamp  and  part  of  Gum  Swamp,  in  Duplin  county 5,000 

Back  Swamp 3,000 

North  East  River,  in  Duplin , 10,000 

Total  acreage  in  Duplin 51,000 

Dr.  Blount,  of  Kenansville,  aided  me  in  .this  estimate. 
I  estimate  the  swamps  of  Pender  county  at  about  20,000 
acres.  A.  R.  B." 


I  am  indebted  to  that  patient  and  indefatigable  Engineer. 
Major  W.  L.  Young,  for  tlie  following  statement  with 
reference  to  this  work  np  to  the  present  time.  25th  March  : 

"Mr.  Black's  report  only  refers  to  overflowed  lands 
belonging  to  individuals,  viz:  51,000  acres  in  Duplin,  and 
20,000  acres  in  Pender  county — making  in  all  71,000  acres. 

There  would  also  be  reclaimed  50,000  acres  of  State  land 
lying  in  the  counties  of  Pender  and  Duplin— making  in  all, 
both  private  and  public  lands,  121,000  acres  that  would  be 
reclaimed  from  overflow  by  the  canal. 

It  is  more  than  probable  that  in  all  the  Southern  States 
there  is  not  another  locality  where  there  is  such  an  enor- 
mous amount  of  overflowed  land  which  could  be  reclaimed 
by  the  cutting  of  a  canal  of  only  30  miles  in  length. 

The  xoracticability  of  the  result  is  made  plain  when  the 
fact  is  taken  into  consideration,  that  the  Northeast  river 
has  not  only  a  very  tortuous  channel,  but  also  makes  enor- 
mous bends  which  environ  great  bodies  of  land,  and  which 
are  overflowed  during  freshets,  and  which,  also,  submerge 
all  the  tributary  swamps. 

Owing  to  this  peculiar  formation  of  the  river,  rafts  and 
freshets  are  actually  seven  days  in  passing  down  the  river 
from  the  mouth  of  Goshen  to  Bannerman's,  which  by  the 
route  of  the  canal,  is  only  30  miles,  while  by  the  river  it  is 
140  miles  ;  whereas,  if  the  canal  was  constructed,  and  the 
river  diverted  to  this  new  channel,  the  water  flow  would 
be  reduced  from  seven  days  to  ten  hours ;  and  freshets 
would  be  a  thing  of  the  past. 

As  a  means  of  navigation,  tliis  canal  would  be  of  much 
importance  to  the  great  triangle  or  section  of  country  lying 
betwen  the  coast  and  the  Wilmington  &  Weldon  Railway, 
south  of  the  Neuse  and  Pamlico  Sound,  and  also  to  the 
isolated  p)ortions  of  Pender,  Onslow,  Duplin,  Wayne, 
Lenoir  and  Jones. 

The  sluice  way  has  been  cut  and  the  timber  removed 


more  or  less  for  tlie  distance  of  six  miles,  and  a  dam — 
perhaps  the  largest  structure  of  the  kind  in  eastern  North 
Carolina — 442  feet  long,  has  been  constructed  across  Shelter 
Creek.  This  dam,  when  repaired  at  one  point,  will  be 
capable  of  holding  14  feet  head  of  water,  which  can  be 
thrown  at  will  into  the  sluiceway  of  the  canal  at  various 
points,  thus  forcing  the  water  of  Shelter  Creek  to  seek  the 
new  and  direct  channel  of  the  canal. 

The  northern  terminus  of  the  canal  is  within  two  miles  of 
a  natural  fall  of  17  feet.  When  this  fall  is  reached,  an  outlet 
will  be  given  for  a  great  basin  of  over-flowed  land  that  is 
ten  miles  long  and  from  three  to  four  miles  wide,  that  would 
be  reclaimed  as  the  work  progressed.  And  further,  as  soon 
as  this  fall  is  gained,  and  the  upper  section  of  five  miles  of 
the  canal  is  sluiced  out  so  as  to  be  navigable  for  barges, 
the  Company  would  receive,  without  further  extension  of 
the  work,  annually,  the  "tolls"  on  30,000  or  40,000  barrels 
of  naval  stores,  and  upon  timber  and  lumber.  It  should 
be  remembered  that  all  this  is  before  the  river  is  reached 
at  the  flrst  crossing  by  the  canal." 

The  officers  of  the  company  are  as  follows  : 

Wm.  Larkins, President. 

W.  T.  Bannerman, Vice-President. 

J.  H.  BoATWRiGiiT, Treasurer. 

David  Farrior, Pay  Master. 

W.  L.  Young, Saperintendent  and  Engineer. 

inland  water-way. 

I  am  also  informed  by  Major  Young,  that  in  the  year 
1874  a  charter  was  granted  by  our  State  Legislature,  for 
an  inland  canal  from  the  South  Carolina  line  to  Virginia. 
The  scheme  proposed  is  to  avoid  the  dangers  of  Hatteras,  by 
connecting  the  North  East  Cape  Fear  River  and  Chesa- 
peake Bay. 

A  survey  of  this  route  was  made  by  the  United  States 


Government  in  1875,  and  it  was  ascertained  to  be  practica- 
ble, and  that  by  utilizing  the  47  miles  of  the  navigable  river 
of  the  IS'orth  East  and  other  intermediate  streams,  it  would 
only  require  about  40  miles  of  canal  to  connect  Wilmington 
with  Pamlico  Sound  and  all  the  other  inland  water  system 
of  ]?forth  Carolina — Croatan  and  Albemarle  Sounds,  the 
Neuse,  Tar,  Roanoke  and  Chowan  rivers,  and  also  with 
Norfolk  and  Baltimore,  by  the  way  of  the  Dismal  Swamp 
and  Albemarle  canals. 

It  has  further  been  ascertained,  in  connection  with  this 
scheme,  that  it  only  requires  four  miles  of  canal  at  Oak 
Island,  and  five  miles  between  Little  River  and  AVaccaraaw 
River,  to  connect  the  Cape  Fear,  Waccamaw,  Pee  Dee  and 
Santee  rivers  by  an  inland  water  route — thus  connecting 
Wilmington  with  Georgetown. 


Was    organized    July    6,    1866— the    capital    stock    is 



David  G.  Worth,  George  Chadbourn, 

James  Sprunt,  Edwin  E.  Burruss, 

Alfred  Martin. 


E.  E.  Burruss, President. 

A.  K.  Walker, Cashier. 

The  following  statement  of  Resources  and  Liabilities,  on 
December  23rd,  1882,  shows  the  condition  of  its  affairs  at 
that  date  : 


Statement  of  the  Condition  of  the  First  National  Bank  of  Wilmington, 
N.  C,  December  23rd,  1882. 


Loans  and  Discounts 8  613,642  31 

U.  S.  Bonds  to  secure  Circulation 50,000  00 

Other  Stocks,  Bonds  and  Mortgages 75,111  60 

Due  from  Banks  and  Bankers 103,246  70 

Current  Expenses "8,446  71 

Cash  on  Hand 85,610  99 

Real  Estate  and  Furniture  and  Fixtures 70,327  22 

$1,012,385  53 


Capital  Stock $  250,000  00 

Circulation 44,990  00 

Surplus  Fund 37,160  19 

Undivided  Profits 59,351  29 

Due  Individual  Depositors 591,037  05 

Due  Banks  and  Bankers 29,847  00 

11,012,885  53 


This  organization  was  effected  January  12th,  1872 — the 
capital  stock  is  $300,000. 

The  following  statement  of  its  condition  was  published 
February  1st,  1883  : 

Statement  of  Condition  of  Bank  of  New  Hanover,    including  Branches, 
February  ist,  1883. 


Loans  and  Discounts -. $  795,594  51 

Casli  in  New  York,  Philadelphia,  Boston  and  Baltimore  Banks.f  98,624  53 

Currency  and  Specie .' 210,903  30 

Checks  on  other  Banks 6,527  78—  316,055  67 

Due  from  other  Banks  not  included  above 88,648  51 

Sterling  Exchange  (value  in  Currency) 5,148  14 

Real  Estate 89,099  24 

Office  Furniture  and  Safes 7,082  37 

Bonds  and  Stocks 2(,252  44 

Checks  and  Drafts  in  Transit 14,445  97 

$1,340.326  85 


Capital  Stock «  300,000  00 

Due  Depositors 915,296  32 

Due  other  Banks 52,052  17 

Surplus  Fund 72,978  36 

$1,340,326  85 


Statemeut  of  Couditloix  of  Bank  at  AVllmlugton,  February  1st,  1883. 

Loans  and  Discounts SC33,062  62 

Cash  In  New  York,  Philadelphia,  Boston  and  Baltimore  Banks.?  83,639  10 

Currency  and  Specie 127,256  76 

Checks  on  other  Banks „ 6,527  78—  217,423  61 

Due  from  other  Banks  not  included  above 53,908  58 

Sterling  Exchange  (value  in  Currency) 5,148  14 

Real  Estate 83,604  18 

Office  Furniture  and  Safes 3,843  66 

Bonds  and  Stocks 7,723  'J4 

»1,004,714  76 

Capital  Stock $    225,000  00 

Due  Depositors 616,926  07 

Due  other  Banks 49,025  64 

Due  other  Branches  of  this  Bank 78,043  73 

Surplus  Fund 35,719  32 

81,004,714  76 

Statement  of  Condltlou  of  Bank  at  Goldsboro,  February  1st,  1883> 

Loans  and  Discounts 8119,118  19 

Cash  in  New  York  and  Baltimore  Banks $  8,936  48 

Clirrency  and  Specie 52,835  47—    61,771  93 

Due  from  other  Banks  not  included  above 32,959  53 

Due  from  other  Branches  of  this  Bank 23,764  05 

Real  Estate 5,495  06 

Office  Furniture  and  Safes 1,877  il 

Wilmington  &  Weldon  R.  R.,  Mortgage  Bonds 16,528  50 

8261,514  47 


Capital  Stock 8     50,000  00 

Due  Depositors „ 178,389  72 

Due  other  Banks 2,€10  82 

Surplus  Fund 30,513  93 

'_ 8261,514  47 

l^tatemeut  of  Condition  of  Bank  at  AVadesboro,  February  1st,  1883. 

Loans  and  Discounts $     43,413  70 

Clash  in  New  York  Banks 8  0,048  07 

Currency  and  Specie 30,811  13—  36,860  10 

Due  from  other  Banks  not  included  above 1,780  40 

Due  from'^other  Branches  of  this  Bank 68,725  65 

Office  Furniture  and  Safes < 1,361  50 

8152,141  35 

Capital  Stock 8     25,000  00 

t)ue  Depositors 119,980  53 

Due  other  Banks 415  71 

Surplus  Fund 6,745  11 

8152,141  35 


Its  officers  are  as  follows  : 

Isaac  Bates, President. 

G.  W.  Williams, Vice  President. 

S.  J).  Wallace, .   Cashier. 


R.  R.  Bridgers,  W.  I.  Gore, 

I.  Bates,  E.  B.  Borden, 

C.  M.  Stedman,  Jas.  a.  Leak, 

G.  W.  Williams,  J.  W.  Atkinson, 

H.  VoLLERS,  D.  McRae, 

F.  Rheinstein. 


The  first  Cotton  Compress  operated  in  this  city  was 
established  by  the  Confederate  Government  during  the  war, 
in  1864.  It  was  located  on  the  west  side  of  the  river,  just 
south  of  the  Brunswick  Ferry,  and  was  under  the  entire 
control  and  supervision  of  the  Government,  and  used  for 
compressing  cotton  for  running  the  blockade. 

Its  capacity  was  from  450  to  500  bales  a  da}^  It  was  set 
lire  to  and  totally  destroyed,  together  with  a  large  amount 
of  other  property,  by  order  of  Gen.  Bragg,  on  the  evening 
of  February  21st,  1865,  the  eve  of  the  evacuation  of  the 
town  by  the  Confederate  forces.  It  was  brought  to  this 
place  from  Charleston,  the  port  of  Wilmington  being  the 
only  one  at  that  time  where  the  business  of  blockade-run- 
ning was  carried  on. 

Wilmington  has  now  three  first  class  Cotton  Compresses 
in  successful  operation,  viz  :  The  Wilmington  Compress 
Comi^any,  (2  presses),  of  which  George  W.  Williams  is 
President,  and  George  Sloan  Secretary  and  Treasurer  ;  and 
the  Champion  Compress  Company,  (1  press),  E.  J.  Penny- 
packer,  President,  and  T.  B.  Harriss,  Secretary  and  Treas- 
urer. They  are  stock  companies,  the  former  with  a  capital 
of  $85,000,  and  the  latter  $70,000.     The  first  was  organized 


during  the  summer  of  1875.  Valuable  wharf  property  was 
purchased  near  what  was  known  in  the  early  history  of 
the  town  as  "Paradise,"  in  the  northern  portion  of  the 
city,  and  adjoining  the  terminus  of  the  Carolina  Central 
Railroad, — on  which  were  erected  the  latest  improved 
cotton  presses,  a  Taylor  Steam  and  Hydraulic  Press  and  a 
Tyler  Steam  press,  and  extensive  warehouses  for  the 
storage  of  cotton.  The  increase  of  business  within  two 
years  after  its  erection,  warranted  the  establishment  of  an 
additional  press,  and  during  the  summer  of  1879,  the 
Champion  Compress  and  Warehouse  Company  was  organ- 
ized. The  wharf  property  at  the  foot  of  lied  Cross  street, 
and  adjoining  the  depot  of  the  Wilmington,  Columbia  & 
Augusta,  and  the  Wilmington  &  Weldon  Railroads,  was 
purchased,  on  which  was  erected  the  "Morse"  Cotton 
Compress,  with  brick  warehouses  and  sheds,  together  with 
the  largest  guano  warehouse  in  the  State— located  on  tlie 
west  side  of  the  river. 

The  estimated  pressure  is  about  1,500  tons,  and  the 
capacity  of  each  press  is  about  50  bales  an  hour.  Both 
companies  are  kept  actively  engaged  during  the  cotton 
season,  in  compressing  cotton  for  foreign  shipment,  and 
business  has  steadily  increased  from  15,000  bales  the  first 
year  to  about  100,000  bales  during  the  last  cotton  season.  It 
is  a  business  that  has  increased  each  succeeding  year  since  its 
commencement,  and  when  the  advantages  offered  to  shi])- 
pers  at  this  port  become  generally  known,  it  must  assume 
larger  proportions. 

The  facilities  for  handling  cotton  cheaply  here,  are  not 
surpassed,  if  equaled,  by  any  other  Southern  port.  The 
railroads  centering  at  this  point,  deliver  cotton  at  the 
different  presses  ;  there  is  ample  room  at  the  wharves  of 
the  companies,  and  sufficient  depth  of  w\ater  for  the  largest 
sized  vessels  that  visit  this  port,  to  load  without  the  least 
difficulty,  thereby  saving  the  expense,  wliich  is  very  heavy 
at  other  ports,  of  drayaga  and  lighterage,  which  of  course 


have  to  be  borne  by  the  shipper,  and  which  aggregates  a 
very  large  amount. 

The  port  charges  are  less  than  at  other  points,  and  the 
expenses  generally  are  more  moderate. 

Quick  dispatch  is  given,  for  the  presses  are  run  day  and 
night  when  necessary,  and  delays  seldom  occur,  unless 
from  some  unavoidable  accident.  When  we  take  into 
consideration  the  improved  character  of  these  presses,  their 
capacity  for  doing  well  the  work  which  is  required,  the 
fact  that  cotton  is  handled  cheaper  here  than  at  other 
places,  and  the  expenses  in  every  way  much  lighter  to  the 
shipper,  we  certainly  have  reason  to  anticipate  a  largely 
increased  business  to  our  city  from  the  success  of  this 
important  industry. 


These  mills  were  built  in  1874,  at  an  original  cost  of 
$150,000,  and  reorganized  in  1878,  with  a  reduced  capital 
of  $60,000. 

The  list  of  officers  is  as  follows  : 

Donald  MacEae, President. 

Wm.  a.  French, Vice  President. 

W.  G.  MacRae, Treasurer  and  Superintendent. 


Edward  Kidder,  F.  W.  Kerciiner, 

Jas.  H.  Ciiadbourn,  B.  G.  Worth. 

John  Wilder  Atkinson. 

The  Machinery  is  100  horse  power  (steam);  and  the  fuel 
— wood  and  sawdust. 

There  are  in  operation  156  looms,  5,712  spindles,  34  cards, 
7  fine  spuders,  4  slubbers,  and  1  picker  and  opener. 

The  goods  manufactured  are  Print  Cloths  and  Batting ; 
and  during  the  past  year,  the  mill  has  turned  out  168,000 
yards  per  month,  or  say,  2,016,000  yards  per  year,— part 


of  which  is  sold  for  home  consumption,  but  the  i3roduct  is 
principally  sold  to  calico  printers  in  Philadelphia  and  New 

The  mill  employs  3  superintendents  of  departments, 
12  men,  15  boys,  80  women  and  20  girls, — total,  130.  The 
cost  of  production  of  goods  and  pay  of  operatives  is  about 
the  same  as  at  Fall  River  and  other  manufacturing  places 

The  number  of  bales  of  cotton  used  is  780  per  annum, 
costing  $40,000,  and  value  of  goods  manufactured  per  year, 
$80,000  to  $100,000. 


was  established  in  1869,  with  a  capital  stock  of  $200,000. 
The  following  named  comprise  the  officers  : 

R.  R.  Bridgers, President. 

Donald  MacRae, Secretar}^  and  Treasurer. 

C.  L.  Grafflin, Superintendent. 

The  works  are  situated  at  Meares'  Bluff,  Brunswick 
county,  N.  C,  about  4  miles  from  Wilmington,  and  manu- 
facture annually  18,000  tons  of  "Navassa  Gruano"  and  Acid 

There  are  in  operation  two  Suli^huric  Acid,  and  one 
Muriatic  Acid  chambers,  of  a  capacity  of  240,000  cubic 

About  100  workmen  are  emj^loyed. 

The  power  (steam)  used  is  150  horse,  and  fuel, — wood. 

The  value  of  product  is  1450,000  annually. 

The  company  owns  and  works  a  valuable  rice  plantation 
of  about  300  acres,  situated  about  a  mile  below  the  factory, 
and  which  produces  about  12,000  bushels  of  rice  yearlj^ 


This  is  a  new  industry,  recently  established  in  Wilming- 
ton, and  the  only  one  of  the  kind  in  North  Carolina.  It  is 
located  on  South  Water  street,  at  the  foot  of  Ann  street. 


It  is  an  incorporated  Company,  and  was  organized  on 
February  1st,  1883,  with  a  capital  of  $50,000,  with  power 
to  increase  to  $500,000. 

A  local  Board  of  three  resident  Directors  manage  the 
affairs  of  the  corporation. 

Its  business  is  the  purchase  and  reduction  of  all  minerals 
that  contain  the  precious  metals,  such  as  gold  and  silver, 
and  also  ores  containing  copper,  zinc,  lead,  etc. 

The  ores  are  purchased  at  different  points  within  the 
State,  and  shipped  to  this  place  by  rail,  and  by  a  peculiar 
process,  the  details  of  which  are  not  made  public,  the  pre- 
cious metals  are  extracted.  The  prices  offered  by  the 
Company  for  ores  have  already  resulted  in  engagements  for, 
it  is  thought,  a  sufficient  supply  to  keep  the  works  em- 
ployed, and  the  enterprise  is  of  course  materially  helping 
to  develop)  the  mineral  resources  of  the  State. 

Mr.  J.  Beno,  of  New  York,  is  the  j)rojector  of  this 


Wilmington  is  the  only  point  east  of  Raleigh  where  a 
Tobticco  Factory  is  in  successful  operation.  The  Cape 
Fear  Tobacco  Works  were  established  here  in  the  spring  of 
1879,  and  are  now  located  on  Bladen  street,  near  the 
Wilmington  &  Weldon  Railroad,  on  the  site  formerly 
known  as  Camp  Lamb.  The  proprietors  are  Messrs. 
Meadows  and  Kidder.  The  capacity  of  the  works  is  about 
500,000  pounds  annually,  making  plug,  twist  and  smoking 
tobacco,  and  the  quality  of  the  goods  turned  out  will  com- 
pare favorably  with  other  factories  in  the  State.  The  leaf 
used,  is  obtained  principally  from  Granville  county,  and  the 
counties  adjoining,  long  celebrated  for  their  fine  quality  of 
tobacco ;  and  the  standard  of  goods  manufactured  at  the 
Factory  is  never  allowed  to  deteriorate.  About  sixty  hands 
are  employed,  and  the  demand  for  their  goods  here  and  in 
the  surrounding  country  is  increasing.    The  engine  is  about 


ten-liorse  power,  with  a  fifteen -horse  power  boile-r,  and  the 
machinery,  of  the  most  approved  kind. 


In  1881  the  increasing  rice  crop  along  the  Caj)e  Fear  and 
in  the  up  country  induced  Messrs.  Norwood  Giles  and 
Pembroke  Jones,  of  AVilmington,  to  venture  uj)on  the 
establishment,  at  great  expense  and  considerable  risk,  of  a 
first-class  Kice  Mill,  which  was  completed  the  year  follow- 
ing, and  which  will  compare  favorably  with  any  mill  in  the 
country.  These  enterprising  young  men  have  not  only 
brought  energy  and  capital  to  this  important  undertaking, 
but  a  degree  of  intelligence  and  sound  business  judgment 
which  is  bound  to  make  them  successful.  Already  the 
product  of  the  Carolina  Mills  has  attracted  attention  in 
New  York  and  in  Liverpool,  and  pronounced  by  competent 
and  recognized  authority,  the  best  milled  rice  in  the  South. 
They  have  a  capacity  of  double  the  present  crop,  and  they 
are  increasing  their  facilities  constantly  to  meet  every 
requirement  of  the  trade. 

The  Mills  are  of  brick,  lOG  feet  long,  43  feet  wide,  and 
four  stories  in  height.  Pitch  of  floors  14  feet.  An  engine 
room  connected  with  the  Mill  is  18  feet  wide  and  one  story 
high.  The  engine  is  45-liorse  power,  and  the  capacity  of 
the  Mill  is  1,800  to  2,000  bushels  per  twenty-four  hours. 
There  are  18  patent  Brotherhood  pestles  on  the  first  floor, 
and  the  spouting  necessary  for  turning  out  the  clean  rice. 
On  the  second  floor  are  all  the  receiving  bins  for  ground 
and  beat  rice,  and  also  the  stones.  On  the  third  floor  stands 
two  large  brushes  for  polishing  and  the  necessary  fans  and 
screens.  The  fourth  floor  is  entirel}^  devoted  to  machinery 
for  cleaning  the  rice  before  going  to  mill. 

The  elevators  are  many  in  number  and  wonderfully  assist 
in  liandling  the  grain.  The  number  of  people  employed  is 
13.  The  storage  capacity  of  the  warehouse  is  75,000 



There  are  four  grain  mills  in  successful  operation  in  Wil- 
mington at  this  time,  two  of  which  are  also  flouring  mills, 
viz  :  Messrs.  B.  F.  Mitchell  &  Son,  on  North  Water  street, 
between  Market  and  Princess  streets,  and  the  Cape  Fear 
Flouring  Mills,  now  carried  on  by  Mr.  C.  B.  Wright.  The 
former  was  originally  established  by  Ellis  &  Mitchell  in 
the  year  1849,  and  continued  under  that  firm  name  until 
1866,  when  Mr.  Ellis  retired.  He  was  succeeded  in  the 
firm  by  Mr.  Huggins,  and  the  business  was  conducted 
under  the  name  of  Mitchell  &  Huggins,  until  1871,  when 
Mr.  Huggins  died.  Since  that  time  it  has  been  B.  F. 
Mitchell  &  Son. 

The  power  used  is  76  horse,  with  four  run  of  stones 
capable  of  turning  out  450  bushels  of  meal,  and  20  barrels 
of  flour  per  day.  It  is  the  only  mill  in  the  State  in  which 
there  is  a  purifier  for  purifying  the  middlings  ;  and  it  has 
besides,  all  the  modern  improvements  and  conveniences. 


This  mill  is  located  at  the  foot  of  Walnut,  corner  of 
North  Water  street.  It  was  first  built  in  1855,  on  the  lot 
directly  opposite  its  present  location,  but  was  destroyed 
by  fire  in  1866,  and  then  built  upon  its  present  site.  It  has 
a  power  of  85  horse,  capable  of  turning  out  from  500  to  600 
bushels  of  meal,  and  20  barrels  of  flour  a  day,  runs  three 
stones  on  wheat  and  corn,  and  three  on  hominy.  In  1868, 
the  proprietor,  Mr  Alex.  Oldham,  bought  the  patent  for 
the  State  for  making  pearl  hominy,  and  it  is  the  only  mill 
in  North  Carolina  that  has  the  right  and  is  engaged  in 
manufacturing  that  article. 

/Our  flour  mills  cannot  compete  successfully  with  the 
Western  mills,  on  account  of  the  tariff  of  freights.  Flour 
is  handled  at  a  much  cheaper  rate  than  wheat,  which 
operates  greatly  to  the  disadvantage  of  our  mills.  The 
quality  is  as  good  as  that  made  anywhere,  and  compares 


favorably  with  the  best  brought  to  this  market  from  other 

Messrs.  Preston  Camming  &  Co.'s  mil],  located  at  the 
foot  of  Dock  street,  and  Mr.  W.  P.  Oldham's,  on  the 
south  side  of  Dock  street,  are  grain  mills  alone.  The  first 
was  established  in  1869,  has  two  sets  of  runners,  uses  40 
horse  power,  and  is  capable  of  turning  out  about  400 
bushels  of  meal  a  day, 

Mr.  W.  P.  Oldham's  mill  was  erected  in  1875,  has  two 
sets  of  runners,  35  horse  power,  and  a  capacity  of  350 
bushels  of  meal  a  day. 

These  grain  mills  are  complete  in  every  way  ;  advantage 
is  immediately  taken  of  any  improvements  in  machinery 
or  otherwise  to  add  to  their  efficiency,  and  they  are  man- 
aged with  the  skill  and  energy  which  generally  commands 


In  a  communication  from  Messrs.  Cronly  &  Morris, 
Agents  of  the  above-named  Company,  with  reference  to  its 
origin  and  endeavor,  and  in  response  to  my  request  for 
information,  I  learn  that  "Cronly,"  on  the  Carolina 
Central  Railroad,  is  the  site  of  its  operations,  and  that 
some  months  ago  ihe  proprietors  in  Wilmington,  Messrs. 
Latimer  and  others,  entered  into  negotiations  for  the  estab- 
lishment of  a  fertilizer  manufactory  on  the  tract  of  land 
owned  by  Cronly  &  Morris  at  Livingston  Creek,  on  the 
Carolina  Central  Railroad.  Pending  these  negotiations 
last  spring,  their  attention  was  called  to  a  patent  device 
for  curling  vegetable  fibres  for  upholstering  purposes 
in  imitation  of  horse-hair,  and  a  rubbing  machine  for 
the  treatment  of  fibrous  plants  and  materinl.  As  in  the 
treatment  of  the  fibres,  chemicals  were  used  which  were 
valuable  fertilizing  agents,  they  attempted  to  obtain  control 
of  these  processes,  wdth  a  view  either  to  consolidation  with 
the  fertilizer  factory,  or  to  operate  both  to  mutual 


After  a  thorough  examinution  of  the  two  schemes,  they 
became  convinced  of  their  value,  and  finally  completed 
negotiations  for  the  establishment  of  the  enterprise. 

For  more  than  a  year,  attention  had  been  directed  to  the 
manufacture  of  cotton-seed  oil,  and  enquiries  instituted 
with  reference  to  the  process  ;  and  although  convinced  of 
its  practicability,  the  excessively  high  prices  demanded  by 
manufacturers  of  the  necessary  machinery,  and  the  neces- 
sity of  convincing  the  planters  of  the  advantage  to  them 
by  selling  their  cotton-seed,  and  receiving  in  return  cotton- 
seed meal,  possessing  greater  fertilizing  properties  than  the 
seed  itself,  deterred  them  from  the  undertaking.  Subse- 
quently attention  was  called  to  an  article  of  Mr.  Edward 
Atkinson,  of  Boston,  the  cotton  statistician,  on  the  produc- 
tion of  cot  ton -seed  oil,  in  which  he  characterized  as 
extremely  wasteful  and  thriftless,  the  present  method  of 
obtaining  the  oil,  and  strongly  advised  the  adoption  of  a 
process  recommended  by  him  whereby  the  oil  was  obtained 
by  certain  chemical  reaction.  Full  enquiries  were  made 
into  his  process,  and  being  satisfied  that  the  oil  could  be 
so  obtained,  and  at  a  much  smaller  cost  for  the  plant  and 
for  working  than  by  the  present  method,  they  entered  into 
an  arrangement  for  the  establishment  of  a  factory,  with 
Dr.  L.  U.  Friedburg  of  New  York,  an  expert -chemist,  who 
had  been  most  highly  recommended  by  Dr.  C.  F.  Chandler, 
President  of  the  Board  of  Health  of  New  York  City,  and 
Dean  of  the  Faculty  of  the  School  of  Mines  of  Columbia 

A  short  time  ago,  they  efiEected  a  consolidation  of  the 
three  enterprises,  which  under  this  arrangement  can  be 
conducted  in  a  much  more  economical  manner,  and  with 
greater  assurance  of  success.  The  Legislature  has  incor- 
porated the  joint  enterprises  under  the  name  of  the  Acme 
Manufacturing  Company. 

The  capital  of  the  Company  will  be  $152,000,  all  of 
which  is  subscribed.  The  location  of  the  Factories  is  particu- 


larly  desirable,  having  water  communication  witli  tlieiiver 
by  Livingston  Creek,  and  being  situated  on  tlie  Carolina 
Central  Railroad,  at  a  distance  of  about  a  mile  and  a 
quarter  from  the  Wilmington,  Columbia  &  Augusta  Rail- 
road with  which  they  expect  to  connect  the  Factories  by 
private  or  public  railway,  and  thus  obtain  greater  facil- 
ities for  shipment  of  the  manufactured  product. 

The  beds  of  marl  and  phosphate  rock  are  adjacent  to  the 
Factory  sites.  Dr.  Ledoux,  who  analyzed  the  marl,  showed 
it  to  be  valuable,  which  is  verified  by  subsequent  analyses 
made  by  him,  and  published  in  his  report  for  1880,  giving 
to  one  of  the  marls  over  51  per  cent,  of  phosphate  lime, 
and  to  another  27  per  cent,  of  phosphoric  acid.  The  results 
of  analyses  of  several  other  marls  from  the  same  locality, 
though  much  lower  than  the  above,  showed  them  to  be 
valuable  as  fertilizers. 

A  fibre  factory  100x150x48  has  already  been  built  at 
"Cronly,"  and  all  the  machinery  for  it  has  been  received, 
and  is  now  being  put  up.  This  factory  will  manufacture 
fibre  from  the  long-leaved  pine-straw  for  upholstering  pur- 
poses (turning  out  about  ten  tons  per  week),  oil  from  the 
pine  leaf,  and  fibres  from  j)almetto,  bear,  and  other  grasses, 
and  material  from  West  Indies  and  Bahama  Islands. 

The  Fertilizer  Factory  will  produce  a  first-class  fertilizer, 
and  also  place  within  reach  of  our  farmers  prepared  marl. 
Its  capacity  at  first  will  be  about  5,000  tons  per  annum. 

The  Cotton-Seed  Oil  Factory  will,  during  the  cotton  sea- 
son, manufacture  cotton-seed  oil  and  cake,  and,  during  the 
summer  months,  oil  and  cake  from  peanuts,  palm  kernels, 
linseed,  flax-seed,  or  any  other  oil-yielding  substance  which 
they  can  obtain,  either  in  this  country  or  abroad. 

In  connection  with  the  fibre  factory,  they  expect  to  make 
bagging  for  the  fertilizer  and  for  sale,  and  eventually  from 
the  coarser  fibres  which  abound  in  our  section,  to  make 
barrels  from  paper  pulp  for  the  oils. 

Mr.  John  G.  Stephens  of  New  York,  the  patentee  of  fibre 


processes  will  have  charge  of  the  fibre  factory  as  Super- 
intendent, and  Dr.  L.  H.  Friedburg,  assisted  by  Mr.  Thos. 
Radcliffe,  will  have  charge  as  Superintendent  and  Chemist 
of  the  fertilizer  and  oil  mills. 

About  70  tons  of  machinery  have  been  received,  and 
about  30  tons  more  are  expected. 

The  fertilizer  and  oil  mills  of  the  same  size  as  the  fibre 
factory  are  now  in  course  of  erection,  also  houses  and  a 
store  for  the  use  of  operatives.  The  fibre  factory  will  be 
ready  for  operation  about  April  1st,  and  the  oil  and  fer- 
tilizer mills  about  May  1st. 

The  principal  stockholders  of  the  new  Company  are  the 
Messrs.  Latimer,  Messrs.  Cronly  &  Morris,  Messrs.  Chas. 
V.  Ware  and  G.  W.  Warren,  of  New  York,  Mr.  J.  G. 
Stephens  and  Dr.  L.  H.  Friedburg. 


The  following  comprises  the  Tur^Dentine  Distilleries 
operated  in  Wilmington  : 

NAME.                NO. 






400  barrels 




Morton  &  Hall, 






"Point  Peter," 






Mahn'  s. 










Total,  27,  1,545       "  "  " 

There  are  in  addition  2  rosin  oil  stills,  operated  as  a  part 
of  Clay  Distillery,  the  product  of  which  also  comprises; 

Rosin  Oil,  4  grades  ;  Rosin  Oil  Naptha,  crude  and  recti- 
fied ;  Tar  Oil ;  Spirits  of  Tar,  crude  and  rectified  ;  Metalic 
Paint  Oils ;  Deck  and  Spar  Oils,  for  the  preservation  of  the 
decks  and  spars  of  vessels,  and  all  wood  not  covered  with 


j)aint,  against  the  action  of  tlie  weather,  and  of  dry- 
rot  ;  Bright  and  Black  Varnishes  ;  Venice  Turpentine,  for 
printer's  ink;  Navy,  or  Shipbuilder's  Pitch;  Shoe- 
maker's Wax  Pitch  ;  Brush  Maker's  Pitch  ;  Brewer's 

The  Carolina  Oil  Company  also  oi^erates  3  stills,  the 
product  of  which  is  20  barrels  of  oil  per  week.  They  also 
manufacture  Tar  Oil  and  Pine  Wood  Creosote  Oil. 


This  company  was  chartered  January  27th,  1851,  and 
organized  February,  1855. 

Its  capital  stock  is  1100,000. 

The  Works  are  located  on  the  corner  of  Surry  and  Castle 

Capacity  of  holders,  40,000  cubic  feet  of  gas;  process  of 
manufacture,  wood  and  rosin  ;  price  of  gas  per  1,000  cubic 
feet,  $2.50  ;  public  lamps,  124.00  per  year  for  each  lamp  ; 
length  of  mains,  about  9|-  miles. 

board  of  directors. 

Edward  Kidder,  Donald  McRae, 

Gi:oRGE  E.  French,  Dr.  A,  J.  DeRosset, 

Wm.  H.  McRary,  E.  S.  Martin, 

R.  J.  Jones. 


Edward  Kidder, President. 

Richard  J.  Jones, Secretary  and  Treasurer. 

Jno.  W.  Reilly, Superintendent. 


This  Company  was  organized  April  10,  1881 ;  the  Works 
were  completed  the  following  autumn,  and  began  supply- 
ing water  in  December,  1881.  The  hydrant  service  was 
accepted  by  the  city  in  January,  1882. 


It  has  about  12i  miles  of  main  pipes  from  4  to  12  inches 
in  diameter,  and  about  li  miles  of  service  pipes  and  small 
mains  f  of  an  inch  to  2  inches  in  diameter. 

There  are  105  public  fire  hydrants  and  260  consumers. 
The  present    daily   consumption  is   upwards   of    100,000 


The  Company  uses  what  is  known  as  the  combined  stand- 
pipe  and  direct  pressure  system.  The  water  is  pumped  into 
the  stand-pipe  for  ordinary  use,  but  in  case  of  fire,  it  is 
pumped  directly  into  the  mains,  the  pressure  being  in- 
creased as  the  exigencies  of  the  case  demand. 

The  stand-pipe  is  20  feet  in  diameter  and  90  feet  high, 
which  gives  a  domestic  pressure  of  from  25  to  50  pounds 
per  square  inch.  The  fire  pressure  is  usually  100  pounds 
per  square  inch.  The  capacity  of  the  stand-pipe  is  210,000 

These  Works  have  two  Worthington  Duplex  Pumping 
Engines— one  high  pressure  of  500,000  gallons  daily 
capacity,  and  the  other  a  compound  non-condensing  engine, 
of  1,000,000  gallons  daily  capacity.  This  can  be  increased 
about  25  per  cent,  if  necessary. 

The  capital  stock  is  $50,000. 

The  Works  cost  about  $150,000,  the  balance  being  rep- 
resented by  bonds. 


E.  E.  BuRRUss,  H.  A.  Burr, 

F.  W.  Kerciiner,  J.  F.  Divine, 
Edward  Kidder,                          D.  Q.  Worth. 

officers  : 

J.  F.  Divine President. 

Edward  Kidder Secretary  and  Treasurer. 

J.  C.  Chase Superintendent. 


"  The  following  rates  will  be  charged  annually  for  the  use  of  water, 
to  be  collected  quarterly  in  advance  : 
Dwelling  houses  occupied  by  one  family  of  not  exceeding  five 

persons,  for  the  first  faucet $f»  ^0 


For  each  additional  faucet ,, $2  00 

For  tlae  first  bath-tub 4  00 

For  each  additional  bath-tub 2  00 

For  the  first  water-closet 4  00 

For  each  additional  closet '. 2  00 

For  tlie  first  urinal 2  00 

For  each  additional  urinal 1  00 

For  each  additional  person  in  the  family,  exceeding  five,  ten  per 
cent,  of  the  above  rates. 

Water-closets  and  urinals  without  self-closing  valves,  double  the 
above  rates. 

Where  hot  and  cold  water  faucets  discharge  into  one  vessel,  but  one 
charge  will  be  made  for  both. 

For  each  additional  family  using  the  same  fixtures,  75  per  cent,  of 
the  above  rates. 

Stores,  warehouses,  offices,  shops,  etc.,  requiring  no  more  than  the 
ordinary  supply  of  water,  the  same  i^rice  for  fixtures  as  dwelling 

Stables.— For  the  first  horse |3  00 

For  each  additional  horse 2  00 

For  each  cow 2  00 

The  above  rate  includes  the  use  of  water  for  washing  carriages,  etc., 
without  hose.    Where  hose  is  used  in  any  stable  an  extra  charge  will 
be  made  for  each  horse  of  $2  00. 
Use  of  hose  for  sprinkling  streets,  gardens,   etc.,  per  thousand 

square  feet $1  00 

Provided  that  the  amount  charged  for  the  use  of  hose  shall  be  in  no 
case  less  than  five  dollars  per  annum,  and  that  one-half  of  the  annual 
rate  will  be  collected  April  1st,  and  the  balance  July  1st. 

Meter  rates,  per  100  cubic  feet 15  cents. 

(20  cents  per  1,000  gallons.) 

Provided,  however,  that  in  no  case  where  a  meter  is  used  by  request 
of  the  consumer,  shall  the  annual  charge  be  less  than  ten  dollars. 

When  the  quantity  used  exceeds  15,003  cubic  feet  per  month,  special 
rates  will  be  made." 


The  charter  for  this  Corporation  was  granted  on  the  27th 
day  of  December,  1852,  the  company  was  organized  on  the 
IGth  of  November,  1853,  and  the  grounds  were  opened,  and 
the  first  interment  made  on  the  6th  of  February,  1855. 
The  necessity  for  the  formation  of  this  corporation  grew 


out  of  the  fact  that  the  old  time-honored  custom  of  inter- 
ments within  the  city  church-yards  was  fast  giving  way,  in 
other  places,  to  the  Cemetery  system  of  burials,  and  a  few 
public-spirited  gentlemen  of  Wilmington  suggested  the 
location  of  a  central  Cemetery,  "to  be  universally  adopted 
as  a  substitute  for  the  old  grave-yards  then  in  use,"'  Acting 
upon  this  suggestion,  the  grounds  just  east  of  the  "Old 
Burnt  Mill  Creek,"  containing  60  acres,  were  purchased 
and  named  "Oakdale,"  and  dedicated  to  the  preservation 
and  continued  protection  of  our  dead. 

Of  the  fifteen  gentlemen  named  in  the  charter  of  this 
corporation,  one  now  resides  in  California,  one  in  Con- 
necticut, two  in  other  counties  of  this  State  ;  six  are  still 
actively  engaged  in  their  business  vocations  in  this  city, 
and  the  other  five  have  passed  over  the  river,  while  their 
remains  "rest  under  the  shade  of  the  trees"  in  "Oakdale." 

All  revenue,  from  whatever  source  it  may  be  derived,  is 
devoted  to  the  maintenance  of  the  grounds. 

Up  to  the  present  time,  about  one  third,  or  probably 
one-half,  of  the  grounds  have  been  improved  and  formed 
into  sections,  and  sections  into  lots, — each  lot  containing 
four  hundred  square  feet.  The  sections  vary  in  size  to  suit 
the  conformation  of  the  grounds,  as  follows  : 

Section  A  has  4  lots  ;  section  B  has  151  lots  ;  section  C 
has  23  lots  ;  section  D  has  110  lots  ;  section  E  has  42  lots  ; 
section  F  has  70  lots  ;  section  G  has  25  lots  ;  section  H  has 
124  lots  ;  section  J  has  87  lots  ;  while  the  last  section,  K, 
which  has  been  opened,  contains  150  lots,  without  including 
the  plot  donated  to  the  Ladies'  Memorial  Association,  for 
the  Confederate  dead,  to  which  453  bodies  were  removed 
and  buried  in  two  semi-circular  graves,  and  upon  which 
stands  the  most  beautiful  monument  erected  to  the  Con- 
federate dead  in  the  South. 

Owing  to  the  loss  of  some  of  the  records  during  the  war, 
as  well  as  to  the  confusion  growing  out  of  that  terrible 
epidemic  of  1862,  the  yellow  fever,  which  carried  hundreds 


to  their  graves,  including  both  the  Secretary  and  Superin- 
tendent of  this  company,  the  present  Secretary,  Mr.  R.  J. 
Jones,  says : 

"I  cannot  give  a  correct  list  of  the  interments  since  the 
opening  of  the  grounds.  My  records,  commencing  Febru- 
ary 4th,  1867,  show  1,825  for  the  past  sixteen  years,  or  up 
to  the  lirst  of  January,  1883  ;  and  it  is  but  fair  to  presume 
that  with  the  casualties  of  the  war  and  yellow  fever  com- 
bined, there  were  at  least  2,000  buried  before  my  record 

The  present  managers  are  : 

Donald  MacRae, President. 

TnroTHY  DoNLAN, Superintendent. 

Richard  J.  Jones, Secretary  and  Treasurer. 


.Edward  Kidder,  W.  H.  Northrop, 

Wm.  J.  Yopp,  George  R.  French, 

James  H.  Chadbouijn,  Dr.  A.  J.  DeRosset, 

I  have  thought  that  it  would  be  appropriate,  and  perhaps 
a  matter  of  interest  to  some,  to  recall  the  names  of  a  few  of 
our  prominent  citizens  who  now  sleep  in  Oakdale  Cemetery, 
and  many  of  whom  were  distinguished  in  our  annals,  for 
wealth,  intelligence  and  virtue.  The  old  graveyard  adjoin- 
ing St.  James'  Church  was  for  many,  many  years  the 
common  receptacle  of  the  dead  of  the  town,  and  within  its 
walls,  the  ashes  of  more  than  one  of  our  distinguished 
citizens  still  repose.  It  is  now  almost  deserted,  but  one 
can  learn  a  lesson  of  the  vanity  of  life  from  the  still  remain- 
ing records  of  those,  who,  "after  life's  fitful  fever,  sleep 
well,"  within  its  hallowed  precincts. 

In  August,  1708,  Thomas  Godfrey,  son  of  the  inventor  of 

\vilmingto:n^,  noktii  Carolina.  159 

the  Quadrant,  and  tlie  author  of  the  tirst  dramatic  work 
written  in  America,  died  and  was  buried  in  that  old  church- 
yard. He  was  but  twenty-seven  years  old.  His  grave  is 
undistinguishable  from  those  of  the  numerous  congregation 
of  the  dead  who  sleep  around  him,  for  time  has  long  since 
levelled  the  incumbent  sod,  and  no  stone  was  erected  to 
mark  the  spot  where  his  ashes  repose.  The  memorials  of 
him  are  few.  He  was  born  in  Philadelphia,  and  when 
grown  to  manhood  removed  to  this  place  and  entered  into 
business  as  a  merchant  and  factor.  While  living  here  he 
wrote  his  tragedy,  "The  Prince  of  Parthia,''  and  many 
fugitive  pieces  of  local  interest,  which  survived  for  years 
in  the  recollection  of  the  people  of  this  section.  His  tragedy, 
as  already  stated,  was  the  first  dramatic  work  written  in 
America.  Extracts  from  it  may  be  found  in  Duycinck's 
Cyclopedia  of  Literature. 

The  spot  where  Cornelius  Harnett  sleej^s  is  in  the  north- 
east corner  of  the  old  grave-yard,  and  is  marked  by  a  red 
sands-tone,  about  two  feet  high,  on  which  is  inscribed,  now 
nearly  illegible,  the  following  : 

Cornelius  Haknett, 

Died  April  20th,  1781. 

"Slave  to  no  sect,  ho  took  no  private  road, 
But  looked  through  nature,  up  to  natui-e's  God." 

Such  is  the  brief  and  artless  biograi)hy  written  by  the 
men  of  1781,  of  the  first  President  of  the  Provincial  Council, 
the  first  member  of  the  Provincial  Assembly  from  the 
Borough  of  AVilmington,  and  one  of  the  three  delegates 
from  North  Carolina,  who  signed  the  original  articles  of 
Confederation  of  the  United  States.  He  was  the  represent- 
ative man  of  the  Cape  Fear,  bold,  eloquent  and  incor- 
ruptible, with  a  genius  equal  to  the  greatest  occasions  and 
loftiest  efforts.  He  did  not  live  to  witness  the  success  of 
that  cause  which  was  so  near  his  heart.  While  lying  sick 
at  the  house  of  Mr.   Spicer,   on  the  Sound  road,   he  was 


captured  by  a  party  sent  out  by  Major  Craig,  the  British 
commandant  of  the  town,  and  brought  into  Wilmington. 
The  effect  of  severe  and  almost  barbarous,  exposure, 
inflicted  while  a  i)risoner,  upon  a  system  enfeebled  by 
disease,  could  have  but  one  result.  He  died  while  a 
captive  in  their  hands,  and  the  old  graveyard  of  St.  James' 
contains  all  that  was  mortal  of  the  first  scholar,  statesman 
and  patriot,  of  the  age  in  which  he  lived. 

The  State  has  honored  his  memory  by  assigning  his  name 
to  the  county  of  Harnett ;  but  what  has  New  Hanover 
county  ever  done  to  honor  him  whose  name  so  much  honors 
her.  Should  not  a  monument  have  been  erected  to  his 
memory  long  ago  1  Is  it  too  late  to  do  it  now.  either  upon 
the  spot  where  he  lies,  within  the  town  he  so  faithfully 
served,  or  upon  one  of  those  lovely  mounds  in  Oakdale 
Cemetery,  whither  the  ashes  of  some  of  his  compeers  have 
been  carried  to  slumber  midst  their  children's  children, 
apart  from  the  bustle  of  the  town,  amidst  the  beauty  and 
grandeur  of  the  country  ?  Are  there  not  some  who  will 
undertake  this  pious  task,  this  labor  of  love,  for  one  whose 
only  descendant  is  his  memory  and  his  name  ? 

Major  George  Blaney,  who  died  in  1835,  aged  40  years, 
belonged  to  the  corps  of  Engineers  of  the  United  States 
Army.  He  was  a  prominent  officer  of  the  service,  superin- 
tended the  building  of  Fort  Caswell,  at  the  mouth  of  the 
river,  and  the  works  at  the  jetties,  which  were  undertaken 
by  the  government  to  deepen  the  channel,  but  did  not  have 
the  effect  anticipated. 

Dr.  William  J.  Harriss,  a  skillful  physician  and  a  man 
of  parts,  died  in  1839,  leaving  numerous  descendants. 

Christopher  Dudley,  for  many  years  Postmaster  at  AVil- 
mington,  died  in  1840,. in  the  65th  year  of  his  age. 

Alexander  Anderson,  distinguished  for  his  integrity  and 
sound  judgment,  and  who  was  a  very  successful  dry- 
goods  merchant,  died  in  1844,  aged  59  years. 


Robert  McLaugUin,  the  first  principal  of  the  school  estab- 
lished by  the  society  of  Odd  Fellows,  died  suddenly  in 
1845.     He  was  a  man  of  great  force  of  character. 

Lieut.  William  Henry  Wright,  of  the  United  States 
Corps  of  Engineers,  died  in  1845,  at  the  early  age  of  31 
years.  He  graduated  at  West  Point  with  the  highest 
distinction.  General  Beauregard  being  in  the  same  class, 
and  ranking  second  on  the  list.  Lieutenant  Wright  was 
engaged  upon  the  defences  of  Boston  Harbor,  and  while 
thus  engaged,  published  a  treatise  on  mortars  which  is  still 
recognized  by  the  Engineer  Corps  as  standard  authority. 
He  was  one  of  the  foremost  men  in  his  profession  of  his 
age,  and  was  faultless  in  the  discharge  of  the  duties  of  life. 
Vices,  he  had  none,  and  the  elevated  tone  of  his  morality 
exerted  a  wholesome  influence  over  all  who  came  within 
the  sphere  of  its  action. 

Capt.  J.  H.  K.  Eurgwyn,  of  the  United  States  Army, 
was  killed  in  battle,  during  the  Mexican  war,  in  1847,  aged 
37  years. 

William  C.  Lord,  formerly  Collector  of  the  port,  remark- 
able for  sound  judgment  and  business  qualifications, 
departed  this  life  also  in  the  year  1847,  in  the  54th  year  of 
his  age. 

Dr.  John  Hill,  connected  for  many  years  with  the  Bank 
of  Cape  Fear— first  as  Cashier  and  afterwards  as  President 
—died,  also,  in  1847.  He  wielded  a  pen  at  once  graceful 
and  vigorous,  and  would,  without  doubt,  have  attained  a 
high  rank  in  the  rei)ublic  of  letters  had  he  devoted  himself 
to  literary  pursuits. 

Gov.  Edward  B.  Dudley  died  in  1855.  He  rose  to  dis- 
tinction by  his  native  force  of  character,  and  intrinsic 
worth.  He  served  in  the  Legislature  for  several  terms,  and 
was  the  last  representative  from  Wilmington  under  the  old 
Constitution,  which  allowed  borough  representation.  He 
was  a  member  of  Congress  in  1829,   served  one  term  and 


declined  a  re-eiection,  giving  as  a  reason,  that  Congress  was 
not  a  place  for  any  one  who  desired  to  be  honest.  He 
identified  himself  with  the  cause  of  internal  improvements, 
was  the  active  and  ardent  friend  of  that  great  work,  the 
Wilmington  &  AVeldon  Railroad,  was  its  first  President, 
and  did  more,  perhaps,  than  any  other  one  man,  to  secure 
its  comi^letion.  He  was  the  first  Governor  elected  by  the 
direct  vote  of  the  people  in  1836,  and  so  satisfactory  was 
his  administration  that  tliere  was  no  organized  opx)osi- 
tion  to  his  re-election.  He  was  a  man  of  liberal  and 
enlarged  views,  of  generous  impressions  and  spotless 

Robert  W.  Brown,  a  successful  merchant  and  a  man  of 
great  i)robity,  whose  word  was  as  good  as  his  bond,  died 
in  1856,  aged  70  years. 

Talcott  Burr,  Jr.,  a  journalist  of  distinction,  died  in  1858, 
at  the  early  age  of  38  years. 

In  the  3^ear  1859,  at  the  ripe  age  of  92  years,  died  Dr. 
Armand  John  DeRosset,  identified  with  our  city  by  ances- 
tral descent,  for  more  than  a  century.  There  are  few 
brighter  pages  in  the  history  of  North  Carolina  than  those 
which  record  the  actions  of  such  men  as  Harnett,  Ashe, 
Waddell,  Lillington,  Moore,  Howe  and  others,  all  of  this 
section  of  the  colony.  It  was  among  such  a  people  that 
the  youthful  days  of  Dr.  DeRosset  were  passed.  He  had 
advantages  in  early  life  for  the  attainment  of  knowledge, 
and  in  1788  went  to  Philadelphia  to  attend  the  lectures  at 
the  Medical  College,  rendered  famous  by  the  genius  of 
Dr.  Benjamin  Rush,  and  became  the  pui^il  of  that  cele- 
brated man.  He  received  his  medical  diploma  in  1790, 
and  immediately  entered  upon  the  i)ractice  of  his  profes- 
sion in  this  city,  w-liich  soon  became  large  and  remunera- 
tive, and  so  continued  until  age  compelled  him  to  retire. 
For  more  than  half  a  century  he  was  affectionately  called 
the  "old doctor";  outliving  all  of  his  contemporaries,  and 
dying  at  the  patriarchal  age  of  four  score  and  twelve  years, 
leaving  behind  him  not  an  enemy  in  the  world. 


Mr.  Geo.  W.  Davis,  mercliantj  died  in  18G0,  aged  52 

Rev.  Adam  Empie,  a  distinguished  divine  in  the  Episco- 
pal church,  died  also  in  1860,  in  the  Tnth  year  of  his  age. 

In  1861,  Dr.  Frederick  J.  Hill,  Dr.  Thomas  H.  Wright, 
aged  61,  President  of  the  Bank  of  Cape  Fear,  and  Mr. 
Henry  R.  Savage,  Cashier  of  the  same  Bank,  and  of  the 
same  age,  passed  to  their  rest. 

The  year  1862  will  ever  be  remembered  by  our  people  as 
a  i)eriod  of  terror  and  dismay.  That  dread  pestilence,  the 
yellovf  fever,  raged  with  terrible  malignity,  sweeping  off 
many  of  our  most  ]3rominent  and  valuable  citizens,  among 
them  Rev.  R.  B.  Drane,  Rector  of  the  parish  of  St.  James, 
aged  62  years. 

James  S.  Green,  Treasurer  of  the  Wilmington  &  Weldon 
Railroad  Company  from  its  organization,  aged  63  years. 

Dr.  James  H.  Dickson,  an  accomplished  physician,  a 
man  of  letters  and  large  scientific  attainments,  aged  59 

J.  W.  K.  Dix,  a  prominent  merchant,  age  85. 

Isaac  Northrop,  a  large  mill  owner,  age  67. 

James  T.  Miller,  an  intelligent  and  useful  member  of 
society,  a  genial,  amiable,  kind-hearted  man,  who  served 
in  the  Legislature  for  two  terms,  was  Mayor  of  the  town 
for  many  years,  Chairman  of  the  Countj^  Court,  and 
Collector  of  the  Customs  at  the  time  of  his  death,  aged  47 

Rev.  J.  L.  Pritchard,  Baptist  minister,  fell  at  the  post  of 
duty,  aged  51  years. 

Thomas  Clarkson  Worth,  merchant,  of  the  firm  of  T.  C. 
&  B.  G.  Worth,  aged  45  years,  who  was  born  to  be  a 
merchant  of  the  first  class  and  of  the  highest  principle, 
could  endure  nothing  vile  or  mean.  He  had  a  benevolent, 
feeling  heart,  in  sympathy  with  the  suffering  poor.  He 
possessed  a  delightful  temper,  and  carried  a  stock  of  good 
nature  which  never  failed  him.     During  the  dark  davs  of 


the  yellow  fever,  September  and  October,  1862,  he 
resolved  not  to  Hy  from  the  pestilence,  but  to  abide  here  and 
assist  in  tending  the  sick  and  dying.  In  fact,  it  was  an 
offering  up  of  himself,  on  the  altar  of  duty,  in  behalf  of 
the  poor  and  suffering.  Dr.  Worth  took  the  fever  and 
died  on  the  1st  of  November,  1862. 

Cyrus  Stowe  YanAmringe,  one  of  the  most  gifted  and 
promising  of  our  young  business  men,  remarkably  pleasing 
and  attractive  in  his  person,  ardent  and  faithful  in  his 
devotion  to  his  friends,  and  of  great  purity  in  his  life  and 
character,  fell  at  his  post,  with  many  other  devoted  people, 
during  the  pestilence,  aged  26  years. 

During  the  epidemic,  none  of  our  devoted  citizens  who 
stood  in  the  breach,  were  more  unceasing  in  their 
work  of  humanity,  or  more  constant  in  their  attendance 
upon  the  sick  of  all  classes,  than  Rev.  Father  Murphy,  the 
Roman  Catholic  Priest,  of  St.  Thomas'  church,  and  Rev. 
A.  Paul  Repiton,  of  the  Baptist  church.  The  former 
succumbed  to  the  disease  towards  the  close  of  the  epidemic, 
universally  regretted  by  all  denominations  of  christians. 
The  latter  outlived  the  disease,  and  closed  a  long  and 
useful  life,  some  years  after,  in  Norfolk,  Ya.,  and  now 
sleeps  in  Oakdale. 

Mr.  Edward  P.  Hall,  President  of  the  Branch  of  the 
Bank  of  the  State,  died  in  1863,  aged  77  years,  as  did  also 
Joshua  G  Wright,  a  lorominent  member  of  the  bar,  at  the 
age  of  54  years. 

Timothy  Savage,  Cashier  of  the  Commercial  Bank,  died 
in  1864,  in  the  72nd  year  of  his  age. 

James  Cassidey  died  in  1866,  aged  74  years  ;  and  James 
Fulton,  journalist,  in  the  same  year. 

P.  K.  Dickinson,  one  of  our  most  public-spirited  citizens, 
died  in  1867,  aged  73  years. 

Daniel  B.  Baker,  of  the  legal  profession,  died  in  1868, 
aged  62  years. 

General  Alexander  McRae,  Civil  Engineer,  died  also  in 


1868,    aged  72  years  ;  and  Mcholas  N.   Nixon,  aged  68 

In  1869,  Nathaniel  Greene  Daniel,  of  Worth  &  Daniel, 
departed  this  life  at  the  early  age  of  36  years,  n^onrned 
by  many  devoted  friends,  in  his  untimely  death,  and 
regretted  by  the  entire  business  community.  At  the  time 
of  his  death  he  was  among  the  most  successful  and 
enterprising  of  our  business  men.  Quick  in  percep- 
tion, vigorous  in  action,  and  steadfast  in  routine  duty, 
he  gave  promise  of  a  long  and  useful  career,  to  be 
cut  off  in  the  prime  of  life,  after  months  of  painful 
suffering.  Also  Mr.  John  Wooster,  an  experienced  man 
of  business,  and  Hon,  Samuel  J.  Person,  formerly  a  Judge 
of  the  Superior  Court,  the  former  aged  78  and  the  latter  46 

Daniel  L.  Russell,  an  extensive  planter,  and  a  very 
successful  one,  died  in  1871,  aged  68  years. 

Alfred  L.  Price,  one  of  the  founders  of  the  Wilmington 
Journal,  died  in  1873,  aged  56  years  ;  and  during  the  same 
year,  Robert  H.  Cowan,  the  accomplished  scholar,  polished 
declaimer,  and  graceful  elocutionist,  passed  from  earth  at 
the  age  of  48  years.     "Whom  the  gods  love,  die  early." 

In  1873,  John  A.  Taylor,  who  was  intimately  associated 
with  every  work  of  public  utility  that  would  advance  the 
interest  and  increase  the  prosperity  of  Wilmington, 
departed  this  life  at  the  age  of  74,  followed  in  the  same 
year  by  Miles  Costin,  a  retired  merchant  and  prominent  in 
every  good  work,  73  years  of  age,  and  Junius  D.  Gardner, 
formerly  an  officer  in  the  Bank  of  Cape  Fear,  at  the  age  of 
77  years. 

Dr.  William  A.  Berry,  for  many  years  a  successful 
practitioner  of  medicine,  died  in  1875,  aged  71  years. 

Dr.  F.  J.  Cutlar,  a  most  estimable  gentleman,  aged  75 
years,  died,  also,  in  1875. 

In  1877,  Robert  Strange,  the  chivalrous  gentleman,  the 
accomplished  scholar,  the  able  jurist^  while  arguing  a  case 

l66  WiLMI]Sr(iTON,  noeth  caeolina. 

in  court,  passed  froln  an  earthly  to  a  higher  tribunal,  in 
the  53rd  year  of  his  age.  The  same  year  witnessed  the 
death  of  Silas  N.  Martin,  who  had  been  Mayor  of  the  city, 
and  President  of  the  Carolina  Central  Railroad,  aged  49 
years,  also  of  Capt  William  B.  Whitehead,  an  old  and 
highly  esteemed  naval  officer  of  the  United  States  and  Con- 
federate States  service,  and  Adam  Empie,  an  advocate 
of  rare  powers,  in  the  56th  year  of  his  age. 

In  the  year  1878,  William  A.  Wright,  died,  aged  71 
years,  also  Isaac  B.  Grainger,  aged  37  years,  and  Hon. 
Hugh  Waddell,  aged  [_79  years.  Mr.  Wright  and  Mr. 
Waddell  were  both  distinguished  members  of  the  bar. 
The  latter  won  fame  on  the  hustings,  as  an  advocate 
in  Legislative  halls,  and  was  prominent  in  the  politics  of 
the  State.  Mr.  Wright  preferred  office  j)ractice,  made  no 
pretentions  to  oratory,  ;but  his  mind  was  thoroughly 
disciplined  and  stored  with  legal  lore.  As  a  corporation 
counsel  he  had  no  superior  in  the  State,  and  his  ability  in 
in  that  branch  of  the  profession  was  recognized  abroad.  In 
private  life  he  was  distinguished  for  his  playf q1  humor,  his 
fund  of  anecdote,  his  amiability  and  joyous  vivacity.  He 
was  a  close  observer  and  diligent  student,  and  his  advice 
was  sought  by  the  old  and  grave,  who  valued  his  wisdom 
and  learning  as  much  as  the  more  volatile  his  i^leasantry 
and  fun.  Capt.  Grainger  was  the  architect  of  his  own 
fortunes,  and  by  his  industry  and  energy  attained  a  posi- 
tion which  gave  him  great  influence  in  financial  circles.  He 
was  President  of  the  Bank  of  New  Hanover,  whose  affairs 
he  managed  with  skill  and  success. 

Dr.  J.  Francis  King  died  in  1879,  aged  48  years,  and  the 
following  year,  P.  W.  Fanning  died,  aged  81  years. 

In  1881,  Dr.  Moses  John  DeRosset,  aged  42  years,  F.  D. 
Poisson,  attorney  at  law,  aged  45  years,  John  Dawson, 
merchant,  aged  80  years,  Zebulon  Latimer,  retired  mer- 
chant,   aged  70  years,    T.   C.  James,  journalist,  aged  43 


years,  and  Henry  Nutt,  whose  name  will  for  all  time  be 
connected  witli  our  river  and  harbor  improvements,  passed 

In  1882,  they  were  followed  to  the  grave,  by  Hon.  R.  S. 
French,  formerly  Judge  of  the  Superior  Court,  and  an 
ornament  of  the  bar,  aged  66,  by  Gfeneral  William  McRae, 
one  of  the  most  gallant  f^nd  distinguished  officers  in  the 
Confederate  army,  and  for  many  years  prior  to  his  death 
a  successful  railroad  Engineer,  Superintendent  and  Presi- 
dent, aged  47  years,  then  by  his  attached  friend  and  com- 
panion in  arms.  Captain  David  R.  Murchison,  one 
of  our  most  successful  merchants,  who  united  boldness 
with  sound  judgment  in  business  transactions,  aged 
44 —  a  man  of  most  extraordinary  endowments,  and 
unbounded  industry — and  possessing  an  indomitable 
spirit,  which  grappled  with  all  opposing  forces,  over- 
came all  obstacles,  and  which  placed  him,  in  spite 
of  disease  and  constant  physical  suffering  that  would 
have  prostrated  an  ordinary  man,  at  the  head  of  his 
profession;  recognized  by  his  fellow  merchants  as  a  leader, 
and  esteemed  by  many  who  knew  that  under  his  uncom- 
promising business  exterior,  shone  a  nature  warm  in  sym- 
pathy with  all  distress  and  suft'ering,  to  which  he  responded 
quietly  and  liberally,  and  full  of  love  and  tenderness  to 
those  who  knew  him  best,  and  to  whose  welfare  and 
happiness  he  devoted  his  life.  He  was  the  first  President 
of  the  Produce  Exchange,  having  been  the  means  of  its 
organization,  and  for  a  few  years  prior  to  his  death  was 
largely  interested  in  the  Carolina  Central  Railway,  of  which 
he  was  its  President.  Levi  A.  Hart,  a  prominent  citizen 
and  proprietor  of  the  Foundry  Works,  aged  73  ;  Dr.  J.  C. 
AValker,  a  skillful  physician  and  an  amiable  gentleman, 
aged  49,  and  James  Dawson,  a  successful  Banker,  long 
identified  with  our  city,  and  esteemed  most  by  those  with 
whom  he  was  intimately  related  as  a  kind-hearted  and 
devoted  friend — aged  67. 


Very  many  others  could  be  mentioned,  but  the  limits  of 
this  publication  would  not  admit  of  its  being  done  ;  enough 
have  been  given,  however,  to  show  that  there  has  been  no 
degeneracy  in  our  people  since  the  old  Colonial  times.  It 
is  to  be  hoped  that,  in  the  not  distant  future,  some  one 
competent  to  the  task  may  sketch  the  characters  of  those 
who  once  trod  our  streets  and  acted  so  well  their  parts  in 
the  busy  scenes  of  life.  It  would  not  only  be  of  great 
interest  to  those  who  are  still  upon  the  stage,  but  would 
excite  future  generations  to  imitate  their  example  and  to 
IDractice  their  virtues. 

I  wish  to  acknowledge  most  gratefully  the  courtes}'  of 
Mr.  Richard  J.  Jones,  through  whom  I  have  obtained 
much  of  the  above  interesting  data,  and  the  kindly  offices 
of  Col.  James  G.  Burr,  in  matters  of  detail  upon  this  sub- 
ject, without  whose  invaluable  assistance  I  could  not  have 
accomplished  a  satisfactory  record. 

In  addition  to  "Oakdale,"  there  are  Belle vue,  Pine 
Forest,  (colored),  and  the  National  Cemeteries,  all  of  which 
are  well  situated  and  carefully  attended. 


was  organized  in  Wilmington,  September  11,  1866,  for  the 
mutual  interests  of  those  engaged  in  mercantile  pursuits, 
and  for  the  purpose  of  instituting  a  uniform  system  for  the 
government  of  trade  and  commerce  ;  of  adjusting  amicably 
by  arbitration,  causes  of  dispute,  and  of  exercising  a 
general  supervision  of  all  matters  pertaining  to  the  com- 
mercial interest  of  the  port. 

In  1873  the  organization  of  the  Produce  Exchange 
assumed  control  of  certain  branches  of  our  trade  not  fully 
provided  for  by  the  Chamber  of  Commerce  ;  and  on  the 
12th  of  June,  1873,  the  Constitution  of  the  latter  body  was 
amended  in  all  points  at  conflict  with  the  new  organization. 
The  following  named  members  have  served  as  President  of 
the  Chamber  :     William  L.  DeRosset,  iive  years  ;  Alfred 


Martin,  two  years ;  Dr.  W.  W.  Harriss,  two  years  ;  A.  H. 
VanBokkelen,  seven  years. 

The  jpresent  officers  and  members  are  as  follows  : 

A.  H.  VanBokkelen President. 

E.  Pesciiatj First  Vice-President. 

Donald  MacRae Second  Vice-President. 

John  L.  Cantwell Secretary  and  Treasurer. 

EXECUTIVE   council. 

William  Calder,  George  Harriss, 

Jas.  H.  Chadbourn,  Wm.  L.  DeRokset, 

R.  E.  Heide,  (and  James  Sprunt, 

ex-officio  President  Produce  Exchange.) 


Adrian  &  Vollers,  Kerchner  &  Calder  Bros., 

Blossom,  J.  R.,  &  Evans,  Kidder,  Edward,  &  Son, 

Burruss,  E.  E.,  McRary,  W.  H.,  &  Co., 

Bank  of  New  Hanover,  Martin,  Alfred, 

Cantwell,  John  L.,  Mitchell,  B.  F.,  &  Son, 

Chadbourn,  J.  H.,  &  Co.,  Navassa  Guano  Company, 

DeRosset  &  Co.,  Peschau,  E.  &  Westermann, 

DeRosset,  Wm.  L.,  Robinson,  C.  H., 

Filers,  H.  B.,  Sprunt,  Alex.,  &  Son, 

Harriss,  Geo.,  &  Co.,  VanBokkelen,  A.  H., 

Hall  &  Pearsall,  Worth  &  Worth, 

Heide,  R.  E.,  Williams,  Geo.  W.,  &  Co. 


George  Davis. 

The  following  is  a  record  of  the  proceedings  of  the  last 
annual  meeting  of  the  Chamber,  held  7th  March,  1883  : 

The  annual  meeting  of  the  Chamber  of  Commerce  not 
having  been  held  in  October,  was  ordered  to  be  held  yes- 
terday at  12  o'clock. 


The  meeting  was  called  to  order  by  the  President,  who 
read  his  annual  report,  as  follows : 

Chamber  of  Commerce,  ] 

Wilmington,  N.  C,  7th  March,  1883.  j 

The  annual  meeting  of  this  Chamber  has  been  delayed 
beyond  the  regular  time  by  causes  which  were  in  a  measure 

The  duties  which  remained  to  the  Chamber  of  Commerce 
upon  the  formation  of  the  Produce  Exchange,  in  1873,  were 
"all  questions  arising  bearing  ui3on  transportations,  harbor 
and  imx)rovements,  and  other  public  interests  of  our  city 
or  State,"  including  the  general  commerce  of  the  country 
and  its  advancement,  which  duties  since  the  last  annual 
meeting  have  been  confined  to  the  improvement  being  made 
by  the  United  States  Government  on  the  Cape  Fear  River 
from  Wilmington  to  the  ocean,  and  such  other  matters  as 
were  calculated  to  be  of  benefit  to  the  commerce  of  our 
own  port,  as  well  as  the  general  commercial  interests  of  the 
United  States. 

The  work  now  being  carried  out  by  the  United  States 
Government  will  be  delayed  in  its  completion  because  of 
the  failure  of  Congress  at  its  session  just  closed  to  pass  a 
River  and  Harbor  Bill.  The  present  contracts,  for  which 
funds  remain  in  hand,  will  soon  be  comp)leted,  giving  a 
depth  of  sixteen  feet  at  low  water,  twenty  feet  at  high  water 
from  good  anchorage,  well  protected  at  a  point  twelve  miles 
below  the  city  to  Smithville,  which  will  reduce  the  expense 
of,  and  detention  by,  lighterage  greatly.  Vessels  can  now 
load  to  fifteen  feet  at  wharves  in  the  city.  Bald  Head 
Channel,  out  to  the  ocean,  shows  on  its  bar  a  dei^th  of 
fourteen  feet  at  low  water,  with  eighteen  to  twenty ^feet  at 
high  water. 

A  report  kindly  furnished  by  Mr.  Henry  Bacon,  the 
efficient  United  States  Assistant  Engineer  in  charge  of  the 
improvements,  under  Lieutenant  Colonel  William  P.  Craig- 
hill,  of  the  United  States  Engineer  Corps,  will  be  presented 


by  Colonel  William  L.  DeRosset,  Chairman  of  the  River 
and  Harbor  Committee  of  this  Chamber,  showing  fully  the 
present  condition  of  the  work. 

The  foreign  and  domestic  commerce  of  this  port  shows  a 
steady  and  healthy  increase  in  amount  of  tonnage  employed 
and  value  of  exports  and  imports.  Railroad  connections 
now  existing,  and  others  contemplated,  which  will  be  com- 
pleted wlien  the  depth  of  sixteen  feet  low  water  is  obtained 
to  the  city,  will  bring,  in  addition  to  what  will  come  by 
rivers  to  this  port,  three  to  ten-fold  the  present  receipts. 
Larger  coastwise  steamers,  with  additional  lines,  are  con- 
templated. Steamers  to  Europe  will  be  emj^loyed  for  the 
next  cotton  crop,  this  port  showing  advantages  as  a  ship- 
ping port  over  most  others. 

Our  people  who  have  desponded  over  seeing  Wilmington 
a  great  commercial  centre,  now  have  good  reason  to  hope 
and  soon  will  have  facts  to  assure  them  of  a  great  future 
for  our  city  by  the  sea. 

Respectfully  submitted, 


The  rejDort  of  the  Committee  on  River  and  Harbor 
Improvements  was  read  by  Colonel  W.  L.  DeRosset,  Chair- 
man of  that  Committee,  together  with  the  accompanying 
letter  of  Mr.  Henry  Bacon,  Engineer  in  charge,  as  follows : 
A.  II.  VanBoMeIe7i,  Esq.,  President  CUamber  of  Com- 
merce : 

Sir  : — Your  Committee  have  lately  visited  the  Govern- 
ment works  at  New  Inlet  and  Snow's  Marsh,  and  having 
been  favored  with  the  accompanying  report  of  Mr.  Henry 
Bacon,  United  States  Engineer  in  charge,  which  covers  all 
the  ground,  and  being  i3repared  to  fully  endorse  the  state- 
ments of  Mr.  Bacon,  beg  leave  to  present  the  same  in  con- 
nection with  this  as  their  annual  report,  i 
Respectfully  submitted, 

WM.  L.  DeROSSET,  Chairman, 
Committee  on  Bar  and  River  Improvement. 


A.  H.  VanBoklcelen,  Esq.,  President  of  tlie  Chamber  of 
Commerce,  Wilmington,  iV.  C. : 

Sir  : — At  your  request,  I  take  pleasure  in  making  a  con- 
cise statement  of  the  condition  of  the  improvements  of  the 
Cape  Fear  Kiver. 

At  the  end  of  the  fiscal  year  in  1878  the  shortest  sound- 
ings (or  available  depths)  on  the  Bald  Head  Channel  were 
9  feet  at  mean  low  water,  11  feet  in  1879,  13  feet  in  1880, 
and  14  feet  in  1881  and  1882. 

The  suction  dredge  Woodbury  was  in  operation  on  the 
Bald  Head  Channel  from  April,  1879,  to  October,  1881. 
During  the  time  169,491  cubic  yards  of  sand  were  dredged 
by  it,  and  dumped  in  deep  water,  and  a  much  larger 
amount  was  moved  by  the  natural  forces  of  the  tidal 
currents  from  the  channel  and  large  area  in  the  vicinity. 

The  work  of  closing  the  New  Inlet  by  the  dam  was  begun 
in  October,  1875,  but  the  practical  stoppage  of  the  water 
was  not  perceptible  until  the  years  of  1878  and  1879.  The 
dam  was  thoroughly  com^Dleted  in  June,  1881. 

There  can  be  no  doubt  of  the  beneficial  effect  of  the 
operations  of  the  suction  dredge  in  concentrating  the  tidal 
currents,  especially  at  the  outer  crest  of  the  bar  ;  and  it  is 
probable  that  the  available  depth  of  the  channel  would 
have  been  further  increased  if  the  work  had  been  continued. 
As  it  is,  the  results  are  more  gratifying,  as  proving  the 
power  of  the  natural  forces  in  the  preservation  of  the 
Bald  Head  Channel. 

It  is  obvious  that  the  value  of  all  improvements  depends 
on  the  preservation  of  the  entrance  channel. 

Much  has  been  said  about  the  "swashes"  across  the 
narrow  beach  of  Smith's  Island.  During  past  years,  and 
before,  the  present  improvements  were  initiated,  breaches 
were  made  by  the  sea  across  this  beach,  and  were  closed 
by  natural  causes.  Those  of  1857  were  especially  remark- 
able. The  great  storm  of  April  13th,  1877,  caused  the 
present  breaches  or  swashes.     They  were  subsequently 


partially  closed  by  natural  causes,  but  the  completion  of 
the  New  Inlet  dam  created  a  greater  difference  in  the  rela- 
tive times  of  the  tides  in  the  bay  and  sea,  and  thus  increased 
the  velocity  of  the  tidal  currents,  out  and  in  the  swashes, 
which  has  prevented  the  nataral  closures. 

The  nearest  swash  is  about  two  miles  from  the  main 
river  channel,  and  there  are  wide  intervening  shoals,  and 
there  is,  therefore,  no  immediate  danger  from  the  swashes  ; 
and  they  have  no  perceptible  effect  on  the  main  currents 
of  the  river.  But,  inasmuch  as  the  sea  is  gradually 
encroaching  on  the  beach  and  shoals,  and  producing  an 
indenture  at  the  swashes,  it  is  only  a  question  of  time  when 
a  defence  must  be  made. 

The  matter  is  now  under  consideration  by  a  board  of 
engineers.  It  is  probable  that  they  will  decide  that  it  is 
best  to  begin  the  work  soon  on  an  inner  line,  from  Zeke's 
Island  to  the  big  marsh  across  the  shoal  waters,  and  nearly 
on  the  neutral  line  of  the  tidal  currents,  thus  completely 
separating  tlie  river  from  the  bay  and  swashes,  in  which 
case  there  can  be  but  little  doubt  of  the  natural  closure  of 
the  swashes  and  the  re-formation  of  the  beach. 

A  large  portion  of  the  available  appropriation— from 
$110,000  to  $130,000— is  now  in  reserve  and  can  be  used  for 
this  purpose,  if  so  decided. 

The  work  of  dredgiug  now  in  progress  is  under  two  con- 
tracts. Those  of  Gf.  H.  Ferris,  of  May,  1881,  for  about 
750,000  cubic  yards,  and  the  National  Dredging  Company, 
of  October,  1882,  for  450,000  cubic  yards.  Both  contracts 
terminate  June  30,  1883.  They  will  complete  the  channel 
along  Snow's  Marsh,  and  to  the  deep  water  above,  to  270 
feet  in  width  and  16  feet  deep  at  mean  low  water  ;  and  also 
the  channel  across  the  next  shoal  above  to  the  same  depth, 
and  probably  to  the  same  width,  thus  securing  16  feet  depth 
at  low  water  to  a  i^oint  about  twelve  miles  below  Wilming- 
ton, where  there  is  good  anchorage  in  16  feet  depth  at  low 


water.  The  prospect  of  finishing  the  contracts  at  the 
appointed  time  is,  perhaps,  a  little  doubtful,  but  it  is  cer- 
tain the  channel  by  Snow's  Marsh  and  above  to  deep  water 
will  be  finished  so  far  that  it  can  be  used  within  the  next 
two  months.  This  will  completely  avoid  the  Horse  Shoe 
Channel  and  practically  save  at  least  one  day  in  getting 
deep  draft  vessels  from  Wilmington  to  the  sea.  At  the 
present  time  the  new  channel  is  finished  to  200  feet  width 
along  Snow's  Marsh,  and  to  235  feet  for  the  first  half  mile 
above.  Then  it  is  130  feet  wide  for  the  next  quarter  of  a 
mile,  and  on  the  remaining  or  upper  portion  it  is  75  feet  in 
width— and  the  cut  making  it  100  is  in  progress.  The  reach 
of  the  new  channel  above  Snow's  Marsh  is  approximately 
in  the  line  with  the  ebb  and  flood  tidal  currents,  and  there 
is  every  reason  to  expect  its  permanence  in  depth  and  width. 
The  New  Inlet  dam  remains  as  finished  in  1881.  There  has 
been  no  settlement  or  other  signs  of  deterioration  ;  on  the 
contrary,  it  is  constantly  becoming  more  and  more  solidified 
by  oysters  and  barnacles.  The  passage  of  water  through 
the  small  stones  is  becoming  less  and  less.  The  sand  beach 
is  forming  fast  over  the  site  of  the  Carolina  Shoals,  and  is 
above  high  water  for  nearly  half  the  distance  from  shore 
near  Fort  Fisher  to  the  head  of  Smith's  Island,  and  the 
shoals  are  bare  at  low  tide  over  most  of  the  remaining 
distance.  There  is  a  prospect  at  no  distant  time  that  the 
New  Inlet  basin  will  be  converted  into  a  Sound,  with  per- 
haps one  or  two  small  inlets  across  the  newly  formed  outer 

It  is  unfortunate  that  Congress  has  failed  to  make  any 
appropriations  for  the  coming  fiscal  year.  It  is  hoped  that 
one  will  be  made  early  after  the  meeting  of  Congress  in 
December  next,  in  which  case  the  delay  will  be  less  serious. 

My  estimate  of  the  amount  required  for  the  two  years 
ending  June  30,  1884,  was  $674,368,  of  which  $225,000  was 
appropriated  in  1882,   leaving  a  balance  needed— say  of 


$450,000— to  complete  the  dredging  for  16  feet  depth  at  low 

water  to  Wilmington  and  the  thorough  defence  against  the 


Very  respectfully,  &c., 


United  States  Assistant  Engineer. 


Prior  to  1868  all  quarantine  power  was  invested  in  the 
Commissioners  of  Navigation,  who  were  required  to  appoint 
a  Port  Physician,  and  to  make  and  enforce  such  rules  and 
regulations  for  the  protection  of  the  inhabitants  from  infec- 
tious diseases,  as  they  deemed  necessary.  But  in  that 
year  (1868)  the  Legislature  passed  an  Act  which  divested 
the  Commissioners  of  all  quarantine  power  and  authority, 
and  relieved  them  of  all  responsibility. 

The  Act  provided  that  a  quarantine  station  should  be 
established  opposite  Deep  Water  Point,  and  that  the 
Governor  should  designate  some  physician  who  should  act 
as  medical  quarantine  officer  for  that  station,  where  all 
vessels  subject  to  quarantine  should  be  brought  to  anchor, 
and  be  subject  to  such  rules  and  regulations  as  the  medical 
quarantine  officer  might  prescribe. 

In  1879  this  law  was  amended  so  as  to  j)i"Ovide  for  the 
appointment,  by  the  President  of  the  State  Board  of 
Health,  of  two  i3hysicians  residing  in  Wilmington,  who, 
with  the  medical  quarantine  officer,  should  make  and 
enforce  all  necessary  quarantine  regulations  for  the  port  of 
Wilmington.     This  law  is  still  in  force. 

This  amendment  was  a  wise  provision  against  the  intro- 
duction of  infectious  diseases  by  the  error  or  oversight  of 
a  single  individual  empowered  to  act  with  unlimited  dis- 
cretion ;  and  the  present  arrangement  has  been  found  to 
satisfy  all  classes  of  our  people.  The  present  Board  is 
composed  of  Dr.  W.  G.  Curtis,  medical  quarantine  officer 
appointed  by  the  Governor,  resident  at   Smithville,  and 


Drs.  Thomas  F.  Wood  and  George  G.  Thomas,  residing  at 
Wilmington,  who  issue  quarantine  rules  and  regulations 
every  spring. 

The  Regulations  ior  1882  are  given  below  :  at  this  date 
(20th  March)  the  Regulations  for  1883  have  not  been  issued, 
but  it  is  thought  by  the  Board  that  no  material  change  will 
be  made  : 

Quarantine  Regltlations,  ) 

Port  of  Wilmington,  N.  C,  March  23,  1882.  \ 

The  quarantine  will  go  into  effect  on  the  first  day  of 

The  following  Quarantine  Regulations  will  be  enforced 
for  the  port  of  Wilmington,  and  the  penalty  of  $200  for 
every  violation  thereof  strictly  enforced.  Pilots  violating 
the  same  are  liable  to  a  loss  of  their  branch  : 

To  entitle  a  vessel  to  free  pratique'  in  the  port  of  Wil- 
mington, from  whatever  port  she  may  come,  she  must 
show — 

1st.  A  clean  bill  of  health,  in  accordance  with  the  recom- 
mendations of  the  National  Board  of  Health. 

2d.  She  must  show,  to  the  satisfaction  of  the  Quaran- 
tine Board,  that  no  case  of  infectious  disease  has  occurred 
on  board  at  the  port  of  departure  or  during  the  passage. 

3d.  She  must  be  thoroughly  cleansed  and  disinfected 
and  ballast  discharged  at  the  Quarantine  Station,  and  per- 
form tiny  other  requirements  that  may  be  designated  by 
the  Quarantine  Physician. 

4th.  After  performing  all  these  requirements,  she  may 
receive  a  permit  in  writing  from  the  Quarantine  Physician, 
which  permit  must  be  endorsed  by  the  Quarantine  Board 
before  she  will  be  allowed  to  come  to  the  city, 

5th.  Vessels  subject  to  the  above  regulations  will  be 
designated  by  notice  from  time  to  time  to  their  pilots  and 
others  interested  in  commerce,  and  all  such  vessels  must 
come  to  anchor  at  the  Quarantine  Station,  opposite  Deei) 
Water  Point,  as  far  to  the  eastward  of  the  channel  as  is 


practicable,  so  as  to  allow  tliem  swinging  room,  and  not 
depart  thence  witbout  written  permission  from  the  Quaran- 
tine Physician, 

6th.  Universal  cleanliness  must  be  preserved  on  board 
all  vessels  detained  in  quarantine — the  forecastle,  steerage 
and  cabin  must  be  scrubbed,  all  foul  wearing  apparel  and 
bed  clothing  of  officers,  i^assengers  and  seamen  must  be 
washed  and  aired,  and  all  infected  articles  destroyed,  and 
disinfection  i)i'^cticed  as  directed  by  the  Quarantine 

The  bilge  water  must  be  pumped  out  twice  a  day,  and 
water  from  alongside  put  in  until  the  water  pumped  out 
shall  be  clear  and  free  from  any  offensive  smell ;  and  wind 
sails  must  be  kept  up  in  each  hatchway,  and  trimmed  to 
the  wind  whenever  the  weather  permits. 

Commanders  of  vessels  are  accountable  for  all  irregulari- 
ties committed  on  board  their  respective  vessels,  and  for 
the  conduct  of  such  of  their  people  as  they  may  send  on 
shore  by  permission  of  the  Quarantine  Officer  ;  and  if  any 
person  shall  leave  a  vessel  in  quarantine,  or  go  on  board  of 
such  vessels  without  the  written  permission  of  the  Quaran- 
tine Officer,  he  shall,  on  conviction,  suffer  punishment  as 
by  law  provided  ;  and  all  jiersons  belonging  to  a  vessel  in 
quarantine  are  strictly  forbidden  to  take  on  board  any 
person  who  did  not  arrive  in  such  vessel,  without  a  regular 
permit  from  the  Quarantine  Officer. 

All  communication  between  vessels  in  quarantine  is 
expressly  prohibited,  and  no  boat  or  craft  is  permitted  to 
go  alongside  a  vessel  in  quarantine  except  the  master 
thereof  have  a  written  permission  from  the  Quarantine 

•  Provisions  and  other  necessaries  intended  to  be  sent  on 
board  vessels  at  quarantine  must  follow  the  same  rules  and 
regulations  which  apj)ly  to  other  communications  with  the 
vessels,  and  all  arrangements  for  discharging  and  taking  a 
cargo  must  be  made  with  the  sanction  of  the  Quarantine 


Colors  must  be  worn,  and  a  light  must  be  hoisted  at  night 
so  long  as  the  vessel  is  detained  at  quarantine. 

7th.  Whenever  for  any  reason  the  Quarantine  Board 
resident  in  Wilmington  shall  not  consider  it  safe  for  a 
vessel  to  go  to  the  city  she  may  be  allowed  to  discharge 
and  take  in  cargo  at  the  Quarantine  Station,  under  the  fol- 
lowing conditions :  After  receiving  a  permit  in  writing 
from  the  Quarantine  Physician,  allowing  her  to  load,  the 
captain  may  permit  all  necessary  lighters,  stevedores  and 
laborers  to  go  on  board  or  alongside  ;  but  such  lighters, 
stevedores  and  laborers  shall  be  considered  in  quarantine, 
and  subject  to  all  the  rules  and  regulations  which  apply  to 
the  vessel  itself,  according  to  the  tenor  of  these  regulations, 
and  shall  be  subject  to  detention  for  observation,  fumiga- 
tion and  such  other  measures  as  the  public  safety  may 
require,  and  the  expenses  of  fumigation,  insi^ection  and 
permits  shall  be  paid  by  the  vessel  for  which  the  lighters, 
stevedores  or  laborers  are  employed  ;  and  any  vessel,  steve- 
dore, lighterman  or  laborer  violating  these  regulations, 
shall,  in  addition  to  the  penalty  of  $200  i^rovided  by  law, 
be  liable  to  be  sent  out  of  the  limits  of  the  city  of  Wil- 
mington until  November  1st,  next  ensuing. 

Vessels  engaged  in  discharging  ballast,  or  an}"  other 
service  performed  previous  to  fumigation,  must  remain  in 
quarantine  during  the  entire  season  unless  permitted  in 
writing  by  the  Quarantine  Physician  to  engage  in  other 

8th.  All  persons  residing  in  the  city  of  Wilmington  who 
desire  to  visit  vessels  in  quarantine,  must  tirst  get  a  written 
permit  from  the  Quarantine  Board  resident  in  Wilmington 
enabling  them  to  return  to  the  city,  and  must  x'>i'esent  this 
permit  to  the  Quarantine  Physician  for  his  indorsement 
before  they  can  go  on  board  of  any  vessel  in  quarantine. 

9th.  Pilots  are  notified  that  they  must  make  inquiry  as 
to  the  existence  of  contagious  disease  on  board  of  vessels 
before  boarding,  and  if  by  any  means  they  become  exposed 


to  infection,  they  must  remain  on  board  such  vessel  until 

I)ermitted  to  go  ashore  by  the  Quarantine  Physician. 

10th.  Tow  Boats  and  Steamboats  are  notified  that  they 

must  not  go  alongside  of  any  vessel  subject  to  quarantine 

for  any  purpose  until  such  vessel  is  regularly  discharged 

from  quarantine  by  written  permit  from  the  Quarantine 

Physician.  W.  G.  CURTIS,  M.  D., 

Quarantine  Physician, 

J.  C.  Walker,  M.  D.,        )  ^,         ,,      . 
Thomas  F.  Wood,  M.  D.    j"  '-o»s"it''^i^ts. 


was  organized  April,  1873,  and  incorporated  September  16, 
1873.  The  object  of  this  organization  was  to  provide  and 
regulate  a  suitable  room  for  a  Produce  Exchange  in 
the  city  of  Wilmington,  to  inculcate  just  and  equitable 
principles  of  trade,  to  maintain  uniformity  in  commercial 
usages,  .  to  acquire,  preserve  and  disseminate  valuable 
business  information,  and  to  adjust  controversies  and 
misunderstandings  between  its  members. 

The  following  named  members  have  served  as  President 
since  its  organization  :  D.  R.  Murchison,  D.  Gf.  Worth,  C. 
H.  Robinson,  R.  E.  Calder  and  James  Sprunt. 

The  present  officers  and  members  are  as  follows  : 

James  Sprunt President. 

H.  C.  McQueen Vice  President. 


R.  E.  Calder,  R.  Moore, 

B.  F.  Hall,  Alfred  Martin, 

W.  R.  Kenan. 

3r  embers. 

Adrian  &  Yollers,  Bond,  T.  E,, 

Atkinson  &  Manning,  Burruss,  E.  E., 

Barker,  E.  Gr.,  &  Co.,  Bank  of  New  Hanover, 

Boney,  G.,  &  Sons,  Cantwell,  John  L., 



Cliess-Carley  Co., 

Carolina  Central  Railroad, 

Crow.  John  E., 

Covington,  E.  P.  &  Son, 

Cazaux,  A.  D., 

DeRosset"&  Co., 

Daniel,  Jolin  H., 

Gore,  D.  L., 

Gore,  Albert, 

Greene,  A.  H., 

Gordon,  Jolin  W.  &  Bro., 

Hall  &  Pearsall, 

Heide&  Co., 

Hicks,  R.  W., 

Harriss,  W.  W., 

Wilmington  &  Weldon  R.R 

Johnson,  Harding, 

Kerchner  &  Calder  Bros., 

Kenan  &  Forshee, 

Lilly,  E., 

Love,  C.  S.  &  Co., 

Metts,  James  I., 

Mitchell,  B.  F.  &  Son, 

Martin,  Alfred, 
Mebane,  C.  P., 
McNair,  S.  P., 
Northrop,  Samuel, 
Northrop  &  Camming, 
Newbury,  F.  A., 
Oldham,  W.  P.,  &  Co., 
Peschau,  E.  &  Westerraann, 
*Paterson,  Downing  &  Co., 
Pennypacker,  E.  J., 
Rankin  &  Birdsey, 
Robinson  &  King, 
Sprunt,  Alex.  &  Son, 
Shotter,  S.  P.,  &  Co., 
Smith,  C.  E.,  &  Co., 
Turrentine,  J.  R., 
VanBokkelen,  A.  H., 
VanAmringe,  Geo.O., 
Whitehead,  W.  A., 
Worth  &  W^orth, 
Williams,  Geo.  W.,  &  Co., 
Woody  &  Currie, 
Willard,  A.  A. 


The  Bally  Review.  The  Morning  Star. 

The  rooms  of  the  Exchange  are  quite  inadequate,  not 
more  than  half  the  members  being  comfortably  provided 
for.  It  is  hoped  that  the  next  Board  of  Managers  will 
furnish  more  suitable  accommodations,  and  that  the  rooms 
may  not  only  be  attractive  to  the  members,  but  serve  as  a 
place  of  resort  for  our  business  people  at  any  hour  of  the 
day.  The  stock  reports  and  other  statistics  required  by 
the  organization  are  most  creditably  prepared  by  the 
Secretary,  Col.  J.  L.  Cantwell,  whose  long  experience  and 
remarkable  accuracy  especially  fit  him  for  this  important 


duty.     The  Board  of  Managers  have  much   pleasure  in 
testifying  to  his  skill  and  faithfulness. 

In  an  old  pamphlet  "On  the  Trade  of  Wilmington, 
"North  Carolina,  and  of  the  produce  exportable  from  the 
"River  Cape  Fear,  the  season  and  prospects  taken  into 
"view  May  1st,  1815,"  by  Joshua  Potts,  the  following 
interesting  information  is  given  under  the  head  of 
^'  Bemarl's^-  :  "  It  is  unadvisable,  and  often  disadvanta- 
geous, for  a  merchant  in  a  distant  State  or  foreign  port,  to 
dispatch,  a  ship  to  Wilmington  under  orders  for  a  cargo  of 
our  ]3roduce,  without  first  having  written  to  his  correspon- 
dent  of  particulars  required.  Four  to  six  loeeJcs  preGtous 
notice  to  the  agent  is  always  requisite,  that  he  may  have 
time  and  opportunity  to  procure  the  produce  described, 
at  the  best  advanl?age,  and  have  it  in  readiness  by  the  time 
of  the  arrival  of  such  shij).  Great  detention  and  disap- 
pointment often  happens  in  consequence  of  voyages  being 
abruptly  commenced,  as,  but  seldom,  i)eculiar  kinds  of 
produce  can  be  had  on  sudden  notice." 

The  above  contrasts  strangely  with  the  method  of  the 
present  day.  Several  cargoes  at  a  time  are  now  frequently 
sold  within  as  many  hours  by  cable  to  foreign  markets.  A 
remarkable  instance  of  improved  facilities  occurred  here  a 
few  weeks  ago,  when  a  member  of  this  Exchange  offered 
by  cable  to  Liverpool,  at  9.30  A.  M.,  a  cargo  of  cotton, 
which  was  not  only  immediately  accepted,  but  confirmed 
by  a  cable  received  in  the  Wilmington  office  63  minutes 
after  the  dispatch  of  the  first  message  to  Liverpool.  Thus 
an  entire  transaction  was  made  and  confirmed  with  a  foreign 
market  within  an  hour  and  a  quarter — annihilating  time 
to  the  extent  of  about  three  hours  and  three-quarters. 


There  is  no  record  of  the  date  of  the  first  appearance  of 
the  telegraph  in  Wilmington,  but  an  office  was  probably 
established  here  by  the  old  Washington  and  New  Orleans 


Magnetic  Telegraph  Company,  al^out  the  year  1850.  The 
system  then  generally  in  nse  was  the  old  Morse  register 
system— everything  being  recorded  on  paper  in  Morse  char- 
acters, and  transcribed  by  the  operator— a  slow  and  tedions 

About  1858,  the  use  of  paper  began  to  be  laid  aside  by  a 
great  many  operators,  who  discovered  that  sound  reading 
was  quite  as  safe  ;  and  while  lessening  the  labor,  it  expe- 
dited the  business  by  saving  a  great  deal  of  time  that  had 
before  been  consumed  in  translating  from  the  paper.  Now, 
and  for  fifteen  years  past,  the  use  of  the  old  Morse  paper 
register  has  been  discontinued  almost  entirely.  Hence  the 
system  in  use  here  at  present  is  that  in  general  use  in  this 
country — the  "Morse" — by  which  the  message  is  taken 
from  the  instrument  by  sound,  at  the  very  moment  it  is 
sent  by  the  transmitting  office,  and  is  ready  for  delivery  at 
the  end  of  the  line  as  soon  as  the  last  word  is  finished  by 
the  sending  office. 

There  are  other  systems  such  as  the  "Automatic,"  the 
* 'Harmonic,"  and  some  of  which  very  little  is  known,  but 
they  all  work  by  complicated  means,  and  require  a  small 
army  of  clerks  to  translate  and  transcribe  that  which  has 
been  received.  None  have  yet  stood  a^rac^/ca?  test  that 
would  make  them  desirable  as  a  substitute  for  the  old, 
first  invention,  of  Morse. 

During  the  past  three  years  there  have  been  built  here 
two  new  wires,  in  which  Wilmington  has  some  interest — 
as  they  have  given  us  better  facilities  for  handling  an 
important  class  of  business.  One  of  them  is  the  New  York 
Cotton  Exchange  wire,  giving  us  direct  communication 
with  the  Cotton  Exchange,  and  Wall  Street,  in  New  York. 

The  other  is  the  Carolina  Central  wire,  which,  in  the 
cotton  season  is  an  imi)ortant  one  to  cotton  merchants. 

The  present  facilities  of  the  office  are  as  follows  :  1  New 
York  Commercial  News  Department  wire— direct  with  the 
New  York  Main  office  ;  1  New  York  Cotton  Exchange  wire, 


direct ;  2  Charleston  wires  ;  2  Augusta  wires,  (one  of  these 
used  to  Savannah  at  times) ;  1  Washington  and  Ealeigh 
wire  ;  1  New  Berne  and  Raleigh  wire  ;  2  Richmond  wires  ; 
2  Charlotte  wires,  (one  extending  to  Shelby). 

Some  of  these  wires  of  course  take  in  a  number  of  inter- 
mediate stations  between  Wilmington  and  Augusta,  and 
between  Wilmington  and  Weldon. 

During  the  past  two  years  rates  have  been  reduced  very 
materially,  the  reduction  averaging  at  least  twenty  per 
cent.  The  volume  of  business  here  has  increased  in  the 
last  three  years  about  one-fourth,  and  the  receipts  about 
ten  per  cent. 

Good  progress  has  been  made  with  us  in  the  manner  of 
handling  business  during  this  period.  There  has  been  a 
gradual  lessening  in  the  time  of  dispatching  business,  and 
in  the  transmission  of  the  replies  thereto,  notably  on 
northern  and  western  lines.  Of  course  there  is  still  room 
for  improvement,  especially  in  the  further  reduction  of 
rates  in  view  of  the  yearly  increase  in  the  dividends 
declared  by  this  immense  monopoly. 

The  cable  business,  up  to  last  month,  has  been  larger 
this  season  than  ever  before— showing  that  our  foreign 
business  is  growing,  or  that  people  are  becoming  habituated 
to  the  use  of  the  cable. 

The  staff  of  this  office  is  as  follows  : 

W.  H.  Sterling, Manager. 


K.  B.  Topping,  R.  J.  McIliienny, 

C.  W.  Peterson,  J.  T.  Hambrick. 



Besides  six  messengers  and  two  battery  and  line  men. 
Our  general  business  community    will    bear    cheerful 
testimony,  not  only  to  the  unvarying  courtesy  and  obliging 

184  WILMINGTON",    TCORTII    r'AllOLlXA, 

(lisixj.sition  of  ]\raiKi,<^ei'  Sterling.  l)uf  to  tlie  remarkable 
industry  and  Avonderl'iil  accuracy  and  ])atience  of  those 
quiet,  solemn  people,  upon  whom  so  raucli  depends  in  our 
daily  business  transactions. 


is  licensed,  under  patents  of  Alexander  Graliam  Bell,  and 
was  opened  in  1879.  The  present  number  of  subscribers  is 
81,  and  the  system  is  generally  adopted  by  our  business 
people.  The  city  of  Wilmington  was  one  of  the  first 
in  the  South  to  show  its  enterprise  in  the  adoption  of  the 
Telephone  Exchange  system.  In  1880  the  method  of  work- 
ing was  much  improved  by  the  introduction  of  the  "Law 
System"  of  Central  Office  "switching,"  which  is  claimed 
to  be  the  best  in  the  world. 

Wilmington  was  the  second  city  in  the  United  States  to 
adopt  the  Telephonic  Fire  Alarm  System,  the  wisdom  of 
the  action  being  frequently  demonstrated. 

Private  lines  are  in  operation  with  the  main  office  to  the 
Navassa  Guano  Works,  at  Meares'  Bluff,  and  to  Mason- 
boro'  Sound. 

There  is  i^robably  no  more  obliging  and  intelligent 
Manager  in  the  service  than  Mr.  J.  C.  AVhite,  in  charge 
here,  who  affords  every  facility  for  prompt  and  satisfactory 
communication  with  the  members  of  the  Exchange. 

It  is  a  matter  of  interest  with  reference  to  this  subject 
that  experience  has  proved  the  impossibility  of  using  the 
telephone  satisfactorily  for  greater  distances  than  a  hun- 
dred miles. 

Laboratory  telephonic  tests  have  worked  through  a 
"resistance"  of  wire  equal  to  150,000  miles  of  telegraph 
line,  but  on  actual  lines  the  leakage  of  electricity  from  the 
wire  to  the  ground,  dampness  in  the  atmosphere,  and  other 
magnetic  disturbances  render  the  transmission  of  speech 
far  less  easy  than  was  at  first  expected  by  electricians.  By 
submarine  wire  the  circuit  is  confined  to  lesser  distances — 


that  is  to  say,  a  land  wire  will  work  satisfactorily  live  times 
longer  than  a  cable  wire,  so  that,  although  telephonic 
messages  have  ])een  sent  hy  cable  sixty  to  eighty  miles, 
they  are  practically  of  no  use  at  a  greater  distance  than 
twenty  or  thirty  miles. 

A  recent  publication  asserts  that  experiments  made  with 
the  Gray-Harmonic  system  and  Dorrance  telej)lione  be- 
tween Cleveland,  Ohio,  and  New  York,  over  the  heavy, 
copper  wire  of  the  Postal  Telegraph  Company  have  de- 
monstrated the  feasibility  of  connecting  the  larger  cities  of 
the  Middle  and  Eastern  States  by  telephone,  and  a  record 
is  made  of  alleged  thoroughly  successful  tests  over  a  wire 
of  G50  miles  in  jDroof  of  this.  The  statement  is  also  made 
that  a  test  of  speaking  over  1,000  miles  of  wire  has  been 
successful;  but  it  is  believed  by  many  electricians  to  be 
either  a  mistake  or  altogether  untrue. 


For  the  year  ending  January  31,  1883. 

Number  of  pieces  of  mail  matter  originating  and  received 
at  this  office  for  transmission  : 

First  class  matter,  number  of  jDieces, .  .1,568,580  * 
Second '^        "  "  "       "       ..1,227,920 

Third     "         "  "  "       "       ..     191,508 

Fourth"        "  "  "       "       ..      20,448 

Total  number  of  pieces  mailed ....  3,008,516 

Number  of  pieces  received  at  this  office 

for  delivery, 4,036,240-4,036,240 

Total  No.  of  pieces  handled 7,044,756 



Deposits  received  from  other  offices ....  |124,800 

Received  from  Money  Orders  issued, . .      78,330—  $203,130 



Money  Orders  paid, $108,140 

Deposited  order  of  Department 94,990—  $203,130 

Total  Money  Order  business, $406,260 


Nambsr  letters  registered  at  this  office,  8,325 
Number  of  re.sfistered  letters  delivered 

at  this  office, 7,440 

Number  of  registered  letters  in  transit,  37,420 

Total  number  of  registered  letters 
handled, 53,185 


Stami)ed  envelopes.  Postal  cards,  &c.,  132,342 

International  Money  Orders  are  issued  in 

The  Dominion  of  Canada,       France, 

New  Foundland,  Algiers, 

England,  Switzerland, 

Scotland,   •  Austria, 

Wales,  Hungary, 

Ireland,  Italy, 

British  India,  Jamaica, 

Germany,  New  Zealand, 

Denmark,  New  South  Wales, 

Sweden,  Victoria, 

Norway,  Belgium, 

Luxemberg,  Tasmania. 
The  Netherlands, 

The  general  business  of  the  office  has  increased  fully 
forty  per  cent,  in  the  last  four  years,  and  the  administra- 
tion of  its  affairs  by  the  present  Post-Master,  E.  R.  Brink, 
who  has  been  repeatedly  renominated,  is  most  efficient, 


and,  I  believe,  entirely  satisfactory  to  all  classes  of  our 

Arrangements  are  being  made  for  a  free  delivery  of  tlie 
mails  tlirougliout  our  city,  which  has  been  proposed 
through  Post-Master  Brink,  and  our  city  government  is 
preparing  for  this  improvement  by  a  proper  designation  of 
the  streets  and  numbering  of  the  houses. 


In  the  beginning  of  this  century  Michaux,  with  reference 
to  the  long-leaf  pine  {Pinus  Australis),  wrote  as  follows  : 
<'  This  invaluable  tree  is  known  both  in  the  countries  which 
produce  it  and  in  those  to  which  it  is  exported,  by  different 
names :  in  the  first  it  is  called  long-leaved  pine,  yellow 
pine,  pitch  pine,  and  brown  jDine ;  in  the  Northern  States, 
Southern  pine  and  red  pine  ;  and  in  England  and  the  West 
Indies,  Georgia  pitch  pine.  I  have  preferred  the  first 
denomination,  because  this  species  has  longer  leaves  than 
any  other  eastward  of  the  Mississippi,  and  because  the 
names  of  yellow  pine  and  pitch  pine,  which  are  more  com- 
monly employed,  serve,  even  in  the  Middle  States,  to  desig- 
nate two  species  entirely  distinct  and  extensively  diffused. 
The  specific  epithet  Australis  is  more  appropriate  than 
that  of  Palustris,  which  has  hitherto  been  applied  to  it  by 
botanists,  but  which  suggests  an  erroneous  idea  of  the 
situations  in  which  it  grows. 

Towards  the  north  the  long-leaved  pine  first  makes  its 
appearance  near  Norfolk,  in  Virginia,  where  the  pine- 
barrens  begin.  It  seems  to  be  especially  assigned  to  dry, 
sandy  soils,  and  it  is  found,  almost  without  interruption, 
in  the  lower  part  of  the  Carolinas,  Georgia  and  the  Floridas, 
over  a  tract  more  than  600  miles  long  from  northeast  to 
southwest,  and  more  than  100  miles  broad  from  the  sea 
towards  the  mountains  of  the  Carolinas  and  Georgia.  I 
have  ascertained  three  points,  about  100  miles  apart,  where 
it  does  not  grow  ;  the  first,  8  miles  from  the  river  Neuse,  in 


North  Carolina,  on  tlie  road  from  Lonisburgli  to  Raleigh  ; 
the  second,  between  Chester  and  Winnsboro,  in  South 
Carolina  ;  the  third,  12  miles  north  of  Augusta,  in  Greorgia. 
Where  it  begins  to  show  itself  towards  the  river  Neuse,  it 
is  united  with  the  loblolly  pine,  the  yellow  pine,  the  pond 
pine,  the  black  jack  oak  and  the  scrub  oak;  but  immedi- 
ately beyond  Raleigh  it  holds  almost  exclusive  possession 
of  the  soil,  and  is  seen  in  company  with  the  pines  just 
mentioned  only  on  the  edges  of  the  swamps  enclosed  in 
the  barrens  ;  even  there  not  more  than  one  stock  in  a  hun- 
dred is  of  another  species.  With  this  exception  the  long- 
leaved  pine  forms  the  unbroken  mass  of  woods  which 
covers  this  extensive  country.  Bat  between  Fayetteville 
and  Wilmington,  in  North  Carolina,  the  scrub  oak  is  found 
in  some  districts  disseminated  in  the  barrens^  and,  except 
this  species  of  pine,  it  is  the  only  tree  capable  of  subsist- 
ing in  so  dry  and  sterile  a  soil. 

The  mean  stature  of  the  long-leaved  pine  is  60  or  70  feet, 
with  an  uniform  diameter  of  15  or  18  inches  for  two-thirds 
of  this  height.  Some  stocks,  favored  b}^  local  circum- 
stances, attain  much  larger  dimensions,  particularly  in 
East  Florida.  The  bark  is  somewhat  furrowed,  and  the 
epidermis  detaches  itself  in  thin  transparent  sheets.  The 
leaves  are  about  a  foot  long,  of  a  beautiful,  brilliant  green, 
united  to  the  number  of  three  in  the  same  sheath,  and 
collected  in  bunches  at  the  extremity  of  the  branches;  they 
are  longer  and  more  numerous  on  the  young  stocks,  which 
are  sometimes  out  by  the  negroes  for  brooms.  The  buds 
are  very  large,  white,  fringed,  and  not  resinous. 

The  bloom  takes  i3lace  in  April ;  the  male  flowers  form 
masses  of  divergent,  violet-coloured  aments  about  2  inches 
long  ;  in  drying  they  shed  great  quantities  of  yellowish 
pollen,  which  is  diffused  by  the  wind  and  forms  a  momen- 
tary covering  on  the  surface  of  the  land  and  water.  The 
cones  are  very  large,  being  7  or  8  inches  long,  and  4  inches 
thick  when  oi^en,  and  are  armed  with  small  retorted  spines. 


In  the  fruitful  year  they  are  ripe  about  the  15th  of  October, 
and  shed  their  seeds  the  same  month.  The  kernel  is  of  an 
agreeable  taste,  and  is  contained  in  a  thin  white  shell, 
surmounted  by  a  membrane  ;  in  every  other  species  of 
American  pine  the  shell  is  black.  Sometimes  the  seeds 
are  very  abundant  and  are  voraciously  eaten  by  wild 
turkeys,  squirrels,  and  the  swine  that  live  almost  wholly  in 
the  woods.  But  in  the  unfruitful  year,  a  forest  of  a 
hundred  miles  in  extent  may  be  ransacked  without  finding 
a  single  cone  ;  this  probably  occasioned  the  mistake  of  the 
French,  who,  in  1567  attempted  a  settlement  in  Florida, 
that  the  woods  were  filled  with  superb  pines  that  never 
yielded  seed. 

The  long- leaved  pine  contains  but  little  sap  ;  several 
trunks  15  inches  in  diameter  at  the  height  of  3  feet,  which 
I  have  myself  measured,  had  10  inches  of  perfect  wood. 
Many  stocks  of  this  size  are  felled  for  commerce,  and  none 
are  received  for  exportation  of  which  the  heart  is  not  10 
inches  in  diameter  when  squared. 

The  concentric  circles,  in  a  trunk  fully  developed,  are 
close  and  at  equal  distances,  and  the  resinous  matter,  which 
is  abundant,  is  more  uniformly  distributed  than  in  the 
other  species  ;  hence  the  wood  is  stronger,  more  compact, 
and  more  durable  ;  it  is,  besides,  fine-grained  and  suscep- 
tible of  a  bright  polish.  These  advantages  give  it  a  prefer- 
ence over  every  other  pine  ;  but  its  quality  is  modified  by 
the  nature  of  the  soil  in  which  it  grows  ;  in  the  neighbor- 
hood of  the  sea,  where  only  a  thin  layer  of  mold  reposes 
on  the  sand,  it  is  more  resinous  than  where  the  mold  is  5 
or  6  inches  thick  ;  the  stocks  that  grow  upon  the  first 
mentioned  soil  are  called  pitch  pine,  and  the  others  yellow 
pine,  as  if  they  were  distinct  species. 

This  wood  subserves  a  great  variety  of  uses  in  the  Caro- 
linas,  Georgia  and  the  Floridas  ;  four-fifths  of  the  houses 
are  built  of  it,  except  the  roof,  which  is  covered  with 
shingles  of  cypress  ;  but  in  the  country  the  roof  is  also  of 


pine,  and  is  renewed  after  15  or  18  years,   a  considerable 
interval  in  a  climate  so  warm  and  humid. 

A  vast  consumption  takes  place  for  the  enclosure  of 
cultivated  fields.  In  naval  architecture  this  is  the  most 
esteemed  of  the  pines  :  in  the  Southern  States,  the  keel, 
the  beams  the  side-planks,  and  the  pins  by  which  they  are 
attached  to  the  ribs,  are  of  this  tree.  For  the  deck,  it  is 
I)referred  to  the  true  yellow  pine,  and  is  exported  for  that 
purpose,  to  Philadelphia,  New  York,  etc.,  where  it  is  in 
request,  also,  for  the  flooring  of  houses. 

In  certain  soils  its  wood  contracts  a  reddish  hue,  and  it 
is  for  that  reason  known  in  the  dock-yards  of  the  Northern 
States  by  the  name  of  red  pine.  Wood  of  this  tint  is 
considered  the  best,  and  in  the  opinion  of  some  ship- 
wrights, it  is  more  durable  on  the  sides  of  vessels,  and  less 
liable  to  injury  from  worms,  than  the  oak. 

The  long-leaved  pine  is  the  only  species  exported  from 
the  Southern  States  to  the  West  Indies.  A  numerous  fleet 
of  small  vessels  is  employed  in  this  trafiic,  imrticularly 
from  Wilmington,  in  North  Carolina,  and  Savannah,  in 

The  stuff  destined  for  the  Colonial  market  is  cut  into 
every  form  required  in  the  construction  of  houses  and  of 
vessels  ;  what  is  sent  to  England  is  in  planks  from  15  to  30 
feet  long  and  10  or  12  inches  broad ;  they  are  called 
ranging  Umbers,  and  are  sold  at  8  or  10  dollars  a  hundred 
cubic  feet.  The  vessels  freighted  with  this  timber  repair 
chiefly  to  Liverpool,  where  it  is  said  to  be  employed  in  the 
building  of  ships  and  of  wet-docks  :  it  is  called  Georgia 
pitch  pine,  and  is  sold  25  or  30  per  cent,  higher  than  any 
other  pine  imported  from  the  United  States. 

From  the  diversified  uses  of  this  wood  an  idea  may  be 
formed  of  the  consumption  ;  to  which  must  be  added  a 
waste  of  a  more  disastrous  kind,  which  it  seems  impossible 
to  arrest.  Since  the  year  1804  extensive  tracts  of  the  finest 
pines  are  seen  covered  only  with  dead  trees.     In  1802  I 


remarked  a  similar  plienomenon  among  the  yellow  pines  in 
East  Tennessee.  This  catastrophe  is  felt  among  the  Scotcli 
firs  which  people  the  forests  of  the  north  of  Europe,  and  is 
wrought  by  swarms  of  small  insects,  which  lodge  them- 
selves in  different  parts  of  the  stock,  insinuate  themselves 
under  the  bark,  penetrate  into  the  body  of  the  tree,  and 
cause  it  to  perish  in  the  course  of  the  year. 

The  value  of  the  long-leaved  pine  does  not  reside  exclu- 
sively in  its  wood  :  it  supplies  nearly  all  the  resinous  matter 
used  in  the  United  States  in  ship-building,  and  a  large 
residue  for  exportation  to  the  AVest  Indies  and  Q-reat 
Britain.  In  this  view  its  place  can  be  suj^plied  by  no  other 
species:  those  which  afford  the  same  product  being  dis' 
persed  through  the  woods  or  collected  in  inaccessible 
places.  In  the  Northern  States  the  lands  which,  at  the 
commencement  of  their  settlement,  were  covered  with  the 
pitch  pine,  were  exhausted  in  25  or  30  years,  and  for  more 
than  half  a  century  have  ceased  to  furnish  tar.  The  pine- 
barrens  are  of  vast  extent,  and  are  covered  with  trees  of 
the  finest  growth  ;  but  they  cannot  all  be  rendered  profita- 
ble from  the  difficulty  of  communication  with  the  sea. 
Formerly  tar  was  made  in  all  the  lower  parts  of  the 
Carolinas  and  Georgia,  and  throughout  the  Floridas  vestiges 
are  everywhere  seen  of  kilns  that  have  served  in  the  com- 
bustion of  resinous  wood.  At  present  this  branch  of 
industry  is  confined  to  the  lower  districts  of  North 
Carolina,  which  furnish  almost  all  the  tai"  and  turpentine 
exported  from  Wilmington  and  other  ports." 

Professor  Kerr,  in  his  Physiographical  Description  of 
North  Carolina,  refers  to  the  trees  of  this  State  as  fol- 
lows : 

"It  will  be  seen  from  the  United  States  Census  tables  for 
1870,  that  of  its  50,000  square  miles  of  territory,  40,000  are 
still  covered  with  forests.  The  range  and  variety  of  preva- 
lent and  characteristic  species  of  growth,  being  of  course 
proj)ortioned  to  those  of  the  climate  and  soil^  are  very 


There  are,  in  fact,  three  well-marked  and  broadly  dis- 
tinguished forest  regions,  corresponding  to  and  dependent 
upon  the  three  geographical  sub-divisions.  Eastern,  Middle 
and  Western.  And  while  the  first  section  is  characterized 
by  a  growth  common  in  its  prominent  features  to  that  in 
the  Grulf  States,  as  the  long-leaf  pine,  cypress,  &c.;  the 
western  or  mountain  section  contains  many  species  familiar 
in  the  White  Mountains,  and  in  New  York.  Among  the 
most  distinctive,  abundant  and  valuable  species  are  the 
pines,  oaks,  hickories,  cypress  and  juniper. 

Pines  are  the  predominant  growth  of  the  eastern  section, 
there  are  eight  species  in  the  State,  the  most  important 
being  the  long-leaf  {pinus  australis),  the  yellow,  {pinus 
mitts),  and  the  white  {pinus  strobus).  The  long-leaf  pine 
is  found  only  in  the  eastern  or  sea-coast  region;  the  yellow 
pine  abounds  throughout  the  State  ;  the  white  pine  is 
limited  to  the  higher  mountain  regions. 

The  long-leaf  pine  is  the  predominant  growth  of  the 
eastern  section  of  the  State,  and  occupies  almost  exclusively 
a  broad  belt  quite  across  the  State,  and  extending  from 
near  the  coast  more  than  a  hundred  miles  into  the  interior, 
covering  a  territory  of  near  15,000  square  miles.  This  is 
one  of  the  most  valuable  of  all  trees,  on  account  of  the 
number  and  importance  of  the  uses  it  subserves.  It  is 
shipped  in  the  form  of  lumber  for  civil  and  naval  architec- 
ture to  all  parts  of  the  world,  and  is  unequalled  for  these 
purposes,  on  account  of  its  strength  and  durability.  It 
furnishes  the  naval  stores  of  commerce,  known  in  all  parts 
of  the  world  ;  the  forests  of  this  State  furnishing  twice  as 
much  as  all  the  other  States  together.  From  the  rosin  of 
this  tree  is  made  the  rosin-oil  of  commerce,  and  this  sub- 
stance also  supplies  the  Southern  towns  with  gas. 

The  yellow  pine  furnishes  an  important  building  timber 
in  all  parts  of  the  State. 

The  white  pine  is  confined  to  the  sx^urs  and  plateaus 
of  the  mountain  and  Piedmont  regions,   being  found  in 


great  abundance  in  some  counties,  and  of  great  size,  three 
feet  and  more  in  diameter,  and  one  hundred  to  one  hundred 
and  fifty  feet  high. 

The  other  species  are  less  widely  distributed  and  less 
valuable,  except  the  Plnus  tceda,  which,  in  the  Eastern 
section,  sometimes  attains  a  great  size,  and  furnishes  an 
excellent  building  and  ship  timber. 

The  oaks  rank  with  the  pines  in  value,  and  excel  them 
in  variety  of  uses,  number  of  species  and  extent  of  dis- 
tribution. While  the  pine,  (a  single  species,)  gives  charac- 
ter to  about  one-third  of  the  forest  area  of  the  State,  the 
oaks  dominate  not  less  than  two-thirds.  There  are  twenty 
species  in  the  United  States,  all  of  them  found  in  North 
Carolina,  with  possibly  one  insignificant  exception;  Among 
these  the  most  important  are  : 

The  white  oaks,  of  which  there  are  several  species,  (the 
most  valuable),  Quercus  alba,  Q.  oMusiloba,  (post  oak  and 
Q.  prinus,)  forming  extensive  forests  in  all  sections  of  the 
State.  On  account  of  its  strength  and  durability  and  great 
abundance,  its  uses  are  important  and  manifold,  both  for 
domestic  purposes  and  for  export  in  the  form  of  staves  and 
ship  timber.  The  ship-yards  of  Liverpool  are  already 
seeking  their  material  in  the  forests  of  middle  North  Car- 

Several  other  species  of  oak  are  also  of  wide  and  varied 
use,  chiefly  the  red  oak  {Q.  rubra),  black  oak  {Q.  tinctoria), 
and  willow  oak  {Q.  i:>liellos\  which  are  abundant  through- 
out the  middle  and  western  district,  and  often  grow  to  a 
very  great  size.  Live  oak  {Q.  mrens)  is  found  only  in  the 
seaboard  region,  whose  value  in  ship-building  is  well- 

Hickory.— Of  this  tree  there  are  nine  species  in  North 
America,  and  seven  of  them  are  found  in  this  State,  and 
three  species  in  all  parts  of  it,  and  in  abundance,  and  often 
of  great  size.  But  little  use  has  hitherto  been  made  of  this 
tree,  eXcJept  as  fuel  and  for  wagons  and  handles ;  but  being 


one  of  tlie  most  dense,  rigid,  heavy  and  iron-like  of  our 
woods,  it  has  recently  come  into  great  demand,  and  many 
large  handle  and  spoke  factories  have  been  erected  within 
a  few  years,  whose  products  are  shipped  by  millions  to 
Eurox^e,  California,  Australia  and  all  mining  countries 
especially.  The  forests  of  North  Carolina  will  supply  this 
world-wide  demand  for  many  years. 

Walnut  exists  in  two  species,  one,  the  common  black 
walnut  {Juglans  nigra),  throughout  the  State,  but  most 
abundantly  in  the  middle  district.  It  is  a  most  valuable 
wood,  being  very  compact,  durable,  free  from  attacks  of 
insects,  of  a  very  fine  dark  brown  color,  and  capable  of  a 
high  polish.  It  is  the  most  popular  and  universally  used 
cabinet  wood  in  the  United  States,  but  is  so  common  in 
the  middle  and  western  sections  of  this  State  that  large 
farms  are  fenced  with  it. 

The  Chestnut  {Castanea  vesca)  is  one  of  our  largest 
forest  trees,  sometimes  10  feet  in  diameter  and  80  to  90  feet 
high,  found  mostly  and  abundantly  in  the  Piedmont  and 
mountain  regions  of  the  State,  where  it  is  much  esteemed 
and  used  for  fencing,  on  account  of  its  great  durability  and 
facility  of  working.  It  is  also  valued  for  its  abundant 
crop  of  fruit,  which,  with  the  acorns  of  tlie  oaks,  is  the 
princip>al  dependence  of  the  hog-raisers  of  the  mountain 

Poplar  {Lir lodendron  tulipifera)  is  one  of  the  largest 
and  handsomest  of  our  forest  trees,  and  occurs  in  all  parts 
of  the  State,  attaining  its  greatest  size  in  the  mountains. 
It  is  much  used  for  building  and  other  domestic  purposes 
as  a  substitute  for  pine,  combining  lijiitness  and  facilitj^ 
of  working  with  rigidity  and  durability. 

Cypress  {Taxodlum  disticlium)  abounds  in  the  swamps 
and  lowlands  of  the  east,  forming  the  almost  exclusive 
growth  of  several  thousand  square  miles  of  territory.  It 
grows  to  a  great  size,  the  wood  is  very  liglit,  durable  and 
much  used  for  the  manufacture  of  shingles,  whicli   are 


exported  in  immense  numbers  to  all  the  Northern  Atlantic 
ports.  It  is  also  used  for  building  purposes,  and  for  staves 
and  telegraph  poles,  water  vessels,  etc. 

Juniper,  or  white  cedar  {Cupressus  tliyoides)  is  found  in 
the  same  region,  though  not  so  abundant,  and  is  used  for 
the  same  purposes  as  the  cypress,  especially  for  shingles 
and  coojier  work,  for  which  it  is  even  preferred  to  the 

Besides  these  are  the  maple  (6  species),  birch  (3  si^ecies), 
beech,  ash  (4  species),  poplar  (3  species),  elm  (3  species), 
mulberr}^,  sassafras,  gum  (4  species)  dogwood,  i^ersimmon, 
holly,  locust  (2  species),  sycamore,  linn,  linden  or  lime  (3 
species),  buckeye  (2  species),  wild  cherrj^,  red  cedar,  white 
cedar,  magnolia  (7  species),  willow  (4  species),  and  others, 
of  various  uses  in  domestic  economy  ;  many  of  them  valued 
as  shade  and  ornamental  trees,  a  number  of  them  much 
prized  as  cabinet  woods  ;  among  which  may  be  mentioned 
the  black  walnut,  already  described,  the  red  cedar,  some- 
times nearly  equalling  the  mahogany  in  beauty  of  color 
and  grain,  free  from  insects  and  aromatic  ;  the  black  birch, 
or  tiiountain  mahogany,  and  wild  cherry,  both  of  very 
ornamental  grain,  taking  a  high  polish ;  and  so  also  the 
curly  and  bird's  eye  maple;  the  holly,  a  beautiful,  close- 
grained,  white  wood,  taking  a  brilliant  polish.  It  will 
readily  be  imagined  what  variety,  richness  and  beauty 
these  numerous  si)ecies,  belonging  to  so  many  and  widely 
differing  families  of  plants,  must  imx3art  to  the  forests  of 
this  State,  and  what  a  vast  mine  of  wealth  they  must  be- 
come in  the  near  future. 

Of  the  twenty  kinds  of  timber  used  in  the  ship-yards  in 
New  York,  nearly  all  are  found  in  the  forests  of  this  State." 

With  reference  to  this  important  and  interesting  subject 
Messrs.  E.  J.  Hale  &  Son,  publishers.  New  York,  have 
just  issued  a  most  valuable  work  by  Mr.  P.  M.  Hale,  of 
Raleigh,  entitled  "Woods  and  Timbers  of  North  Carolina," 
from  which  much  profitable  information  may  be  gathered. 


Having  already  quoted  at  greater  length  his  authority  on 
^^  Pinus  Australis,"'  I  have  only  to  add  Mr.  Hale's  esti^ 
mate,  for  North  Carolina,  of  the  long-leaved  pine  supply, 
which  he  gives  as  follows  : 

Bladen 288,000,000  feet. 

Brunswick 141,000,000     " 

Chatham 448,000,000     " 

Columbus 288,000,000     " 

Cumberland 806,000,000     " 

Huplin 21,000,000     " 

Harnett 486,000,000     " 

Johnston 563,000,000     " 

Moore 504,000,000     " 

New  Hanover 96,000,000    " 

Onslow 34,000,000    " 

Robeson „ 864,000,000     " 

Sampson 602,000,000     " 

Wake 48,000,000     " 

Wayne 40,000,000     " 


Total 5,229,000,000 


The  lirst  steam  Saw  Mill  established  in  Wilmington,  so 
far  as  can  be  ascertained,  was  erected  on  the  western  side 
of  the  Cape  Fear  Eiver,  on  the  site  now  occupied  by  the 
Gruano  Warehouse  of  the  Champion  Compress  Company, 
by  a  person  named  Mazerretti,  in  the  year  1818. 

Sometime  afterwards  Mr.  Henry  Howard  purchased  the 
lot  and  built  a  larger  and  more  valuable  mill.  Hutchinson 
and  Milan  (the  latter  subsequently  British  Vice  Consul  at 
this  port)  were  also  engaged  in  the  milling  business  between 

Edward  B.  Dudley  and  P.  K.  Dickinson,  constituting 
the  firm  of  Dudley  &  Dickinson,  and  two  of  the  most 
prominent  citizens  of  "Wilmington,  the  one  first  Governor 


of  tlie  State,  elected  by  the  direct  vote  of  the  i)eople,  and 
the  other  identified  with  the  material  prosi^erity  of  the 
town,  erected  a  mill  at  the  southern  extremity  of  the  settle- 
ment about  the  year  1828. 

In  1833-34  Mr,  Aaron  Lazarus  established  the  first 
planing  mill  in  North  Carolina  upon  the  site  now  occupied 
by  Messrs.  Northrop  &  Gumming,  and  which  was  destroyed 
by  fire  a  few  months  after  its  erection.  Mr.  J.  K.  Mcllhenny 
also  owned  a  mill  at  or  near  the  locality  of  Messrs.  Dudley 
«&  Dickinson's,  which  he  afterwards  sold  to  Capt.  Gilbert 
Potter,  who  operated  it  successfully,  first  under  his  own 
name,  afterwards  under  the  firm  name  of  Potter  &  Kidder  ; 
and  it  is  still  continued  by  Messrs.  Edward  Kidder  &  Son, 
and  is  well  known  in  all  lumber  markets  as  one  of  the 
most  successful  mills  in  the  country. 

It  is  worthy  of  notice,  and  should  be  put  upon  record, 
that  the  credit  of  utilizing  the  saw-dust  for  fuel,  by  which 
a  heavy  expense  in  running  steam  saw  mills  has  been 
saved,  is  due  to  Mr.  Edward  Kidder  of  this  city.  He  was 
the  first  to  carry  the  idea,  which  had  long  baffled  operators, 
into  successful  application,  and  is  entitled  to  the  honor 
which  is  justly  his  due. 

Mr,  P.  K.  Dickinson,  after  disposing  of  his  interest  in 
his  mill  below  the  town,  built  another,  with  planing  mill 
attached,  where  the  dei)ot  of  the  Carolina  Central  Railroad 
is  now,  which  was  taken  down  when  the  Company  came 
into  possession  of  the  iiroperty. 

Some  years  ago  a  small  mill  stood  at  the  foot  of  Walnut 
street,  put  up  by  a  Mr.  Nickerson.  About  the  year  1840 
Col.  John  McRae  erected  the  Harrison  mill  very  near  that 
of  Nickerson' s,  and  on  this  site,  also,  the  recently  destroyed 
mill  of  Mr.  J.  W.  Taylor  lately  stood.  Messrs.  Dickinson 
and  Morris  owned  a  mill  located  on  Point  Peter,  and  Mr. 
Henry  R.  Savage  built  one  on  the  south  side  of  the  western 
terminus  of  Brunswick  ferry,  which  bore  the  name  of 
Steam   Saw  Mill  No.   5,   it  being  the  fifth  one  then  in 


operation.  Later  on,  Mr.  O.  Gf.  Parsley  erected  one  at 
Hilton,  whicli  is  now  operated  by  Messrs.  Parsley  & 

In  the  early  days  of  this  industry  in  Wilmington,  the 
sawed  lumber  was  generally  shipx^ed  to  the  AVest  Indies, 
and  return  cargoes  of  molasses  and  sugar  imported.  It 
was  at  that  time  a  very  profitable  business,  as  many  as  50 
lumber  vessels  having  loaded  here  at  the  same  time,  but  of 
late  years  the  over-production  in  Georgia  and  in  other 
Southern  States  has  greatly  depressed  this  important 

At  the  i^resent  time  tliere  are  five  steam  saw  mills  in 
active  operation  in  this  city.  Their  average  capacity,  under 
favorable  circumstances,  is  about  25,000  feet  of  lumber  per 
day,  each.  The  amount  of  sawed  lumber  exported  from  this 
port  for  the  year  1882  from  the  mills  in  this  city  and  from 
those  in  adjoining  counties  contiguous  to  railroads,  amounts 
to  40,291,146  feet. 

Of  this  amount,  9,074,085  feet  w^as  foreign  shipment, 
5,523,400  feet  shipped  to  Baltimore,  9,302,827  feet  to  New 
York,  and  the  remainder  to  other  coastwise  jjorts.  The 
home  consumption  is  estimated  at  between  five  and  six 
million  feet.  By  local  demand  is  not  meant  the  amount 
sold  in  Wilmington  only,  but  in  the  adjoining  country 
also.  By  comparing  the  amount  of  lumber  manufactured 
and  received  here  from  other  points  by  rail,  with  the 
receipts  for  the  preceding  year,  1881,  it  will  be  found  that 
there  is  a  decrease  of  5,207,334  feet,  which  decrease  is  due 
to  the  cause  mentioned  above. 

For  a  great  many  years  after  the  erection  of  steam  saw 
mills  here  the  "gang  saws"  were  the  only  ones  used,  but 
of  late  years  they  have  been  generally  superseded  by  the 
circular  saw,  experience  having  show^n  that  the  latter  are 
much  more  desirable,  as  well  as  economical,  and  they  are 
now  used  by  most  of  the  mills  in  the  city  and  vicinity. 

The  quality  of  the  lumber  manufactured  here  is  as  good 


as  any  made  elsewhere,  and  much  better  for  ship-building 
than  that  of  any  place  farther  South,  While  the  lumber 
of  Georgia  and  Florida  has  a  finer  grain,  and  also  a  thinner 
sap,  which  makes  it  more  desirable  in  some  cases,  still  it  is 
not  as  tough  or  as  lasting  as  our  own,  and  considering  the 
variety  of  uses  to  which  it  is  put,  we  can  confidently  say 
that  there  is  no  better  lumber  in  the  world  than  our  pitch 

The  mills  now  in  operation  here  are  as  follows  :  Messrs. 
Edward  Kidder  &  Son,  Mr.  A.  Gf.  Wilson,  Messrs.  Northroi^ 
&  Gumming,  Messrs.  J.  H.  Chadbourn  &  Co.,  and  Messrs. 
Parsley  &  Wiggins.  Mr.  J.  W.  Taylor's  mill,  which  was 
located  at  the  foot  of  Walnut  street,  was  destroyed  by  fire 
a  short  time  since,  but  is  now  being  rebuilt. 

The  power  used  in  these  mills  is  from  75  to  100  horse 
power,  and  they  are  callable  of  supplying  any  demand 
that  may  be  made  upon  them. 


Br.  Porcher,— in  his  Medical  Botany  of  the  Southern 
States,  published  in  Charleston,  in  1869, — refers  to  this 
product  as  ground-nUt ;  pindar  ;  peanut ;  goober-nut ; 
{Arachis  Jiypogoea)^  brought  by  the  negroes  from  Africa  ; 
and  continues : 

The  peanut  preserves  its  germinative  powers  for  40  years. 
Large  quantities  were  exported  from  Senegal,  on  account 
of  the  oil  which  was  exj^ressed  from  them,  and  which  was 
then,  as  now,  much  valued. 

According  to  the  analysis  of  Pagen,  and  Henry,  it  is 
very  difficult  for  the  oil  to  become  rancid.  In  a  letter  from 
Mr.  W.  Gr.  Simms,  in  1863,  he  writes  as  follows: 

"You  speak  of  the  ground-nut  as  a  substitute  for  coffee. 
But  as  coffiee  it  is  a  very  inferior  thing  to  its  use  as  choco- 
late. The  manufacture  of  chocolate  cakes  out  of  the 
ground-nut  alone,  and  without  a  particle  of  cocoa,  is  an 
immense  and  most  profitable  part  of  Northern  manufacture. 


We  make  it  in  my  family,  of  a  quality  not  inferior  to  any 
you  buy.  To  prepare  it  for  tlie  table,  it  is  beaten  in  a 
mortar.  At  the  North,  I  have  been  told  that  the  hulls  are 
ground  up  with  the  nut,  and  I  do  not  doubt  that  this  is  an 
improvement,  as  qualifying  the  exceeding  richness  of  the 
nut,  which  I  have  usually  found  too  rich  prepared  as 
chocolate  in  our  way." 

The  ground-nut  and  iDene  make  rich  and  nutricious  soup, 
and  act  as  substitutes  for  meat.  They  are  often  parched 
and  beaten  up  with  sugar,  and  served  as  a  condiment  or 
dessert.  The  ground-nut  is  cultivated  to  some  extent  in 
the  Southern  States,  and  great  use  is  made  of  it  on  the 
plantations  as  an  article  of  food,  and  for  various  domestic 
purposes  ;  it  is  exported  with  profit,  but  troublesome  to 
prepare.  I  am  not  aware  of  any  use  being  made  in  the 
Carolinas,  of  the  oil  which  it  aifords  on  exi)ression. 

The  above  was  published  in  Dr.  Porcher's  report  on 
Medical  Botany  of  the  South,  1849.  Since  the  war  it  is 
largely  employed.  The  superintendent  of  the  Rockfish 
Factory,  in  North  Carolina,  writes  that  he  has  "used  the 
peanut  oil  by  the  side  of  the  sperm,  and  that  it  works  fully 
as  well." 

The  North  Carolina  Advertiser  published  the  following: 

"The  vine,  when  the  pea  is  removed,  makes  an  excellent 
forage  for  cattle,  and  is  said  to  be  equal  to  the  best  North- 
ern hay.  From  the  nut  is  ex]3ressed  a  valuable  oil.  During 
the  war  this  oil  was  extensively  used  in  our  machine  shoi)S, 
and  its  lubricatory  properties  are  pronounced  by  compe- 
tent authority  to  be  superior  to  those  of  whale  oil,  for  the 
reason  that  it  does  not  gum  at  all.  One  quality  of  the  oil 
is  extensively  employed  in  the  composition  of  medicines  ; 
another  is  used  for  burning  purposes,  and  possesses  the 
virtue  of  not  smoking,  while  a  third  makes  a  really  excel- 
lent salad  condiment. 

Such,  and  so  varied  and  important,  are  the  uses  to  which 
this  simple  product  can  be  devoted— uses  which  the  unin- 
formed, who  have,  perhaps,  regarded  it  only  in  the  light  of 


an  indigestible  bulb,  would  never  suspect  to  proceed  from 
its  cultivation." 

The  oil  was  expressed,  by  screw  pressure,  by  parties 
near  Manning,  S.  C.  Mr.  Dyson  obtained  three  quarts  of 
oil  from  a  bushel  of  the  nuts. 

Dr.  Wood  states  that  it  is  a  non-drying  oil,  and  will  not 
do  for  painting,  but  is  used  for  various  purposes  in  the 
arts,  for  lubricating  machinery,  and  in  the  manufacture  of 
woolen  cloth  ;  and  would  serve,  adds  Dr.  Wood,  for  burn- 
ing in  lamps,  giving  even  a  better  light  than  sperm  oil. 
Am.  J.  Pharm.,  July,  1860.     U.  S.  Disp.,  12th  Ed. 

In  1862,  Messrs.  T.  C.  and  B.  G.  Worth  established  a 
peanut  oil  mill  in  W^ilmington,  and  manufactured  from  the 
peanuts  grown  in  this  vicinity,  a  su|)erior  article  of  oil, 
(but  not  fully  equal  to  sperm  oil,)  w^hich  they  sold  to 
nearly  all  the  cotton  mills  and  other  manufactories  through- 
out the  South,  during  the  remaining  period  of  the  war.  It 
was  found  an  excellent  substitute  for  machine  oil,  having 
little  tendency  to  gum. 

The  entire  necessary  machinery  for  hulling  the  nut  and 
expressing  the  oil,  was  improvised  by  the  late  Mr.  Thomas 
L.  Colville,  of  this  place,  who  bore  a  high  reputation  as  an 
ingenious  mechanic. 

The  oil  sold  during  the  war  at  from  $3  to  $30  per  gallon, 
in  the  dej)reciating  currency.  The  cake  was  considered 
most  valuable  as  fattening  food  for  stock,  and  brought 
correspondingly  high  prices. 

The  North  Carolina  peanut  crop  is  grown  on  the  hum- 
mock  lands,  upon  the  immediate  coast,  between  the  South 
Carolina  line  and  Beanfort,  N.  C.  The  average  yield  per  acre 
is  about  30  bushels,  and  it  is  considered  a  fairly  remunerative 
crop,  as  the  same  lands  in  corn,  cotton,  or  any  other  crop 
usually  grown  in  this  section,  would  likely  not  produce,  in 
value,  one-half  the  amount.  The  average  crop  for  the  last 
ten  years  is  125,000  bushels,  and  the  price  $1.25  per  bushel 
of  28  lbs.     The  estimate  of  this  year's   croj)  is   150,000 


"bushels  ;  but,  on  account  of  low  prices  and  bad  weather 
since  the  harvest,  not  more  than  one-fourth  of  it  has  yet 
been  marketed, 

Wilmington  being  the  most  central  point,  almost  the 
entire  crop  (and  much  of  it  in  a  very  crude  and  unsalable 
condition)  is  marketed  here,  and  by  the  dealers  put  in 
merchantable  order,  and  dealt  out  to  the  trade, — the 
markets  being  mostly  Northwestern  and  Southern  cities. 


"Rice,*  for  which  we  are  indebted  to  the  Island  of 
Madagascar,  was  introduced  into  Carolina  and  America  at 
once,  toward  the  close  of  the  seventeenth  century.  A  few 
grains  were  sown  in  the  garden  of  Landgrave  Smith,  the 
site  of  which  is  now  entirely  covered  by  houses  and  modern 
improvements,  in  the  city  of  Charleston.  Those  few  grains 
produced  many  ears,  which,  being  disseminated  for  seed, 
succeeded  in  adaptation  to  the  climate  ;  and  the  low  country 
of  South  Carolina  since  has  become  the  centre  of  the  rice- 
growing  region.  The  first  seed  was  white,  such  as  is  grown 
in  China  and  Gfuiana  to  this  day,  and  such  as  may  still  be 
seen  produced  on  the  uj)lands  and  inlands  of  America. 

Sometime  before  the  Revolutionary  War  the  "gold 
seed"  rice  was  introduced,  which,  owing  to  its  superiority, 
soon  entirely  superseded  the  white.  It  is  now  the  rice  of 
commerce,  and  the  only  grain  referred  to  herein,  when  rice 
is  mentioned,  without  being  distinguished  by  some  peculiar 
name  or  characteristic. 

This  "gold  seed"  has  undergone  improvement  in  latter 
years.  Hence  has  resulted  the  i)roduction  of  a  variety 
longer  in  the  grain,  but  not  perceptibly  larger  otherwise, 
which  is  highly  esteemed  by  foreign  consumers,  when  it  is 
produced  in  i)erfection,  commanding  the  highest  prices  in 
market.  It  is  called  "long-grain"  rice,  and  was  obtained 
from  the  sowing  of  part  of  a  single  head  on  the  plantation 

♦"ilesourccs  of  the  Southern  Fields  and  Forests,"  by  F.  P.  Torcher,  M.  D. 


of  the  late  Hon.  Joshua  John  Ward,  of  Waccamaw.  The 
white  rice  of  the  present  day  measures  three-eighths  of  an 
inch  in  length,  the  same  in  circumference  around  its  shorter 
axis,  the  grain  being  in  shape  an  irregular  elipsoid,  and 
in  weight  numbers  nine  hundred  and  sixty  grains  to  the 
ounce  (Troy).  The  "gold  seed,"  the  rice  of  commerce, 
measures  three-eighths  of  an  inch  in  length,  the  same  in 
circumference,  and  in  weight  numbers  eight  hundred  and 
ninety-six  grains  to  the  ounce.  The  "long  grain"  rice 
measures  live-twelfths  of  an  inch  in  length,  three-eighths 
of  an  inch  in  circumference,  and  in  weight  numbers  eight 
hundred  and  forty  grains  to  the  ounce. 

The  system  of  culture  for  one  is  suitable  for  any  of 
these  varieties.  The  lirst,  it  is  said,  will  bear  upland  cul- 
ture better.  The  last  (long-grain),  it  is  supposed,  will 
bear  water  better.  It  does  not  tiller  as  much,  shoots  up  a 
taller  stock  and  linger  head,  but  does  not  beai:  as  many 
grains  to  the  head  as  the  other,  and  more  commonly 
approved  kind  of  "gold  seed." 

We  begin  the  preparation  for  a  new  crop  by  (clearing  out 
the  ditches  every  third  year ;  the  drains  are  cleaned  out 
every  year  after  plowing)  plowing  the  land  as  soon  after 
the  harvest  as  the  fields  can  be  gleaned,  and  the  scattered 
rice  left  on  the  surface  be  sprouted.  .  The  stubble  is  turned 
under  by  running  a  deep  furrow,  say  eight  inches.  This 
may  be  continued  until  the  end  of  January.  The  sods 
should  have  the  benefit  of  the  entire  winter  frosts,  if  pos- 
sible, the  influence  of  which  disintegrates  and  prepares 
them  duly  for  the  levelling.  Both  plowing  and  harrowing 
are  ]3erformed,  ordinarily,  by  oxen — two  yoke  being  re- 
quired if  we  g9  deeper  than  six  to  eight  inches  ;  and  two 
yoke  get  on  badly  in  the  swamp.  The  Tuscany  breed 
furnishes  the  best  oxen  for  our  climate. 

In  March,  or  when  about  preparing  to  i^lant,  the  harrows 
will  be  made  to  pass  over  the  plowed  ground.  After  deep 
plowing,  the  "plow  turns"  should  be  broken  up  with  the 

204  ,        WILMINGTON,    NORTH    CAROLINA. 

spade,  sinking  the  spade  as  deep  as  the  plow  has  gone,  say 
eight  inclies ;  an  able-bodied  man  will  break  up  in  this 
way,  and  thoroughly,  a  surface  of  fifteen  hundred  square 
feet  in  a  day.  The  field  should  be  well  drained,  however. 
The  hoe  follows  to  cut  up  and  break  the  remaining  clods 
and  level  the  surface.  The  more  the  soil  is  comminuted, 
and  the  surface  brought  to  a  common  level,  the  better. 
The  trenchers  then  come  in  with  hoes  made  for  the  purpose, 
and  trace  out  with  great  accuracy  the  drills  in  which  to 
sow  the  seed,  fourteen,  thirteen  or  twelve  inches  ax)art  from 
centre  to  centre.  They  will  average  (some  drawing  stake- 
rows  and  others  filling  ux)  the  panels)  three-quarters  of  an 
acre  to  the  hand  in  a  day's  work. 

When  the  land  is  new  the  trench  should  be  broad,  say 
five  inches,  and  the  rice  maybe  scattered  in  the  trench; 
but  for  old  land,  and  most  of  rice  land  is  now  old,  narrow 
trenching  hoes  are  preferred,  opening  a  drill  three  inches 
wide.  Infected  with  grass-seed  and  volunteer  rice,  old  land 
requires  close  hoeing,  and  every  seed  that  vegetates  outside 
the  drill  is  cut  up  and  destroyed. 

The  field  is  now  in  high  tilth,  and  resembling  somewhat 
a  garden  spot,  is  ready  for  the  seed.  The  sowers,  with 
great  care,  yet  with  wonderful  facility  and  precision,  string 
the  seed  in  the  drills,  x>utting  two  and  a  half  or  two  and  a 
quarter  bushels  to  the  acre.  The  labor  of  sowing  depends 
so  much  ui)on  the  state  of  the  weather,  whether  windy  or 
moist,  or  otherwise,  it  is  better  not  to  require  any  given 
task.  Generally  each  woman  will  accomx)lish  two  or  three 
tasks  and  do  it  well — it  should  never  be  done  otherwise,  for 
the  seed  cannot  be  recovered  if  too  thick,  nor  if  too  thin 
can  the  sowing  be  repeated  without  needless  waste  and 
increased  irregularity. 

The  best  hands  are  chosen  to  sow  rice.  When  rice  is  to 
be  covered  with  water,  without  a  previous  covering  of  earth, 
the  seed  must  first  be  prepared  by  rolling  it  in  claj^ed 
water.     There  are  many  planters  who  still  prefer  the  old 


system,  covering  the  seed  with  earth.  In  this  case,  after 
the  seed  is  covered,  the  water  is  taken  on  the  field  for  five 
or  six  days  to  sprout  the  grain,  when  it  is  drawn  off,  and 
is  returned  only  when  the  sprout,  "in  the  needle  state," 
is  seen  fairly  above  the  ground. 

This,  "the  point  How,"  is  held  about  four  days  and  then 
drawn  off;  after  which  the  culture  is  the  same  as  above 
described  throughout.  The  sowing  done,  water  is  forth- 
with admitted  (two  tides  are  better  than  one),  and  the  field 
remains  covered  until  the  sprout  becomes  green  and  begins 
to  fork.  The  water  must  then  be  withdrawn,  else  the 
plants  will  be  forced  to  the  surface  by  any  slight  agitation 
and  float  away  from  their  position.  The  reasoning  for  'a 
successful  substitution  of  a  covering  of  water  for  a  cover- 
ing of  earth  in  planting  rice,  and  also  for  the  requisition 
of  sound  and  perfectly  full  seed,  will  be  found  in  the  law 
of  germination  and  growth. 

Professor  Johnston  thus  expresses  it:  "When  a  seed 
is  committed  to  the  earth,  if  the  warmth  and  moisture 
are  favorable  it  begins  to  sprout.  It  pushes  a  shoot 
upwards,  it  thrusts  a  root  downwards  ;  but  until  the 
leaf  expands  and  the  root  has  fairly  entered  the  soil,  the 
young  plant  derives  no  nourishment  other  than  water, 
either  from  the  earth  or  from  the  air.  It  lives  on  the  starch 
and  gluten  contained  in  the  seed." 

In  the  case  of  rice  covered  with  water,  the  first  shoot  is 
radical  and  tends  downwards  but  it  does  not  take  root 
until  the  air  is  admitted  to  the  leaf,  the  lungs  of  the 
plant,  then  it  becomes  rooted  instantly.  If  the  water  be 
not  reduced  when  the  sjDrout  becomes  green,  (until  the 
sprout  is  green  it  cannot  bear  the  rays  of  the  sun,)  the 
expanding  of  the  leaf  in  the  water  will  draw  ur)  the  unfixed 
root  and  the  whole  will  rise  and  float  upon  the  surface. 

The  water,  after  floating  the  trash  to  the  banks,  should 
at  no  time  be  over  deep,  lest  the  process  of  germination  be 
delayed,  and  with  any  imi)erfect  or  defective  grains,  be 
prevented  altogether. 


In  Georgia,  on  one  of  Dr.  Daniels'  i)lantations,  near 
Savannah,  tlie  Italian  method  has  been  pursued  with  a 
good  degree  of  success,  namely  :  The  seed  is  first  sprouted, 
then  sown  broadcast  over  the  field  and  covered  up  by  the 
harrow,  which,  being  reversed,  is  drawn  over  the  surface. 
The  culture  there  is  with  water  chiefly. 

In  twenty  days  after,  or  thereabouts,  the  rice  is  hoed 
and  flowed  deep,  the  water  over-topping  the  plant  for  two 
or  three  days,  in  order  to  destroy  the  young  grass  just 
springing  up  among  the  j^lants,  and  also  the  insects  that 
may  have  lodged  upon  the  blades,  or  which  may  have  been 
generated  among  the  stumps  or  roots,  or  stubble.  At  the 
end  of  two  or  three  days,  the  water  is  slacked  down  to 
about  half  the  height  of  the  plant,  now  somewhat  stretched. 
At  this  dej^th  it  is  held  until  the  plants  grow  strong  enough 
to  stand  erect,  and  will  admit  the  laborers  to  walk  between 
the  trenches  and  pull  out  the  long  grass  which  shows  itself, 
and  which  will  now  yield  to  very  slight  effort.  If  any 
rushes  appear,  they  will  now  be  plucked  up  by  the  root 
and  borne  out  to  the  banks. 

Two  days  after  this  weeding,  the  long  water  will  gradu- 
ally be  drawn  off.  In  Georgia,  and  elsewhere  perhaj)s, 
this  is  called  the  'stretch  flow.'  In  that  State,  as  well  as 
in  some  parts  of  Carolina,  the  practice  is  common  to 
continue  the  point  flow  into  the  'stretch'  or  long  flow, 
without  drawing  the  water  until  the  latter  be  over.  This 
free  use  of  water,  as  it  may  be  made  to  substitute  one 
hoeing,  may  enable  the  planter  to  cultivate  seven  or  eight 
acres  to  the  hand,  instead  of  five  and  six  as  of  old.  But, 
the  proprietor  who  sufl*ers  this  method  to  be  practiced  in 
his  culture,  year  by  year,  if  his  young  crop  be  not  often 
troubled  by  the  maggot  or  root-worm,  will  probably  find 
his  land  so  polluted  with  water  grasses  after  several  years, 
and  so  packed  as  to  require  rest  and  change  of  system  to 
ameliorate  it. 

A  succeeding  tide  will  be  taken  in  and  let  ofl'  imme- 
diately,  in   order  to  wash  out  the  ditches.     Two  men. 


furnished,  each  with  a  long-handled  rake  of  curved  iron 
teeth,  are  put  to  rake  from  the  ditches  all  the  water-growth 
which  impedes  the  draining,  placing  it  on  the  side  of  the 
bank.  In  eight  days  (the  land  by  that  time  should  be 
dry)  the  smaller  hoes  are  used,  and  the  soil  is  stirred  as 
deep  as  it  can  be  with  them. 

The  hoe  now  used  has  been  reduced,  latterly,  to  four 
inches  in  breadth.  The  plant  just  recovering  from  the 
effects  of  long  water,  and  taking  a  dry  growth,  is  putting 
forth  new  green  blades  and  fresh  roots,  which,  not  long 
enough  yet  to  be  interfered  with  by  the  deep  hoeing,  very 
soon  yield  to  the  grateful  influence  of  the  air  admitted, 
shoot  vigorously  into  the  loosened  earth,  and  nourish  a 
"good  stalk." 

In  the  course  of  fifteen  or  eighteen  days,  the  field  is  hoed 
again  and  weeded.  This  last  hoeing  is  also  done  with  the 
small  hoes,  but  very  lightly,  to  avoid  disturbing  the  roots 
which  are  now  extended  nearly  midway  between  the 
trenches.  As  the  plant  is  now  beginning  to  joint,  the 
laborers  will  step  about  with  care,  for  if  one  be  broken  at 
the  joint  it  cannot  be  restored. 

A  day  or  two  after  this  third  hoeing,  the  water  is  put  on 
again,  as  deep  as  the  last  long  flow,  and  is  gradually 
increased  in  depth,  after  the  rice  heads  have  fairly  shot 

This  is  called  the  'lay-by'  flow.  Some  planters  have 
this  flow  very  shallow,  insisting  that  a  deep  flow  breeds 
worms,  to  the  injury  of  the  plant  before  it  has  shot  out, 
in  which  case  the  only  remedy  is  to  dry.  Up  to  the  time 
of  this  flow,  is  about  ninety  days  for  rice  sown  the  first 
week  in  April.  After  this,  to  the  period  of  maturity,  is 
from  sixty  to  seventy  days,  during  which  the  water 
is  often  changed,  and  kept  fresh,  but  is  never  entirely 
withdrawn  until  the  grain  be  ripe  for  the  harvest.  The 
improved  and  best  means  of  keeping  the  water  fresh, 
is  to  furnish  the  field  with  two  trunks— one  to  admit  fresh 

208  WiLMINtlTON^,    iS^ORTH   0ArvOLiN"A. 

water  at  every  flood  tide,  and  the  other  to  void  it  with  the 
ebb,  so  tliat  twice  in  every  twenty-four  hours  there  is 
obtained  a  slight  current  through  the  field.  This,  besides 
lessening  the  infection  of  the  atmosphere  {miasmata)  by 
stagnant  water,  keeps  the  roots  of  the  plant  cool  and 
healthy,  though  it  i^ostpones  the  ripening  of  the  rice  some 
five  or  eight  days. 

Meantime,  should  any  grass  have  escaped  the  i3r8vious 
hoeings  and  weedings,  it  will  show  its  crest  before  the  rice 
matures  and  be  i^lucked  up  by  the  roots.  All  white  rice 
will  be  stripped  off  by  hand. 

Harvest. — And  now  the  grain  is  ripe  for  the  sickle.  The 
rice  is  cut  a  day  before  you  will  say  it  is  fully  ripe.  For 
rice  sown  A]}yiI  first,  the  harvest  begins  usually  from  the 
first  to  the  tenth  of  September.  The  water  is  drawn  off 
over-night.  Soon  after  the  rising  of  a  bright  autumn  sun, 
the  reapers  are  seen  amid  the  thick  hanging  grain,  shoulder 
high,  mowing  it  down  with  the  old-fashioned  sickle. 
Before  the  dew  is  all  gone,  the  rice  is  laid  prostrate,  even 
and  orderly  across  the  i)orous  stubble.  The  next  daj^, 
when  quite  dry  of  dew,  it  is  tied  up  in  sheaves,  and  borne 
away  to  the  threshing  yard,  where  it  is  well  stacked  before 
the  night  dew  falls  heavy.  This  last  heavy  but  gleeful 
labor  completes  the  field  culture  of  the  rice  plant." 

During  the  last  few  years,  the  reclamation  of  old  rice 
lands  on  the  Cape  Fear,  many  of  which  have  been  restored 
to  a  high  and  profitable  state  of  cultivation,  has  been  one 
of  our  principal  industries — the  i^resent  acreage  in  the 
vicinity  of  Wilmington  on  river  lands  being  about  2,000 
acres,  Avhich  will  be  increased  next  season  about  700  acres. 
The  receipts  have,  however,  fallen  much  below  those  of 
last  year,  as  will  be  seen  from  the  table  appended  : 

Receipts  last  year  upland  rice.  .66,313  bushels  at  this  date, 
this     "  "  "    ..37,382      "  "  " 

Decrease 28,931 


Receipts  tide-water  rice  last  year  51, 000  bushels  at  this  date. 
"  "  "   this     "     41,191      '•  "  " 

Decrease 9,809      "  "  " 

The  cause  of  this  decrease  is  variously  accounted  for,  but 
it  is  most  likely  owing  to  the  risk  consequent  upon  a 
threatened  or  possible  change  in  the  tariff  laws,  planters 
being  indisposed  to  prei)are  new  lands  with  prospective 
foreign  competition,  which  would  inevitably  render  the 
cultivation  of  American  rice  hopelessly  unprofitable. 

Prices  for  paddy  have  been  ruling  lower  by  15  to  30 
cents  per  bushel  of  45  pounds,  than  last  crop,  and  clean 
rice  from  1  to  IJ  cents  per  ^oound  decline. 

Washington,  North  Carolina,  has  sent  to  this  market 
10,000  bushels,  as  compared  with  33,000  last  year.  These 
receipts  naturally  belong  to  Washington,  where  there  is  a 
a  large  rice  mill,  and  would  leave  us  with  27,000  bushels 
white  rice.  The  majority  of  these  receipts  have  come  from 
Eastern  Carolina,  and  princix)ally  from  Newbern  and 

Groldsboro  has  sent  to  this  market  4,000  bushels  ;  War- 
saw, Wilson  and  Mt.  Olive  have  shipped  about  5,000 
bushels.  Some  of  our  receipts  have  been  sent  to  Northern 
mills,  but  not  over  9,000  bushels.  Five  thousand  bushels 
have  been  shipped  into  South  Carolina,  and  the  remainder 
milled  in  our  city. 

The  clean  rice  from  this  port  is  chiefly  shipped  to  New 
York,  Boston  and  Philadel|)liia,  where  it  receives  an  appre- 
ciative market,  and  is  well  known  as  the  best  rice  milled 
in  this  country.  The  erection  of  a  mill  in  Wilmington  has 
made  a  market  for  all  grades,  and  planters  are  not  com- 
pelled to  ship  their  goods  to  other  cities,  and  undergo  the 
many  losses  already  known  to  consignments.  Should 
Congress  allow  the  present  duty  to  remain,  it  is  probable 
that  nearly  all  the  old  rice  land  in  this  section  will  be 
reclaimed  and  the  Cape  Fear  regain  its  ancient  reputation 



with  reference  to   this    most  profitable  and  respectable 

I  app^id  herewith  a  carefolly  prepared  table  with  refer- 
ence to  the  Cape  Fear  plantations  and  prodact,  and  proba- 
ble increase  ::r  nfx:  vfiir 

>^>fZ   OF  PtASTATIOX. 

I  III|me 





Kendal  aad  I^llipot  — 


Foint  Peter  and  Forks. .. 



Greea  I^and. 



CMd  Town  Creek. 



Sij    S,TW ._ N-av::,5-i      i^-     r : 

'  I    350  *6,000'; I  Jno.  F.  GarreU. 

■  «l  50  Franos  M.  Moore. 

•  »>  7\.*  Fred.  Kidder. 

i>>    Z.Ckv —  S.  It.  Fremont. 

1S«>    6.a«<»  1&5  J.  W.  Atkinson. 

.„    1«»    i-50& Geo.  W.  Kidder. 

....      S*'    2.€fJ»  -_ J.  D.  McRae. 

„      fti    ±¥f*  -y*  Wm.  Larkins. 

To    ±.¥*} Wm.  HanklQs;. 

m    t,4>yj  3>  B.  A.  HalJett. 

r9i>  ±,c«io 

-30    1.3»  ._ T.  A.  Watson  and 

„      75    238— R-  B.  Wood.    [Denni 

_' j  225  D.  D.  Barber. 

.„ '  1»  H.  M.  Bowden. 

_'  100    *  400 D.  L.  RoseeL 

^    lrt>    i«W« •  A.  W.  Reiffer. 

J  i  - 


In  former  years  the  trade  in  provisions  was  done  by  and 
through  wholesale  grocers  in  this  market,  who  not  only 
supplied  the  retail  demand  of  the  city,  bot  who  furnished 
the  planters  and  distillers  in  onr  conntiy  section  for  a  raditis 
of  sereral  hundred  miles.  Of  late  years  the  trade  has 
fallen  into  the  channel  of  prorision  brokers,  who,  at  a 
small  rate  of  commission,  sell  to  the  city  dealers,  and  at 
times  to  the  outside  trade,  their  daily  requirements  of  com, 
meat  hay,  flour,  oats,  and  other  staple  articles,  at  current 


prices  in  Chicago,  Louisville  and  other  supply  markets, 
plus  the  bare  expense  of  freight  and  charges. 

The  present  annual  consumption  of  provisions  in  this 
market  is  estimated,  upon  actual  receipts,  as  follows  : 

Corn 5<;n>,0Oj  bushels. 

Meat lo.OXJ  boxes. 

Hay 1,5<X)  tons. 

Flour 5*\(XX)  barrels. 

Oats 15,000  bushels . 

This  enormous  trade  shows  that  the  farmers  and  other 
consumers  of  provisions  in  and  around  WUmington  pay 
annually  to  the  Chicago.  Xew  York  and  other  remote 
markets,  the  sum  of  one  million  five  hundred  thousand 
dollars  a  ^ear  fur  provisions  which  ought  to  be  raised  by 
our  farmers  themselves.  Is  it  a  wonder  that  Xorth  Caro- 
lina remains  poor,  or  that  our  farmers  who  persist  in 
planting  cotton  and  working  turpentine,  to  the  utter  neglect 
of  provisions  and  provender,  are  always  behind  i  Perhaps 
the  current  low  prices  of  cotton  this  year,  compared  with 
the  unreasonably  high  cost  of  provisions,  will  teach  our 
people  an  important  lesson,  which  they  have  hitherto  been 
slow  to  learn. 


There  are  about  fifty  fisheries  between  Xew  River  and 
Federal  Point,  the  proceeds  of  nearly  all  of  which  find  a 
market  in  Wilmington,  though  a  i)ortion  is  carried  to 
Beaufort  and  Morehead  City;  the  bulk  of  the  catch  is, 
however,  brought  here,  and  nearly  all  of  thie  fisheries 
on  this  side  of  Xew  River,  deal  entirely  with  this  place. 
Eight  or  ten  years  ago,  from  4,Ch>3  to  C,»XX>  barrels  of 
mullets  were  brought  to  this  port  froift  these  fisheries,  but 
of  late  years  the  amount  has  been  greatly  reduced. 

A  fishery  near  the  mouth  of  New  River,  which  formerly 
yielded  during  the  season,  from  2,000  to  3,0<X>  barrels,  is 
now  worthless,  owing  principally  to  a  change  in  the  chan- 
nel, which  has  become  so  filled  up  with  sand  that  it  cannot 


be  used, — consequently  the  fisli  have  been  diverted  from  it 

In  speaking  of  barrels  offish,  it  is  to  be  understood  that 
though  they  are  termed  or  called  barrels,  yet  they  are  very 
small,  averaging  generally  not  more  than  80  lbs.  net,  and 
and  bringing  in  the  market,  from  $3  to  $4  a  barrel. 

The  fisheries  of  Messrs.  W.  E.  Davis  &  Son  are  located 
at  Zeke's  Island,  adjoining  the  works  at  New  Inlet,  where 
they  have  three  seines  at  work,  and  a  trap,  ingeniously 
contrived  for  the  purpose,  in  which  many  fish  are  taken. 

The  fishery  is  carried  on  outside  the  bar  and  not  in  the 
river,  and  the  quantity  caught  during  the  last  season 
amounted  to  about  1,500  barrels  of  mullets,  exclusive  of 
other  kinds  of  fish  taken  in  the  seines.  These  mullets 
are  salted  and  barrelled,  and  are  worth  from  $3.50  to  $4.25 
a  barrel,  as  per  quality  and  size. 

All  other  varieties  are  shipped  fresh,  on  ice,  to  the  North 
and  to  points  in  the  interior  of  the  State,  and  during  the 
season  about  300,000  pounds  of  fresh  fish  are  shipped  by 
this  firm  to  nine  different  States,  the  bulk,  however,  going 
to  the  cities  of  New  York,  Philadelphia  and  Baltimore  ; 
and  as  this  industry  is  not  yet  fully  developed,  what 
results  may  we  not  expect  when  increased  experience  is 
brought  to  the  assistance  of  energy  and  capital. 

In  addition  to  their  fisheries,  the  firm  of  Davis  &  Son 
have  erected  at  Zeke's  Island,  works  for  the  manufacture 
Oil  and  Fish-scrap,  the  latter  said  to  be  an  admirable 

The  season  for  mullets  is  during  the  months  of  August 
September,  October  an4  November  ;  and  for  shad,  during 
those  of  February,  March  and  April.  About  11,000  shad 
are  brought  here  during  the  season,  value  about  14,000  ; 
however,  not  more  than  one  third  of  the  catch  is  disposed 
of  here,  the  remainder  being  shipped  in  every  direction, 
chiefiy  North,  and  always  by  rail.  The  waters  of  the  Cape 
Fear  produce  as  fine  shad  as  can  be  found  anywhere,  and 
they  are  eagerly  sought  after  in  the  Northern  markets. 


The  sturgeon  fishery  is  also  getting  to  be  an  important 
industry.  During  the  season,  from  the  middle  of  March 
to  the  last  of  October,  an  average  of  2,000  pounds  a  week 
of  that  fish  is  shipped  from  this  port  to  New  York,  where 
there  is  a  constant  demand  for  it  at  remunerative  prices. 

It  is  but  recently  that  this  fish  has  become  an  article  of 
commerce.  Formerly  it  was  regarded  as  worthless  and  was  a 
great  annoyance  to  fishermen,  getting  entangled  in  their 
nets,  and  breaking  them,  and  it  was  considered  as  a 
nuisance  only.  A  year  or  two  ago,  however,  a  shix3ment 
was  made  to  New  York  as  an  experiment;  the  fish  attracted 
attention,  and  the  aggregate  of  the  business  since  is  remark- 
able,—amounting  now  to  more  than  90,000  pounds  during 
t-he  season, — a  most  profitable  industry,  as  it  is  derived 
from  a  source  hitherto  regarded  as  worthless.  They  are 
shipped  in  ice,  like  other  fish,  and  by  rail. 

It  is  said  that  the  Cape  Fear  sturgeon  is  fully  equal  to 
that  taken  elsewhere,  and  prized  esi^ecially  for  the  roe, 
which  is  carefully  cleansed  and  rubbed  to  a  pulp,  and 
having  been  mixed  with  salt,  it  is  then  sold  at  a  high  j)rice 
as  Caviare,  a  food  highly  prized  by  Continental  i^eople, 
particularly  the  Russians,  who  monopolize  the  trade.  The 
fiesh  of  the  sturgeon  is  also  dried  and  smoked  in  small 
strips,  and  commands  a  ready  sale,  not  unfrequently  under 
the  name  of  smoked  salmon. 

The  sturgeon  is  spoken  of  in  England,  to  this  day,  as  a 
royal  fish,  having  in  olden  times  been  served  with  great 
pomj^,  and  esteemed  most  delicate  in  flesh  and  flavor.  It  was 
also  given  a  conspicuous  place  in  the  feasts  of  the  ancient 
Greeks  and  Romans.  Among  our  Cape  Fear  people,  how- 
ever, it  is  considered  the  coarsest  and  most  vulgar  dish 
our  market  aff'ords. 

Our  waters  furnish  nearly  every  variety  of  fish  ;  among 
which  are  shad,  mullets,  blue  fish  or  skipjack,  speckled 
trout,  pig  fish,  (one  of  the  most  delicate  that  swims),  red 
and  black  drum,  black  fish,  rock  or  bass,  Spanish  mackerel 


8un  iisli,  spots,  croakers,  sbeepbead,  flounders,  whiting, 
sera,  boneto,  (tbree  varieties),  tarpin,  (king  of  the  sbad), 
tautog,  (weigbing  from  20  to  40  lbs.),  catfisb,  &c,,  and  also 
various  kinds  of  fresb  water  flsb, — trout,  percb,  &c. 

In  1714,  Lawson  gave  the  names  of  fisbin  Nortb  Carolina 
as  follows  : 

"Whales,  several  sorts,  thrashers,  devil  fish,  sword  fish, 
crampois,  bottle  noses,  porpoises,  sharks,  (two  sorts),  dog 
fish,  Spanish  mackerel,  cavallies,  bonetos,  blue  fish,  drum, 
(red),  drum,  (black),  angel  fish,  bass,  or  rock  fish,  sheep 
head,  plaice,  flounder,  soles,  mullets,  shad,  fat  backs, 
guard, (white),guard, (green), scate,  or  sting  ray,  thornback, 
cougar  eels,  lamprey  eels,  eels,  sunfish,  toad  fish,  sea  tench, 
trout  of  the  salt  water,croakers,herring,smelts,shad, breams, 
taylors.  The  fresh  water  fish  are :  Sturgeon,  pike,  trouts, 
gudgeon,  perch,  English  perch,  white  perch,  brown,  or 
Welchmen  perch,  flat,  and  mottled,  or  Irishmen  perch, 
small  and  flat,  with  red  spots,  called  round  robbins,  carp, 
roach,  dace,  loaches,  sucking  fish,  catfish,  grindals,  old 
wives,  fountain  fish,  white  fish.  The  shell  fish  are  :  Large 
crabs,  called  stone  crabs,  smaller  flat  crabs,  oysters,  great 
and  small,  cockles,  clams,  muscles,  conchs,  scallops,  man 
of  noses,  perriwinkles,  or  wilks,  sea  snail  horns,  fiddlers, 
runners,  Spanish,  or  pearl  oysters,  fiattings,  tortoise  and 
terebin,  finger  fish,  shrimps.  Those  of  the  fresh  water  are 
crawfish  and  muscles." 

The  extent  of  the  oyster  business  is  also  worthy  of  con- 
sideration. Our  best  oysters  come  from  New  Eiver, 
adjoining  the  county  of  Onslow.  The  beds  are  said  to  be 
inexhaustible,  and  there  ^  are  no  better  oysters  in  the 
country.  Myrtle  Grove  oysters  are  smaller  than  the  New 
Eiver,  yet  compare  favorably  in  flavor  with  the  bulk  of 
those  grown  elsewhere. 

From  350  to  400  gallons  of  oysters  are  received  here 
during  a  week  of  seven  days  ;  about  50  gallons  a  day,  and 
during  the  months  of  October,  November,  December  and 


January,  from  1,200  to  1,500  gallons  a  month  are  shipped 
to  other  points;  after  that  time  the  demand  gradually  falls 
off,  and  not  more  than  a  fourth  of  that  amount  is  sold. 
The  price  varies  as  to  quality,  from  65  cents  to  $1.00  per 
gallon  ;  there  are  none  shipped  in  the  shell. 

The  terrapin  is  caught  in  our  waters,  and  has  become 
almost  indispensable  to  the  epicure.  The  diamond  back 
terrapin  is  the  most  valuable  of  the  species.  They  are 
caught  at  the  mouth  of  the  river  and  in  all  the  bays  of  our 
Sounds.  It  is  safe  to  say  that  the  llesli  is  worth  $1.00  a 
pound — their  scarcity  makes  them  so  valuable ;  not  more 
than  60  dozen  were  caught  here  last  season  for  market. 
They  are  kept  in  water  pens  for  propagation,  and  can  be 
domesticated  as  easily  as  a  pig  or  fowl.  Though  not 
abundant  as  yet,  with  proper  care  and  attention  they  can 
be  greatly  increased,  and  will  be  a  source  of  i)rofit  in  the 
future  to  those  who  undertake  their  proi)agation.  It  is  a 
matter  of  surprise  to  many  that  the  trade  in  terrapins  and 
soft-shelled  crabs  is  so  much  neglected  by  our  fishermen. 
A  small  investment  of  capital,  backed  by  careful  industry 
in  the  propagation  of  oysters,  terrapins  and  crabs  on  our 
sea-coast,  would  undoubtedly  yield  large  returns. 


It  would  astonish  the  old-time  citizens,  say  those  who 
flourished  here  about  fifty  years  ago,  could  they  return  to 
the  scene  of  their  labors  and  see,  not  only  the  vast  increase 
in  the  dry  goods  trade  of  Wilmington,  in  which  many  of 
them  were  engaged,  but  also  the  entirely  different  manner 
in  which  the  business  is  conducted.  Then,  at  all  the  retail 
dry  goods  stores,  credit,  generally  for  twelve  months,  was 
the  rule  and  cash  the  exception.  Now,  the  reverse  is  true, 
or  if  credit  is  given  it  is  for  so  short  a  time  (scarcely  ever 
more  than  thirty  days)  that  it  is  regarded  as  equivalent  to 
cash.     The  manner  in  which  the  business  was  then  con- 


ducted  would  not  "be  tolerated  by  the  mercliants  of  this 
progressive  age  at  this  time. 

To  mention  but  one  custom  whicli  was  universally  i^rac- 
ticed :  whenever  a  lady  customer  was  not  disposed  to  do 
her  own  shopping,  a  servant  was  despatched  to  the  propri- 
etors of  diflferent  stores,  with  instructions  to  send  by  said 
servant,  certain  articles  of  merchandise  which  she  desired 
to  see,  and,  as  was  frequently  the  case,  the  costliest  goods, 
such  as  laces,  silks,  piece  goods,  etc.,  could  be  seen  at 
almost  any  hour  of  the  day  in  huge  bundles  deftly  balanced 
upon  the  heads  of  colored  servants,  passing  to  and  fro  upon 
the  streets.  It  was  the  universal  custom,  and  though  of 
course  a  great  annoyance  at  times  to  the  proi^rietors,  could 
not  well  be  avoided  ;  it  is  to  be  borne  in  mind,  however, 
that  that  was  prior  to  tlie  era  here  of  railroads  and  tele- 
grajihs ;  and  besides,  wiiat  could  be  done  then  with 
impunity  and  without  fear  of  loss,  from  the  smallness  of 
the  population  of  the  town,  could  not  now  be  attemj)ted, 
even  if  our  merchants  were  so  inclined,  owing  to  the 
changed  condition  of  our  social  affairs.  It  is  estimated 
that  the  yearly  business  of  the  town  in  those  days  did  not 
amount  to  more  than  two  hundred  and  fifty  thousand 
dollars,  including  all  classes  of  goods  that  were  usually  kept 
in  stores  in  those  days.  The  princii^al  dealers  of  that  time 
were  Alexander  Anderson,  John  Wooster,  Kyle  &  Dawson, 
Wright  &  Savage,  W.  &  Z.  Latimer,  W.  A.  Williams, 
Samuel  Shuter ;  and  the  business  ^vas  confined  to  a  retail 
local  trade  and  to  the  plantations  adjoining  the  town.  Such 
an  institution  as  a  wholesale  establishment  for  dry  goods  was 
not  only  unknown,  but  never  dreamed  of.  As  evidencing 
the  wonderful  improvement  in  that  business  between  the 
Wilmington  of  the  past  and  the  Wilmington  of  the  present, 
it  is  only  necessary  to  mention  the  following : 

The  annual  sales  of  dry  goods  in  Wilmington  at  the 
present  time  will  not  fall  short  of  a  million  and  a  half  of 
dollars,  including  sales  at  wholesale  and  retail.     There  are 


one  or  two  jobbing  houses,  one  particularly,  whose  sole 
business  is  jobbing  goods.  The  facilities  here  for  buying 
at  wholesale  are. equally  as  good  as  in  Richmond  or  Balti- 
more, and  the  luices  will  compare  favorably  with  either  of 
those  points.  It  should  be  borne  in  mind  that  the  jobbing 
business,  which  was  formerly  carried  on  almost  entirely  in 
New  York  and  other  Northern  cities,  is  now  conducted  by 
houses  located  in  Southern  cities.  They  are  familiar  with 
the  wants  of  the  surrounding  country,  are  known  to  the 
people  of  the  neighborhood,  sell  ux)on  as  good  terms  as 
can  be  obtained  in  Northern  markets,  and  hence  control 
the  trade,  for  our  people  are  becoming  more  disposed  every 
year  to  trade  at  home,  other  things  being  equal,  than 
abroad.  There  are  jobbing  houses  in  Richmond,  in  Charles- 
ton and  in  Savannah,  two  or  three  in  each  city,  and  these 
command  the  trade  from  numerous  points  in  the  South,  and 
in  consequence  the  immense  business  heretofore  done  in 
New  York,  which  formerly  had  been  the  centre  of  that 
trade,  has  greatly  declined.  It  must  not  be  supposed, 
however,  that  there  has  been  any  decrease  in  the  volume  of 
business  transacted  in  that  city.  Those  houses  which  for- 
merly did  a  jobbing  business,  now^  confine  themselves  to 
packages,  that  is,  selling  by  iDackage,  and  not  by  piece. 

In  estimating  the  extent  of  the  dry  goods  business  of 
Wilmington  it  is  to  be  understood  that  a  comparatively^ 
new  business,  that  of  ready-made  clothing,  is  included. 
Goods  of  as  fine  quality  as  can  be  found  elsewhere  can 
always  be  obtained  in  oar  city,  and  it  may  be  as  w^ell  to 
state  that  the  custom  of  the  surrounding  country  which 
seeks  its  supplies  at  this  jooint  is  not  only  desirable,  but 
eagerly  sought  after  by  other  places.  Nearly  every  variety 
of  goods  known  to  the  trade  is  kept  in  stock,  and  it  may 
surprise  some  to  learn  that  last  season  nearly,  if  not  quite, 
five  thousand  bales  (not  pieces)  of  domestic  and  plaids,  the 
products  of  the  factories  of  our  own  State,  were  disposed 
of  in  this  market  alone*     This  fact  is  extremely  gratifying, 


as  it  shows  that  our  own  fabrics  are  in  greater  demand  than 
those  manufactured  elsewhere  ;  and  it  follows,  as  a  natural 
sequence,  that  the  quality  must  be  better,  or  there  would 
not  be  so  great  a  demand  for  them.  There  is  another  and 
distinct  branch  of  business  which  has  grown  to  large 
dimensions,  and  deserves  special  notice — the  shoe  trade. 
For  many  years  there  was  but  one  shoe  store  in  Wilming- 
ton, and  that  was  wholly  confined  to  the  retail  trade.  The 
business  has  so  rapidly  increased  within  the  past  few  years 
that  it  amounts  to  at  least  half  a  million  dollars  annually. 
In  former  years  there  was  simj)ly  a  local  demand,  now  a 
large  amount  of  caxntal  is  required  to  meet  the  increasing 
demands  of  the  business,  and  wholesale  buyers  find  in  our 
market  large  and  well  selected  stocks  from  which  to  make 
selections.  It  is  increasing  every  year,  and  as  new  avenues 
of  trade  are  opened  up  around  us,  converging  towards  this 
point,  we  have  every  reason  to  anticipate  a  large  increase 
in  that  particular  branch  of  business,  and  a  very  valuable 
adjunct  to  the  prosperity  of  our  city. 

These  evidences  of  the  jDrosperity  of  Wilmington  must 
surely  be  gratifying  to  all  who  feel  an  interest  in  her  f  uture^ 
Though  they  have  been  gradual,  they  are  none  the  less 
remarkable,  and  we  have  every  reason  to  believe  that  they 
will  continue  to  increase.  Revolutions  do  not  go  back- 
ward, old  things  have  long  since  passed  away,  and  if  all 
things  have  not  yet  become  new,  they  are  certainly  under- 
going a  rapid  transformation.  The  tide  of  prosi:»erity  is 
swee}3ing  around  us  on  every  side.  Be  it  our  care  to  take 
advantage  of  the  fiood  that  leads  to  fortune,  and  place  our 
old  town  full  breast  high  in  the  front  rank  of  commercial 


The  movement  of  gnano  from  Wilmington,  during  the 
year  1882,  is  shown  by  the  accompanying  tables,  which 
indicate  a  business  aggregating  about  321,786  bags,  valued 
at  11,287,144.     These  statistics    have    not    hitherto    been 


recorded,  and  the  figures  have  been  ascertained  after  much 
research  and  carefulness.  The  value  is  e  stimated  as  nearly 
as  possible  from  prices  quoted  for  the  several  brands  and 
classes  of  fertilizers  referred  to.  It  will  be  seen  that  the 
Carolina  Central  Railroad  carries  largely  in  excess  of  any 
other  means  of  transportation  from  this  market. 

Per  Carolina  Central  Rail  Road,  1882. 

^iiauo 124,320  Bags. 

Kainit 34^848  " 

Phosphate 16  7(50  " 

Dissolved  Bone ll'sil  " 

Chemical  Fertilizers *]'*    1*912  " 

Cotton   Fertilizers .*    2002  " 

Lime ;.".".".".';       '678  " 

Stone 50  u 

Eureka lOO  " 

Acid ■..*.■.*."."..;       450  '< 

Sulphate 1  '( 

Total 191,962      " 

Per  Wilmington,  Columbia  &  Augusta  Rail  Road,  1882. 

January ,- 13,092  Bags. 

February 35^638 

March 38,783 

April 6,908 

May 192 

October o^ 

November 80 

December 2  550 

Total 97,263 

Per  Wilmington  &  Weldon  Rail  Road,  1882. 

January 1^320  Bags. 

February 2 152  " 

March 3'750  " 

April 2,'085  " 

May 120  " 

June 20  " 

August 957  " 

Sexjtember 827  " 

October 200  " 

November , I37  " 

December 9,377  " 

Total 20,945  " 


Per  Steamees  up  the  Cape  Fear  River,  1882, 

Guano 8,409  Bags. 

Chemicals 881      " 

Kaiuit 1,232      " 

Phosphate 679      " 

Fertilizers 288      " 

Bones 127      " 

Total 11,616      •' 

Lime 825  Bbls. 


F.  Andrew  Micliaux,  in  his  treatise  on  the  resinons 
trees  of  North  America,  published  in  Paris,  in  1819,  says  : 
'  "The  resinous  product  of  the  pine  is  of  six  sorts,  viz  : 
turpentine,  scrapings,  spirit  of  turpentine,  rosin,  tar  and 
j)itch.  The  two  last  are  delivered  in  their  natural  state; 
the  others  are  modified  by  the  agency  of  fire  in  certain 
modes  of  preparation.  More  particularly  :  turpentine  is 
the  sap  of  the  tree  obtained  by  making  incisions  in  its 
trunk.  It  begins  to  distil  about  the  middle  of  March, 
when  the  circulation  commences,  and  flows  with  increasing 
abundance  as  the  weather  becomes  warmer,  so  that  July 
and  August  are  the  most  productive  months.  When  the 
circulation  is  slackened  by  the  chills  of  autumn,  the  oper- 
ation is  discontinued,  and  the  remainder  of  the  year  is 
occupied  in  preparatory  labours  for  the  following  season, 
which  consist— first,  in  making  the  boxes.  This  is  done  in 
January  and  February  :  in  the  base  of  each  tree,  about  3 
or  4  inches  from  the  ground,  and  of  preference,  on  the 
south  side,  a  cavity  is  formed,  commonly  of  the  capacity  of 
three  pints,  but  x)roportioned  to  the  size  of  the  trunk,  of 
which  it  should  occui')y  a  quarter  of  the  diameter  ;  on 
stocks  more  than  6  feet  in  circumference,  two,  and  some- 
times four  boxes  are  made  on  opposite  sides.  Next  comes 
the  raking,  or  the  clearing  of  the  ground  at  the  foot  of  the 
trees  from  leaves  and  herbage,  by  which  means  they  are 
secured  against  the  fires  that  are  often  kindled  in  the  woods 
by  the  carelessness  of  travellers  and  wagoners. 


If  tlie  flames  gain  the  boxes  already  impregnated  witli 
turi^entine,  tliey  are  rendered  useless,  and  others  must  be 
made.  Notching  is  merely  making  at  the  sides  of  the  box 
two  oblique  gutters,  about  3  inches  long,  to  conduct  into  it 
the  sap  that  exudes  from  the  edges  of  the  wound.  In  the 
interval  of  a  fortnight,  which  is  emploj^ed  in  this  operation, 
the  first  boxes  become  tilled  with  sap.  A  wooden  shovel 
is  used  to  transfer  it  to  pails,  which  in  turn  are  emptied 
into  casks  placed  at  convenient  distances.  To  increase  the 
product,  the  upper  edge  of  the  box  is  cJiqyj^edonQQ  a  week, 
the  bark  and  a  ijortion  of  the  alburnum  being  removed  to 
the  depth  of  four  concentrical  circles.  The  boxes  fill  every 
three  weeks.  The  turpentine  thus  procured  is  the  best, 
and  is  called  pure  dipping. 

The  extend  the  first  year  a  foot  above  the  box, 
and  as  the  distance  increases,  the  operation  is  more  fre- 
quently repeated,  to  remove  the  sap  coagulated  on  the 
surface  of  the  wound.  The  closing  of  the  pores,  occasion- 
ed by  continued  rains,  exacts  the  same  remedy  ;  and  it  is 
remarked  that  the  produce  is  less  abundant  in  moist  and 
cool  seasons.  After  5  or  6  years  the  tree  is  abandoned  ; 
the  upper  edge  of  the  wound  becomes  cicatrized,  but  the 
bark  is  never  restored  sufficiently  for  the  renewal  of  the 

(  It  is  reckoned  that  250  boxes  yield  a  barrel  containing 
320  lbs.  Some  persons  charge  a  single  negro  with  the  care 
of  4,000  or  4,500  trees  of  one  box  ;  others,  of  only  3,000, 
which  is  an  easy  task.  In  general,  3,000  trees  yield,  in 
ordinary  years,  75  barrels  of  turpentine  and  25  ot  scraping, 
which  supposes  the  boxes  to  be  emptied  five  or  six  times 
in  the  season.  The  scraping  is  a  coating  of  sap  which 
becomes  solid  before  it  reaches  the  boxes,  and  which  is 
taken  off  in  the  fall  and  added  to  the  last  runnings.  In 
November,  1807,  the  pure  cli2:>pingwiis  sold  at  Wilmington 
at  $3  a  barrel,  and  the  scraping  a  quarter  less. 

In  1804,  the  exportation  to  the  Northern  States,   and  to 


the  English  possessions,  amounted  to  77,827  barrels. 
During  peace  it  comes  even  to  Paris,  where  it  is  called 
Boston  turpentine.  Throughout  the  United  States  it  is 
used  to  make  yellow  soap  of  a  good  quality.  The  con- 
sumption in  England  is  great,  and,  in  the  official  state- 
ments, the  value  imported  in  1807  is  $465,828  ;  in  1805, 
Liverpool  alone  received  40,294  barrels,  and  in  1807,  18,924 
barrels.  It  was  sold  there  in  August,  1807,  at  $3  a  hundred 
l^ounds,  and  after  the  American  embargo,  in  1808,  at  $8  or 
$9.  Oddy  omits,  in  his  list  of  articles  exported  from 
Archangel  and  Stockholm  to  Great  Britain,  the  resinous  • 
product  of  the  pine,  which  has  amounted  to  100,000  barrels 
of  tar  in  a  year.    • 

A  great  deal  of  spirits  of  turpentine  is  made  in  North 
Carolina  :  it  is  obtained  by  distilling  the  turpentine  in 
large  copper  retorts,  which  are  of  an  imperfect  shape,  being 
so  narrow  at  the  mouth  as  to  retard  the  operation.  Six  bar- 
rels of  turpentine  are  said  to  afford  one  cask  or  122  quarts 
of  the  spirit.  It  is  sent  to  all  parts  of  the  United  States 
even  to  the  Western  Country,  by  way  of  Philadelphia,  to 
England,  and  to  France,  where  it  is  preferred  as  less  odor- 
ous, to  that  made  near  Bordeaux.  In  1804,  19,526  gallons 
were  exported  from  North  Carolina.  The  residuum  of  the 
distillation  is  rosin,  which  is  sold  at  one-third  of  the  price 
of  turpentine.  The  exportation  of  this  substance,  in  1804, 
was  4,675  barrels. 

All  the  tar  of  the  Southern  States  is  made  from  dead 
wood  of  the  long-leaved  pine,  consisting  of  trees  prostrated 
by  time  or  by  the  lire  kindled  annually  in  the  forests,  of 
the  summits  of  those  that  are  felled  for  timber,  and  of  limbs 
broken  off  by  the  ice,  which  sometimes  overloads  the 

It  is  worthy  of  remark  that  the  branches  of  resinous 
trees  consist  almost  wholly  of  wood,  of  which  the  organi- 
zation is  even  more  perfect  than  in  the  body  of  the  tree  ; 
the  reverse  is  observed  in  trees  with  deciduous  leaves  :  the 


explanation  of  the  phenomenon  I  leave  to  i^ersons  skilled 
in  vegetable  physiology. 

As  soon  as  vegetation  ceases  in  any  part'  of  the  tree,  its 
consistence  speedily  changes;  the  sap  decays,  and  the  heart, 
already  impregnated  with  resinous  juice,  becomes  sur- 
charged to  such  a  degree  as  to  double  its  weight  in  a  year: 
the  accumulation  is  said  to  be  much  greater  after  4  or  5 
>  years:  the  general  fact  may  be  proved  by  comparing  the 
wood  of  trees  recently  felled,  and  of  others  long  since 

To  procure  the  tar,  a  Tciln  is  formed  in  a  part  of  the  forest 
abounding  in  dead  wood  :  this  is  first  collected,  stript  of 
the  sap,  and  cut  into  billets  two  or  three  feet  long  and 
about  three  inches  thick ;  a  task  which  is  rendered  long 
and  difficult  by  the  knots.  The  next  step  is  to  prepare  a 
place  for  piling  it :  for  this  purpose  a  circular  mound  is 
raised,  slightly  declining  from  the  circumference  to  the 
centre,  and  surrounded  with  a  shallow  ditch.  The  diameter 
of  the  pile  is  proportioned  to  the  quantity  of  wood  which 
it  is  to  receive  :  to  obtain  100  barrels  of  tar,  it  should  be 
IS  or  20  feet  wide.  In  the  middle  is  a  hole  with  a  conduct 
leading  to  the  ditch,  in  which  is  formed  a  receptacle  for  the 
tar  as  it  flows  out.  Upon  the  surface  of  the  mound, 
beaten  hard  and  coated  with  clay,  the  wood  is  laid  round 
in  a  circle  like  rays. 

The  pile,  when  finished,  may  be  compared  to  a  cone 
truncated  at  two-thirds  of  its  height,  and  reversed,  being 
20  feet  in  diameter  below,  25  or  30  feet  above,  and  10  or  12 
feet  high.  It  is  then  strewed  with  pine  leaves,  covered 
with  earth,  and  contained  at  the  sides  with  a  slight  cincture 
of  wood.  This  covering  is  necessary  in  order  that  the  fire 
kindled  at  the  top  may  penetrate  to  the  bottom  with  a  slow 
and  gradual  combustion :  if  the  whole  mass  was  rapidly 
inflamed,  the  operation  would  fail  and  the  labour  in  part 
be  lost :  in  fine,  nearly  the  same  precautions  are  exacted 
in  this  process  as  are  observed  in  Europe  in  making  char^ 

224  WiLMiNGTOlsr,    l^ORTIl   CAKOLIjSTA. 

coal.     A  kiln  wlilcli  is  to  afford  100  or  130  barrels  of  tar,  is 
8  or  9  days  in  burning. 

As  the  tar  flows  off  into  the  ditch,  it  is  emptied  into 
casks  of  30  gallons,  which  are  made  of  the  same  species  of 

Pitch  is  tar  reduced  by  evaporation  :  it  should  not  be 
diminished  beyond  half  its  bulk  to  be  of  a  good  quality. 
{  In  1807,  tar  and  pitch  were  exported  to  England  from  the 
United  States,  to  the  amount  of  $265,000  ;  the  tar  was  sold 
in  Liverpool,  in  August  of  the  same  year,  at  $4. 67  a  barrel, 
and  when  the  embargo  became  known,  at  $5.56;  from 
which  inferences  may  be  drawn  to  the  advantage  of  the 
United  States.  At  Wilmington  the  ordinary  i^rice  is  from 
$1.75  to  $2.20  a  barrel.  Oddy  informs  us  that  the  tar  brought 
to  England  between  1786  and  1799,  came  in  equal  proportions 
from  Russia,  Sweden  and  the  United  States  ;  only  a  very 
small  quantity  was  drawn  from  Denmark.^!  The  Swedish 
tar  is  the  most  highly  esteemed  in  commerce,  and  next  that 
of  Archangel ;  that  of  the  United  States  is  considered 
inferior  to  both,  which  is  owing  to  its  being  made  from 
dead  wood,  while  that  of  Euroj)e  is  extracted  from  trees 
recently  felled.  The  tar  of  Carolina  is  said  also  to  contain 
earth  ;  this  can  be  attributable  only  to  the  want  of  care  in 
preparing  the  receptacles  ;  if  the  same  j^ains  were  taken  in 
the  fabrication,  it  would  probably  equal  that  of  Euroj^e, 
though  it  must  be  considered  that  the  tar  of  Russia  and 
Sweden  is  produced  by  a  different  tree,  a  native  of  the 
north  of  Europe.  It  has  already  been  remarked  that  in 
the  United  States  this  manufacture  is  confined  to  the 
maritime  i^art  of  North  Carolina,  and  to  a  small  tract  of  Vir- 
ginia ;  but  according  to  the  rate  of  consumption  in  America 
and  Great  Britain,  the  product  would  not  long  suffice  if  all 
the  extensive  regions  covered  with  the  long-leaved  pine  were 
made  to  contribute  to  this  object,  for  the  dead  wood  is  said 
not  to  be  renewed  upon  a  tract  that  has  been  cleared,  in  less 
than  ten  or  twelve  years.     It  might  be  advantageous  to 


make  use  of  green  wood,  or  purposely  to  strip  the  trees  of 
their  bark  ;  and  perhaps  in  this  way  supplies  might  be 
obtained  equivalent  to  the  demand  of  commerce.  Great 
benefit  would  result  from  stripping  the  pines  of  a  certain 
diameter  of  their  bark  ;  they  would  pass  completely  into 
the  resinous  state  in  fifteen  months,  and  would  be  proper 
for  posts  and  many  other  uses  which  require  strong  and 
lasting  wood.  This  experiment,  which  I  should  have  tried 
when  I  was  last  in  Sonth  Carolina  if  the  season  had  not 
been  too  far  advanced,  should  be  made  in  April  or  the 
beginning  of  Mayj  while  the  sap  is  in  active  circulation, 
and  the  liber  or  inner  bark  should  be  exactly  removed." 

Since  Michaux  wrote  the  foregoing  treatise  three-quarters 
of  a  century  ago,  there  has  been  but  little  change  in  the 
preparation  for  market  of  these  far-famed  products  of  our 
State.  The  cavity  or  box  is  now  made  to  hold  two  pints. 
The  notching  of  his  day  is  now  called  cornering,  and  instead 
of  a  wooden  shovel  for  the  removal  of  sap,  an  iron  imple- 
ment, called  a  dipper,  is  used.  The  pure  dipping  referred 
to  is  now  known  as  virgin  turpentine ;  and  instead  of  a 
negro  being  "charged  with  the  care  of  4,000  to  4,500 
boxes,"  a  good  hand  is  now  expected  to  chip  10,000  to 
12,000  trees  throughout  the  season,  while  the  dipping  is 
delegated  to  other  laborers. 

(  The  price  of  "scrape"  is  now  only  three-fifths  of  the 
value  of  "dip."  Eight  barrels  of  crude  turpentine  (pure 
dipping)  now  yield  one  cask  of  48  gallons  spirits  ;  and  / 
while  theexi^orts  of  spirits  turpentine  from  North  Carolina  ^ 
in  1804  were  19,526  gallons,  they  now  amount  to  over 
5,300,000  gallons.  The  exports  of  rosin  in  1804  (4,075  bar- 
rels) have  since  been  increased  to  554,000  barrels.^  ■ 

For  the  information  of  those  who  imagine  that  our  influ- 
ence as  a  market  for  naval  stores  is  waning,  and  that  the 
trade  is  rapidly  moving  southward  to  the  new  districts  in 
Georgia,  I  append  the  following  official  statistics  by  way 
of  comparison  : 



Comparative  Statement  of  Receipts  of  Naval  Stores  for  the  crop  years  to 
March  loth  of  1882  and  1883,  at  Wilmington,  Charleston  and  Savannah. 


Makch  10th. 













March  10th. 







Tar.    I  Crude. 




85,1181    047,772 

I    266,848 

i    297,284 

In  an  old  book  containing  the  private  correspondence  of 
Daniel  A¥ebster,  I  find  a  letter  dated  Wilmington,  May  0, 
1847,  as  follows  : 

"At  1  o'clock  yesterday,  ten  miles  from  this  city,  we  met 
a  special  train,  with  a  large  deputation,  headed  by  ex- 
Governor  Dudley.  The  weather  was  bad,  and  the  wind 
east,  and  I  was  rather  easily  persuaded  to  stay  over  a  day. 
The  Governor  brought  us  to  his  own  house,  where  we  are 
grandly  lodged.  I  go  to  the  hotel  to  meet  the  citizens  at 
11  o'clock,  and  go  off  at  half-past  2  this  P.  M.,  if  the  wind 
goes  down.  At  present  it  blows  rather  hard.  This  is  an 
active  little  city,  built  on  the  east  side  of  the  river,  on  sand 
hills.  The  good  people  are  Whigs,  but  out  of  the  city, 
and  all  round  for  fifty  miles,  it  is  a  region  whose  politics 
are  personified  by  Mr.  McKay.  *  "  '-*  '  There  is  a  thing, 
Harry,  which  thou  hast  often  heard  of,  and  it  is  known  to 
many  in  this  land  by  the  name  of  pitch,'  etc.,  etc.  We 
are  here  in  the  midst  of  this  very  thing,  at  the  very  centre 
of  the  tar  and  turpentine  region.  The  pines  are  long-leaved 
pines.  In  one  of  these,  a  foot  from  the  bottom,  a  notch  is 
cut,  and  its  capacity  enlarged  and  its  shape  fashioned  a 


little,  SO  as  to  hold  the  liquid,  by  chiseling,  and  then  it  is 
called  the  '  box.'  Above  the  box  the  bark  is  cut  off,  for  a 
foot  or  so,  and  the  turpentine  oozes  out  of  the  tree  on  to 
this  smooth  surface,  and  then  runs  slowly  into  the  box. 
The  box  holds  about  a  quart.  In  a  good  large  tree  it  will 
till  five  times  a  season.  Sometimes  there  are  two  boxes  in 
one  tree,  so  that  some  trees  will  yield  ten  quarts  a  year. 
But  the  greatest  yield  is  the  first  year  :  after  that  it  is 
gradual!}^  diminished,  and  in  seven  or  eight  years  the  tree 
dies,  or  will  yield  no  more  turpentine.  Tar  is  made  by 
bringing  together  wood,  full  of  turpentine,  either  trees  or 
knots,  and  i)ieces  picked  up  in  the  woods,  and  burning  it 
in  a  pit,  just  as  charcoal  is  made,  then  running  it  off  into  a 
hole  prepared  for  it,  in  the  ground.  At  the  present  price 
of  the  article,  this  is  said  to  be  the  best  business  now  doing 
in  the  State.  I  am  told  good,  fresh,  well- timbered  pine 
lands  can  be  bought  for  $1.25  to  $1.50  per  acre.  '^'  '^  * 
One  barrel  of  turpentine  distilled  makes  six  gallons  spirits. 
The  residuum,  or  resin,  is  not  of  much  value,  say  twenty- 
five  cents  a  barrel.  Tar  and  turpentine  are  now  high,  and 
the  business  good." 


Some  months  ago  our  Exchange  received  a  visit  from 
Mr.  Ingall,  of  England,  the  senior  partner  of  Messrs. 
Ingall,  Phillips  &  Co.,  proprietors  of  the  principal  tanks 
in  London,  where  sjDirits  turpentine  and  petroleum  are 
stored.  Mr.  Ingall  subsequently  made  a  careful  tour  of 
our  entire  turpentine-producing  countrj^^,  including  South 
Carolina,  Georgia  and  Florida,  his  object  being  not  only  to 
ascertain  the  probable  future  product  of  turpentine  by 
judging  himself  of  our  resources,  but  to  investigate  alleged 
or  suspected  attempts  at  adulteration,  which  the  high 
prices  current  for  spirits  turpentine  naturally  encouraged 
in  a  country  where  petroleum  and  rosin  oil,  in  a  refined 
state,  offered  so  many  profitable  inducements  for  adaptation. 


Mr.  Ingall  informed  me  that  until  recently,  no  regular 
chemical  tests  had  been  ai:)plied  to  cargoes  of  spirits  tur- 
pentine sent  them  for  storage  or  tanking,  and  that  various 
attemi)ts  had  been  made  to  pass  a  spurious  article  upon  the 
London  market,  which  led  to  the  engagement  by  them  of 
the  services  of  Prof.  Henry  E.  Armstrong,  Ph.  D.,  F.  R.  S., 
a  well-known  chemical  expert  of  London,  who  now  analyzes 
with  great  care  every  shij)ment  received  at  the  tanks  for 
that  market. 

From  these  gentlemen  I  have  before  me,  and  subject  to 
the  insj)ectJon  of  any  members  of  the  Exchange,  six  sam- 
ples, labelled  as  follows  :  (1)  Average  sample  turpentine 
(simits).  (2)  Average  sample  petroleum.  (3)  Turpentine 
(spirits)  and  10  per  cent,  benzine.  (4)  Turpentine  (spirits) 
and  10  per  cent,  petroleum.  (5.)  Turpentine  (spirits)  and  5 
per  cent,  petroleum.  (6)  Turpentine  (spirits)  and  2|  per 
cent,  petroleum. 

Adulteration  No.  3  seems  to  be  the  most  successful ; 
comparing  the  pure  spirits  turpentine  and  its  mixture  with 
10  per  cent,  petroleum  spirit  (benzine),  no  variation  what- 
ever in  color  is  perceptible  to  the  eye,  and, no  difference  can 
be  detected  in  the  odor.  The  other  mixed  samples  show 
more  or  less  dissimilarity  in  color  and  odor,  but  would 
easily  deceive  a  casual  observer. 

One  of  the  methods  of  analysis  is  by  the  polarimeter. 
Polarimetry  has  been  employed  in  the  examination  of  all 
those  substances  having  the  property  of  polarizing  light. 
For  instance,  the  rays  of  light  falling  upon  a  sample  of 
spirits  of  turpentine,  give  to  the  surface  of  the  fluid  a 
bluish,  opalescent  hue,  because  of  polarized  light.  The 
13olarimeter,  or  polariscope,  is  an  instrument  devised  to 
estimate  the  polarity  of  a  given  fluid,  and  the  amount  of 
polarity  is  expressed  in  degrees.  Therefore  a  standard  of 
polarization  being  ascertained  for  a  pure  sjurit,  all  devia- 
tions would  indicate  adulteration,  or  determine  the  origin 
of  the  spirit,  whether  it  be  Russian,  French  or  American. 


With  reference  to  this  beautiful  test,  Dr.  Witthaus  gives 
the  following : 

"  Polar hnetry. — A  ray  of  light  passing  from  one  medium 
into  another  of  different  density,  at  an  angle  other  than 
90°  to  the  plane  of  separation  of  the  two  media,  is  deflected 
from  its  course  or  refracted.  Certain  substances  have  the 
power,  not  only  of  deflecting  a  ray  falling  upon  them  in 
certain  directions,  but  also  of  dividing  it  into  two  rays, 
which  are  peculiarly  modified.  The  splitting  of  the  ray  is 
termed  double  refraction,  and  the  altered  rays  are  said  to 
"be  polarized.  When  a  ray  of  such  x)olarized  light  meets 
a  mirror  held  at  a  certain  angle,  or  a  crystal  of  Iceland  spar 
peculiarly  cut  (a  Nichols'  prism),  also  at  a  certain  angle,  it 
is  extinguished.  The  crystal  which  produces  the  polariza- 
tion, is  called  the  polarizer,  and  that  which  produces  the 
extinction  the  analyzer.  If,  when  the  polarizer  and  analy- 
zer are  so  adjusted,  as  to  extinguish  a  ray  passing  through 
the  former,  c^ertain  substances  are  brought  between  them, 
light  again  passes  through  the  analyzer,  and  in  order  again 
to  produce  extinction,  the  analyzer  must  be  rotated  upon 
the  axis  of  the  ray  to  the  right  or  to  the  left.  Substances 
capable  of  thus  influencing  x)olarized  light,  are  said  to  be 
optically  active.  If,  to  produce  extinction,  the  analyzer  is 
turned  in  the  direction  of  the  hands  of  a  watch,  the  sub- 
stance is  said  to  be  dextrogyrous  ;  if  in  the  ojiposite  direc- 
tion, loewgyrous.  The  distance  through  which  the  analyzer 
must  be  turned,  dej^ends  U2)0n  the  peculiar  power  of  the 
optically  active  substance,  the  length  of  the  column 
interposed,  the  concentration,  if  in  solution,  and  the 
wave-length  *of  the  original  ray  of  light.  The  specific 
rotary  power  of  a  substance  is  the  rotation  produced, 
in  degrees  and  tenths,  by  one  gram  of  the  substance 
dissolved  in  one  cubic  centimetre  of  a  non-active  solvent, 
and  examined  in  a  column  one  decimetre  long.  The  specific 
rotary  power  is  determined  by  dissolving  a  known  weight 
of  the  substance  in  a  given  volume  of  solvent,  and  observ- 
ing the  angle  of  rotation  produced  by  a  column  of  given 


length.  Then  let  ^=  weight  in  grams  of  the  substance 
contained  in  1  c.  c.  of  solution  ;  j  the  length  of  the  column 
in  decimetres  ;  «  the  angle  of  rotation  observed ;  and  [^] 
the  specific  rotary  power  sought,  we  have 


In  most  instruments  monochromatic  light,  corresponding 
to  tlie-D  line  of  the  solar  spectrum,  is  used,  and  the  specific 
rotary  power  for  that  ray,  is  expressed  by  the  sign  [a]u . 
The  fact  that  the  rotation  is  right-handed  is  expressed  by 
the  sign  +,  and  that  it  is  left-handed  by  the  sign  — . 

It  will  be  seen  from  the  above  formula  that,  knowing 
the  value  of  [a]D  for  any  given  substance,  we  can  determine 
the  weight  of  that  substance  in  a  solution  by  the  formula 

"  a         " 

[«]d  +  I 

Another  form  of  analysis  is  by  ordinary  distillation,  and 
still  another  by  treatment  with  sulphuric  acid,  and  by 
other  chemical  tests/'^ 

In  the  American  Journal  of  Fliarmacy  for  March,  .1883, 
apj)ears  a  paper  on  the  subject  of  "Turpentine — Its  Nature 
and  adulterations,"  by  Professor  Armstrong,  copied  from 
the  Journal  of  the  Society  of  Chemical  Industry,  which  is 
so  replete  with  interesting  matter,  that  at  the  risk  of 
appearing  tedious  with  reference  to  its  technicalities,  I 
reproduce  it  in  full. 


By  Professor  Henry  E.  Armstrong,  Ph.D.,  F.R.S. 

Ju  the  course  of  investigations  on  the  terpenes,  camphor  ant]  allied 
compounds,  in  whicli  I  liave  been  engaged  during  the  several  years 
past,  tlie  opportunity  has  occurred  of  gradually  collecting  a  number  of 

*Attempts  at  adulteration  in  the  country  have  been  foiled  even  after  passing  the 
Wilmington  inspection,  by  the  custom  of  some  shippers,  of  marking  the  original 
brand  on  the  end  of  the  bung  stave,  in  addition  to  the  shipping  brand  on  the  head, 
wlilch  serves  as  a  trace  in  case  of  need.— 

I  From  the  "Journal  of  tlie  Society  of  Chemical  Industry,"  December  29, 1882. 


data  which  probably  are  of  sufRcient  technical  value  to  find  a  place  in 
the  "Journal  of  the  Society  of  Chemical  Industry." 

Tlianks  to  the  kindness  of  my  friend,  Mr.  E.  Phillips,  of  Messrs. 
lugall,  Phillips  &  Co.,  I  was  enabled  to  examine  average  samples  of 
most  of  the  cargoes  of  turpentine  landed  by  his  firm  during  the  years 
1877  to  1880,  and  thus  to  obtain  a  clear  insight  into  the  character  of  the 
commercial  article.  The  high  price  of  turpentine  during  the  jjast  few 
seasons  has  undoubtedly  led  dealers  here  to  adulterate  it,  and  it  was  to 
be  feared  that  shipj)ers  might  not  uniformly  resist  temj^tation  ;  there- 
fore, at  the  request  of  the  above-mentioned  firm,  since  the  begin- 
ning of  last  year,  I  have  regularly  tested  all  cargoes  landed  atlheir 

The  crude  resinous  exudation,  formerly  known  as  "turiDcntine"  is 
no  longer  an  article  of  commerce  in  this  country,  the  obviously  rational 
course  being  nowadays  adopted  of  separating  it  into  its  constituents, 
"spirits  of  turpentine,"  or  turpentine  oil"  and  resin.  On  this  account 
the  name  "turpentine" — vulgare  "turps"— is  now  commonly  employed 
as  synonymous  with  the  longer  appellation,  spirits  or  oil  of  turi^entinCj 
and  it  is  in  this  sense  that  the  term  is  employed  in  the  paper. 

The  commercial  varieties  of  turpentine  mainly  consist  of  hydrocar- 
bons of  the  formula  CioHie,  of  which  certainly  three  distinct  classes 
may  be  distinguished,  viz.:  terpenee,  cilrenes,  and  a  third  of  which 
Bylvestrene,  the  characteristic  constituent  of  Russian  turpentine,  is  the 
type.  Under  ierpenes,  I  include  those  varieties  which  boil  at  about 
156°  C;  under  citrenea,  those  which  boil  at  about  17(5°  to  178°,  such 
as  are  the  chief  constituents  of  the  oils  derived  from  various  species  of 

French  Turjjeniine.— It  is  generally  stated  that  French  turpentine  is 
tbe  produce  of  a  single  species  of  conifer,  Pinus  maritima.  It  certainly 
is  of  remarkably  uniform  quality,  judging  from  the  almost  constant 
rotatory  power  of  samples  which  I  have  had  occasion  to  examine  at 
various  times,  and  probably  the  projjerties  of  the  terpene  of  which  the 
French  oil  mainly  consists  are  not  very  difTerent  from  those  of  the 
commercial  article.  Using  any  form  of  polarimeter  which  admits  of 
the  observation  being  made  in  monochromatic  light — it  is,  perhaps, 
well  to  note  that  the  Soleil  form  cannot  be  employed  for  the  examina-' 
tion  of  turpentine— and  operating  with  a  200  mm.  column,  the  value 
of  od  is  on  the  average  about  —60°  to  —61"*. 

American  Turpentine. — American  turi^entlne  is  said  by  Hanbury 
and  Fliickiger  ("Pharmacographia,"  1st  ed.)  to  be  chiefly  the  produce 
of  the  swamp  pine  {Pinus  australis),  this  and  the  loblolly  pine  {Pinus 
tceda)  being,  they  say,  the  most  important  sources  of  turpentine. 

The  following  particulars  regarding  the  separation  of  the  hydrocar- 
bon from  the  crude  resinous  exudation  will  probably  be  of  interest.    I 


am  indebted  for  them  to  Dr.  Thomas  F.  Wood,  of  Wilraiugtou,  N.  C.  ; 
they  were  written  at  the  request  of  Mr.  Charles  Rice,  American  editor 
of  the  "Pharmacograiiliia :" 

"Turpentine  is  distilled  in  copper  stills  now.  Formerly  iron  stills 
were  used.  All  crude  turpentine  is  distilled  with  water.  A  fifteen- 
barrel  still  (barrel  weighs  two  hundred  and  eighty  pounds)  is  charged 
early  in  the  morning.  Gentle  heat  is  first  applied  until  the  mass  is 
liquefied,  and  a  coarse  wire  skimmer  is  used  to  remove  the  chips,  bark, 
leaves  and  such  other  foreign  substances  as  rise  to  the  surface,  the  tem- 
perature meanwhile  rising  until  31G°  F.  is  reached.  All  the  accidental 
water  (that  contained  in  the  crude  turpentine  as  it  comes  from  the 
forest)  having  been  distilled  off,  a  small  stream  of  cold  water  is  now 
let  in,  so  that  the  heat  is  kept  at  or  below  316°  F*,  the  boiling  point  of 
oil  of  turpentine.  The  oil  of  turpentine  and  water  now  come  over,' 
and  the  mixture  is  caught  in  a  wooden  tub.  The  distiller  tests  the 
quality  of  the  flow  from  time  to  time  in  a  proof-glass,  and  the  distilla- 
tion is  continued  until  the  proportion  of  water  coming  over  is  9  of 
water  to  1  of  oil  of  turpentine.  At  this  stage  the  heat  is  withdrawn, 
the  still-cap  is  taken  off",  and  the  hot  resin  is  drawn  off  by  a  valvular 
cock  at  the  side  of  the  still  near  the  bottom.  This  resin  i:)asses  through 
a  strainer  before  it  reaches  the  vat,  to  rid  it  of  foreign  substances, 
which  may  not  have  been  previously  removed  by  the  skimmer.  The 
yield  of  oil  of  turpentine  from 'virgin  dip'  (the  first  exudation  from  a 
newly  boxed  tree)  is  about  5  gallons  to  the  barrel,  about  20  per  cent. 
J  being  left  in  the  resin, i  since  the  removal  of  a  larger  proportion  would 
darken  the  color,  and  consequently  depreciate  its  value.  The  yield 
from  'yellow  diii'  (the  runnings  of  the  second  and  subsequent  years)  is 
about  four  gallons  to  a  barrel.  The  yield  from  'scrapings'  (the  inspis- 
sated gum  from  the  tree  facings)  is  about  2  to  3J  gallons,  according  to 
age,  and  also  to  the  proportion  of  trash  which  it  contains." 

The  separation  of  turpentine,  by  what  is  practically  a  steam  distil- 
lation process,  serves  to  exi)laiu  the  fact  which,  until  I  received  the 
above  information,  had  often  surprised  me,  that  the  commercial 
article  is  uniformly  free  from  products  of  the  decom^wsition  of  resin  by 

Some  idea  of  the  importance  of  the  turpentine  industry  will  be 
gathered  by  inspection  of  the  following  table  representing  the  number 
of  barrels  imported  into  London  since  1872  : 

1873 44,495  1878 5(5,221 

1874 57,720  1879 42,960 

1875 57,093  1880 39,649 

1876 57,371  1881 03,724 

1877 49,500  1882 57,489 

1  The  fact  that  the  whole  of  the  liyilrocarbon  is  not  removed  accounts  for  thd 
statement  Konietiincs  made,  that  "resin  spirit"  is  ojitically  active,  that  made  Irom 
pnre  resin,  according  to  my  experiments,  being  inactive. 


Probably  about  two-thirds  of  tlie  entire  quautity  sent  to  this  country  is 
landed  in  Loudon. 

In  so  far  as  general  properties  are  concerned,  there  is  no  practically 
distinguishable  difference,  other  than  in  color,  I  believe,  between 
various  samples  of  the  commercial  article,  but  tested  by  the  polarime- 
ter  they  vary  considerably. 

The  chief  port  of  shipment  is  Wilmington,  and  most  of  the  turpen- 
tine from  this  port,  like  that  from  Bordeaux,  is  of  remarkably  uniform 
quality.  Thus  out  of  thirty-five  samples  representing  in  all  cases  bulks 
of  several  hundred  barrels,  and  in  a  number  of  cases  bulks  of  from 
1000  to  2000  or  more  barrels,  no  less  than  twenty-eight  samples  varied 
in  rotatory  power  (value  of  ao  per  200  mm.),  only  within  the  very  nar- 
row limits  of  27°  6^  to  28°  Sf)^ ;  four  samples  had  an  inferior  rotatory 
power  of  24°  29'  to  2G°  W,  and  only  three  had  a  superior  rotatory  power 
of  respectively  29°  3K,  31°  2F,  and  32°  38'. 

That  shipped  from  Savannah,  on  the  other  hand,  is,  as  a  rule,  char* 
jicterized  by  a  relatively  low  rotatory  power,  e.  g. : 

Ex.  1569  barrels ao  =22°  21'  Ex.  1G9G  barrels ao  =19° 

Ex.1000       "       aD=24°    9'  Ex.1870       "      ao  =20°  33' 

Ex.1383      '•      aD=20°22'  Ex,  1200      "      ao  =21°  21' 

Ex.1571       "      aD=19°39'  Ex.1595       "       ab=19°12' 

In  the  case  of  the  last  of  these  shipments,  I  had  the  opjiortunity  of 
taking  five  samples,  each  representing  about  one-sixth  of  the  bulk, 
which  gave  the  following  values  :  21°  4',  21°  19',  18°  13',  17°  38',  and 
20°  6',  I  have  not  been  able  to  ascertain  whether  the  turpentine  ship- 
ped from  Savannah  is  the  product  of  a  different  tree,  or  whether  the 
difference  in  climate  between  the  two  districts,  of  which  Wilmington 
and  Savannah  are  "centres,"  is  the  cause  of  the  marked  variation  from 
what  may  be  termed  the  Wilmington  type.  I  trust  that  the  publica- 
tion of  this  paper  may,  as  one  result,  lead  to  my  being  favored  with 
information  on  this  point. 

Judging  from  the  opportunities  which  have  presented  themselves 
for  examining  turpentine  shipped  from  Charleston,  the  deliveries 
from  this  port  would  appear  to  comprise  turpentine  of  somewhat 
high  rotatory  power,  as  well  as  those  of  the  Wilmington  and  Savannah 
types : 

Ex.  1000  barrels ao  =30°  24'         Ex.  2179  barrels ao  =24°  15^ 

Ex.  "      aD=30°38"         Hx. "      ao  =19^ 

Ex.    250       "      aD=33°33'  Ex.1874       "       a d  =26°  42' 

Ex.1689       "       00=28°  15'  Ex.1886       "       ao  =29°  39' 

Ex.    200       "       aD=24° 

Other  parts  also  furnish  a  somewhat  irregular  product ;  the  values, 
however,  always  lie  within  those  already  given,  and  in  the  majority  of 


cases  belong  to  the  Wilmington  type,  Brunswick  alone  exhibiting  a 
marked  tendency  to  furnish  a  product  of  the  Savannah  type. 

Commercially,  I  believe,  no  distinction  is  made  between  the  turpen- 
tine shipped  from  various  American  ports  ;  nor  indeed  is  French  tur- 
pentine, which  is  now  a  comparative  rarity  in  the  English  market, 
regarded  as  having  distinctive  qualities.  My  observations  on  the 
wliole  justify  this  practice:  French  turpentine  is  slightly  less  readily 
oxidized,  absorbing  oxygen  somewhat  less  rapidly  than  American 
turpentine,  but  the  difference  is  probably  insufflcient  to  make  itself 
felt  in  practice. 

Busslan  Tur2oentine. — Commercially,  this  variety  is  of  no  importance, 
as  it  cannot  well  be  used  in  paint  or  varnish-making,  both  on  account 
of  its  unpleasant  odor  and  of  the  extreme  readiness  in  comparison  with 
French  or  American  turpentine  with  which  it  absorbs  oxygen,  form- 
ing a  viscid  oil ;  its  vapor  appears  also  to  j^roduce  far  more  marked 
physiological  effects  than  either  of  the  ordinary  oils,  inciting  violent 
headache  in  many  individuals. 

It  is  the  product  of  Plnus  sylvestris,  but  I  have  not  been  able  to  ascer- 
tain whether  the  turpentine  is  specially  collected,  or  is  a  mere  by- 
product. According  to  one  account  which  I  have  received,  the  waste 
timber  is  piled  into  heaps  and  a  fire  lighted  ;  the  resinous  matter  which 
drains  away  is  then  collected  and  the  turpentine  extracted  from  it  by 

Different  samples  are  remarkably  different  in  their  optical  character, 
as  the  following  numbers  show  : 

OoCper  200  mm.)— =36°  29^ 

44°  11' 

40=^  42' 

36°  7^ 

41°  0' 

46°  45' 

34°  18^ 

35°  28' 

80°  4' 

38°  58^ 

30°  4ii^ 

87°  5' 

32°  27^ 

35°  20' 

42°  10' 

31°  20' 

38°  6' 

39°  52' 

34°  8' 

45°  10' 

30°  10' 

39°  58' 

38°  4' 

Excepting  the  first  four,  all  these  samples  were  drawn  from  single 
barrels,  and  were  obligingly  furnished  to  me  by  Mr.  Kingzett. 

Russian  turpentine  has  been  shown  by  Tilden,  "Chem.  See.  Transl" 
1878-80,  to  consist  of  a  peculiar  CioHie  hydrocarbon,  the  so-called /S^?- 
vesirene  of  Atterberg  (Ber.  10,  1202),  and  of  an  isomerlde  possessing  the 
character  of  American  turpentine.  Sylvestrene,  according  to  these 
authors,  has  a  specific  rotatory  power  of  (ao)=19-o°  (Atterberg),  19-6° 
(Tilden),  that  of  the  associated  hydrocarbon  being  30-3°  (Atterberg). 
In  conformation  of  the  assumption  that  one  of  the  constituents  of 
Russian  turpentine  is  probably  identical  with  the  main  constituent  of 


American  turpentine,  I  may  mention  that  I  have  separated  from  the 
latter  by  fractional  distillation  a  portion  having  a  rotatory  power  per 
200  mm.  of  no  less  than  49°  34^,  and  that  on  several  occasions,  by  sub- 
mitting American  turpentine  to  air  oxidation,  and  afterwards  distilling 
off  the  unaltered  hydrocarbon  by  steam,  I  have  obtained  i:)roducts  of 
considerably  higher  rotatorj'  jDower  than  the  original  oils.  I  have  also 
examined  several  samples  received  from  Mr.  Kingzett  of  the  hydro- 
carbon carried  over  by  the  air  current  during  the  air  oxidation  of 
Russian  turpentine.  In  most  cases  these  have  been  almost  free  from 
sylvestreiie,  and  have  exhibited  a  higher  rotatory  power  than  the 
original  crude  turpentine  from  which  they  were  derived. 

The  numbers  above  given  fluctuate  within  wide  limits,  and  are  of 
interest  as  indicating  that  the  proportions  in  which  the  two  recognized 
constituents  of  Russian  turpentine  are  present  probably  vary  consid' 
erably,  and  also  that  other  perhaps  isomeric  hydrocarbons  are  mixed 
with  them  ;  they  serve  to  confirm  the  idea  that  American  turpentine 
is  also  a  mixture  of  isomeric  hydrocarbons.  I  may  add  that  certain 
observations  even  lead  me  to  think  it  not  unlikely  that  the  low  dextro- 
rotatory power  of  American  turpentine  is  due  to  the  presence  of  a 
Ipevo-rotatory  terpeue ;  this  would  serve  to  explain  the  difference  in 
optical  character  of  products  from  different  localities.  The  compara- 
tive study  of  American  turpentine— and  indeed  generally  of  oils  con- 
taining CioHie  hydrocarbons — from  this  point  of  view,  I  think  deserves 
attention  ;  variations  in  climatic  and  other  conditions  may  have  led  to 
a  gradual  differentiation  both  in  botanical  and  physiological  character 
of  a  single  parent  stock. 

Method  of  Analysis.— The  terms  "petroleum  spirit"  and  "petroleum 
oil"  as  commercially  used  do  not  admit  of  very  precise  definition  ;  for 
the  purpose  of  this  paper,  I  would  therefore  define  petroleum  spirit  as 
being  that  portion  of  crude  petroleum  which  may  be  volatilized  by 
means  of  steam  from  water  boiling  at  atmospheric  pressure,  and  petro- 
leum oil  as  being  the  non-volatile  i)ortion.  Judged  of  by  this  defini- 
tion, commercial  spirit  and  oil  are,  as  a  rule,  more  or  less  mixtures; 
the  amount  of  spirit  in  the  best,  burning  oil  is,  however,  small. 

The  presence  of  petroleum  oil  in  turpentine  is  readily  detected  and 
the  amount  estimated  by  steam  distilling.  Unless  it  has  been  freely 
exposed  to  the  air  for  a  long  time,  but  a  mere  trace  of  viscid  matter 
remains  on  steam-distilling  turpentine;  on  one  or  two  occasions  only 
have  I  met  with  samples  containing  a  small  amount  of  resin,  which 
was  left  as  a  solid  on  distilling  off  the  turpentine  by  a  steam  current. 
Should  more  than  a  few  tenths  of  a  per  cent,  of  non-volatile  matter 
remain,  it  is  probable  that  petroleum  is  i^resent.  This  usuallj"^  betrays 
itself  by  the  more  or  less  marked  blue  fluorescence  of  the  residue;  but 
should  this  criterion  fail,  the  behavior  of  petroleum  and  of  the  non- 


volatile  product  of  the  air  oxidation  of  turpentine  on  digestion  with 
dilute  nitric  acid  will  serve  to  differentiate  them.  The  latter  is  readily 
oxidized  and  dissolved ;  the  former  does  not  alter  much  in  bulk,  but 
apparently  undergoes  more  or  less  complete  nitration.  I  have  never 
yet  met  with  a  sample  containing  resin  oil,  but  it  would  not  be  difficult 
to  detect  it,  as  it  is  oxidized  by  nitric  acid,  and  behaves  in  a  most 
characteristic  manner  when  triturated  with  a  paste  of  slaked  lime, 
forming  the  well-known  grease. 

The  detection  and  estimation  of  petroleum  spirit  is  less  readily 
effected.  The  method  which  I  employ  is  based  on  the  diflferent  beha- 
vior of  turpentine  and  paraffins  with  sulphuric  acid.  The  paraffins,  it 
is  well  known,  are  almost  unaffected,  whereas  turpentine  is  polymer- 
ized and  for  the  most  part  converted  into  substances  of  high  boiling, 
point  which  do  not  volatilize  in  a  current  of  steam.  I  say  for  the  most 
part,  because,  as  I  have  elsewhere  stated,  a  certain  amount  of  cymene 
and  of  a  parafflnoiil  hydrocarbon  is  always  produced.  Inasmuch  as 
the  amount  of  cymene  so  produced  varies  with  the  strength  of  the  acid 
and  the  temperature,  being  larger  the  more  concentrated  the  acid  and 
the  higher  the  temperature,  it  is  important  always  to  work  under 
uniform  conditions,  at  as  low  a  temperature  as  convenient,  and  to  use 
diluted  acid.  I  employ  two  strengths  of  acid,  a  mixture  of  2  vols,  acid 
and  1  vol.  water  (2:1  acid)  and  a  mixture  of  4  vols,  acid  and  1  vol. 
water  (4  : 1  acid).  The  turpentine— 500  c.c.  is  a  convenient  quantity — 
is  placed  with  about  one-fourth  to  one-third  of  its  bulk  of  2  : 1  acid  in 
a  well-stopped  bottle,  and  the  mixture  is  somewhat  cautiously  agitated. 
It  soon  becomes  more  or  less  heated,  and  as  it  is  important  to  effect  the 
polymerization  at  a  temperature  not  much  above  the  ordinary  atmos' 
pheric  temperature,  the  bottle  is  placed  in  cold  water  for  a  short  time, 
After  repeated  agitation  with  the  acid,  the  turpentine  is  converted  into 
a  viscid  oil,  and  when  this  is  the  case,  and  no  more  heat  is  developed 
on  continued  agitation,  the  contents  of  the  bottle  is  transferred  to  a 
sei)arating  funnel,  the  acid  layer  is  run  off"  and  the  oil  poured  into  a 
flask  ;  the  latter  having  been  connected  with  a  condenser  and  a  steam- 
pot — an  ordinary  tin  can  answers  admirably— all  that  is  volatile  is  dis- 
tilled off.  The  distillate  is  mixed  with  about  half  its  bulk  of  4 :  1  acid, 
and  treated  in  a  precisely  similar  manner. 

The  product  from  this  second  operation  should  only  consist  of  a  mix- 
ture of  cymene  and  the  paraffinoid  hydrocarbon  ;  in  bulk  it  should  not 
be  more  than  4  to  5  per  cent,  of  the  original  hydrocarbon.  This  is  the 
result  of  a  very  large  number  of  estimations;  as  little  as  8  percent., 
however,  has  been  obtained  in  experiments  conducted  with  special 
care.  If  much  more  than  about  5  per  cent,  be  obtained,  it  is  desirable 
to  repeat  the  treatment  with  4:  1  acid. 


If,  from  the  result  of  this  treatment,  it  appears  probable  that  petro- 
leum spirit  is  present,  the  product  is  placed  in  a  well-stoppered  bottle i 
together  with  several  times  its  volume  of  concentrated  sulphuric  acid, 
heated  to  50°  to  60°,  with  which  it  is  violently  agitated.  This  treatment 
is  repeated  if  desirable  (weak  Nordhausen  acid  being  with  advantage 
substituted  for  the  concentrated  sulphuric  acid),  and  the  residual  hydro- 
carbon is  separated,  steam  distilled,  and  then  measured.  The  amount 
thus  obtained  should  not  exceed  from  i  to  1  per  cent,  of  the  original 
bulk  of  turpentine.  This  treatment  with  concentrated  acid  affords  a 
check  on  the  previous  determination. 

If  American  petroleum  spirit  be  thus  treated  it  suffers  comparatively 
little  loss,  so  that  the  amount  of  hydrocarbon  above  1  per  cent,  repre- 
sents the  minimum  amount  of  petroleum  spirit  in  the  turpentine.  The 
spirit  from  Scotch  petroleum  contains  a  very  much  higher  proportion 
of  hydrocarbons  alterable  by  sulphuric  acid,  and  therefore  cannot  be 
satisfactorily  estimated. 

To  confirm  the  presence  of  petroleum  spirit,  the  turpentine  should 
be  distilled.  Petroleum  spirit  commences  to  distill  at  a  temperature 
which  may  be  above  or  below  that  at  which  turpentine  boils,  according 
to  its  quality,  but  always  distills  within  comparatively  wide  limits  of 
temperature;  turpentine  commences  to  boil  near  160°,  and  almost 
entirely  passes  over  below  180.° 

The  presence  of  resin  spirit  also  affects  the  boiling-point  in  a  similar 
manner.  Evidence  of  the  i)resence  of  this  adulterant  is  also  aflfbrded 
by  the  increased  yield  of  hydrocarbons  on  treatment  both  with  4:  1 
and  concentrated  sulphuric  acid,  as  resin  spirit  also  yields  a  cymene 
and  paraffinoid  hydrocarbon  on  treatmeni  with  4  : 1  acid.  The  cymene 
from  resin  spirit  being  isomeric  with  that  from  turpentine,  jiroof 
of  the  presence  of  resin  spirit  can  be  obtained  by  the  detection  of  its 
cymene,  but  this  is  a  somewhat  delicate  operation. 

Addendum,. — The  method  above  described  is  also  available  for  the 
analysis  of  solvent  naphtha  from  coal  tar  and  similar  products ;  it  is, 
in  fact,  the  only  method  which  is  capable  of  affording  results  which 
approach  exactness.  The  problem  is  by  no  means  so  simple,  however, 
as  the  coal  tar  product  itself  contains,  besides  benzene  and  its  homo- 
logues,  basic  bodies,  hydrocarbons  alterable  by  diluted  sulphuric  acid 
and  paraffins.  Until,  therefore,  a  considerable  number  of  genuine 
samples  have  been  examined,  the  method  is  chiefly  of  value  as  a  quali- 
tative test. — The  Pharm.  Jour,  and  Trans.,  Jan.  20,  1888. 



The  decrease  in  receipts  of  Crude  Turpentine,  this  season, 
is  due  mainly  to  the  fact,  that  country  distillers  have 
bought  and  distilled  a  much  larger  proportion  of  the  supply 
than  in  former  years,  for  which,  of  course,  they  had  to  pay 
prices,  at  times,  fully  equal  to  the  Wilmington  quotations. 

The  Black  River,  Long  Creek  and  Coharie  country,  sup- 
lilies  this  market  principally,  and  the  average  price  of  the 
year  will  compare  favorably  with  that  of  former  seasons. 

The  estimated  capacity  of  the  Wilmington  Distilleries  is 
about  ten  times  in  excess  of  the  supply:  it  being  a  matter  of 
fact,  that  the  Union  stills  alone,  ran  several  years  ago,  more 
crude  stuff  in  twenty-four,  hours,  than  the  present  entire 
average  daily  receipts,  which  are  divided  among  ten  times 
the  capacity  of  the  Union  Distillery. 

Within  the  last  two  years,  much  complaint  has  been  made 
among  buyers,  respecting  the  quality  of  Crude  brought  to 
this  market,  which  has  greatly  deteriorated,  in  consequence 
of  the  habit  by  many  producers,  of  mixing  the  face  or 
scrape  product,  with  the  dip  turpentine,  and  which  has 
resulted  in  reducing  the  average  yield  in  the  distillation  of 
soft  Turpentine,  to  five  gallons  Spirits  from  a  barrel  of  280 
pounds,  while  from  a  better  article,  one  gallon  more  was 
formerly  obtained. 

The  yearly  receipts  of  Crude  Turpentine  in  this  market 
for  the  years  ending  31st  March  were  as  follows  : 

1875-76 86,833  Barrels. 

1876-77   143,826         " 

1877-78 142,360         " 

1878-79 154, 985        " 

1879-80 132,375 

1880-81 92,101 

1881-82 87,486 

1882-83 68,574        '^ 



The  average  monthly  price  for  the  same  time  is  given 
below : 

For  Month  of 











December .. 




2  83 
2  50 
2  23 
2  25 
2  32J^ 
2  60  ' 
2  60 
2  50 






55  " 

75  ' 



85  2 
62^!  2 
30  "  1 
17J4  1 
10  "  1 
05  !1 
37k '1 
22k '1 
15     11 








85     2 



82k  2 
67k  2 
60  12 
00  1 
60    12 

62k  il 
75  2 
25  |2 
50  2 


1881      1882     1883 

90    !3  87^;3  50 

47)4  1  821^3  50  '|4  00 
77k'2  72k  3  50     13  00 

25  2  60 
75  2  25 
55  !2  50 
87UJ2  90 
62k  1 2  85 
00  "i2  86 
521^1 3  021^  2  75 
80  13  62k  3  00 
80     3  50    13  00 

4  00 
3  00 

2  75 

3  00 
2  75 
2  50 


From  the  tables  appended  it  will  be  observed  that  while 
our  receij)ts  of  spirits  have  materially  increased,  the 
demand,  as  indicated  by  the  average  price  obtained  for  the 
crop,  has  also  grown  in  larger  proportion.  The  domestic 
consumption  has  steadily  gained  upon  an  uncertain  pro- 
duction, which  has  hitherto  barely  supplied  a  general 
market,  for  some  time  past  singularly  free  from  organized 

It  was  thought  in  the  early  part  of  this  season,  that  reliable 
indications  of  a  much  larger  supply  than  last  year's  crop, 
would  result  in  a  lower  range  of  prices;  but  notwithstanding 
the  fact  that  the  combined  receipts  of  Wilmington,  Charles- 
ton, Savannah  and  Brunswick  alone  showed  an  increase  over 
last  year's  crop  of  about  66,000  casks,  the  value  has 
steadily  maintained  a  close  comparison  with  the  average  of 
last  season,  which  was  generally  admitted  to  have  produced 
a  short  crop. 

The  preparations  for  the  incoming  season,  indicate  a  crop 
under  favorable  auspices,  of  about  ten  per  cent,  above  last 
year's  supply.  It  is  estimated  by  some  intelligent  opera- 
tors, that  Georgia  may  show  an  increase  of  perhaps  20  per 
cent.  The  reports  from  North  Carolina  and  South  Carolinaj 
indicate  no  increase. 



There  is  no  doubt  with  reference  to  a  late  crop.  Some 
distillers  estimate  it  five  weeks  later  than  usual,  others  four 
weeks.  None,  who  are  informed  on  the  South  Carolina  and 
Georgia  crop,  consider  it  less  than  four  weeks  late.  This  is 
owing  to  unusually  cold  weather.  On  the  22nd  of  March 
we  had  a  heavy  fall  of  snow  in  Wilmington,  which  is  almost 
unprecedented — and  cold  weather  still  continues  at  this 
date,  (5th  April),  which  may  curtail  the  estimate  of  any  in 
crease  in  the  production. 

The  supply  in  London,  on  the  1st  of  April,  was  unusually 
low  hut  the  stock  in  the  United  States  shows  an  increase 
over  last  year's  figures,  of  3,508  casks. 

The  annual  receipts  of  spirits  turpentine  for  ten  years 
past  were  as  follows  : 

1873-74 138,103  Casks 

1874-75 121,198  " 

1875-76 97,197  " 

1876-77 97,409  " 

1877-78 109,707  " 

1878-79 109,574  " 

1879-80 103,671  " 

1880-81 87,107  " 

1881-82 85,997  " 

1882-83 88,186  "     J 

The  average  monthly  price  for  ten  years  has  been  as 
follows : 

For  Month  of      1873 

January i i    59V^ 



















4.5  " 






































































56  k 











The  receipts  and  business  in  rosin  for  a  year  past,  have 
measurably  decreased.  This  is  probably  owing  to  the 
abandonment  of  many  old  trees  in  the  interior  which  failed 
to  yield  a  profitable  return,  and  to  the  limited  number  of 
new  boxes  cut  at  the  beginning  of  the  season,  as  well  as  to 
the  fact,  that  notwithstanding  the  falling  off  in  production, 
prices  current  throughout  the  crop  year  have  ruled  unu- 
sually low.  Comparing  last  year  with  that  of  1873,  a 
decrease  of  nearly  40  per  cent,  in  receipts  is  apparent,  but 
a  comparison  with  the  years  1880  to  1882  shows  a  more 
favorable  record. 

The  receipts  of  rosin  in  Wilmington  during  the  years 
ending  31st  March,  for  ten  years  past,  were  as  follows : 

1873  and  1874 707,349  barrels. 

1874  and  1875 605,521        '- 

1875  and  1876 540,730        '• 

1876  and  1877 524,967        '' 

1877  and  1878 538,259 

1878  and  1879 , 581,739 

1870  and  1880 568,188        " 

1880andl881 444,552 

1881  and  1882 454,917 

1882  and  1883 433,200        " 

The  average  morithly  prices  current  for  strained  and  good 
strained  rosin  for  ten  years  past,  are  given  in  the  following 
table : 

For  Month  of 





















2  12U 

2  12^ 
1  90 

2  25 
2  37}^ 
1  &5 


1  95 

2  071^ 
2  00 

1  85 







1  50    @1 
1      ■ 

60  ®1 
50  (oil 
30  (fel 


65  m 











95  @,1 
69  @1 
55  «*,1 
45  @1 

la-'Jc'  1 






41^@l  43^ 
a5    (0)1  38% 
32>^(§)l  36!4 
30    @1  33% 
20%(i^l  2:^% 
17>^(ai  20 
17i^(($l  20 
13%@1  15 
20    (6^1  25 
20    @l  25 
nVM^  20 
17i^(ffil  20 



For  Month  of 






January 'l  W/i®l 

February '1  12U(5)1 

March 1  n\i®i 

April :1  02K@1 

May -1  m%®l 

June !l  073^@.l 

Juiy 1  05    @1 

August I    9S%ffil 

September !    92U® 

October jl  17i^@l 

November jl  40    @1 

December I  1 


07'^  ;1 
121^! 1 
10  jl 
05%  1 

4d    il 

2.5    il 

25    @1 

18?^®  1 
05  @1 
05  @1 
15  @1 
35  (ffil 
40    @1 

20  ,1 
10  'l 
10  1 



50  @1 
70  @1 
85  @2 
90  @1 

45    11 
3-1^  1 

50  11 
55  1 




9714@2  0234 il  32Vi 

88M@l  9351  !l 
885|@1  93%  1 
88%@1  93% 
75    &l  80 
57U@1  67K 
47i^@l  56\Z 

&5  'm  r' 


33%@1  43% 
32i|@l  38% 

;@i  a5 

'@1  38 
@1  40 

It  is  probable  that  four-fiftlis  of  the  rosin  sold  in  this 
market,  is  of  the  common  and  medium  grades.  In  the 
early  part  of  the  crop  year,  some  very  handsome  rosin, 
grading  N,  and  W  G,  and  W  W,  is  sold,  but  as  the  season 
advances,  these  grades  become  scarce,  and  the  major  part  of 
business  during  the  remainder  of  the  year  is  in  strained 
and  good  strained,  with  a  small  proportion  of  E  F  G  H  I 
K  M.  The  standard  adopted,  is  the  same  as  was  estab- 
lished several  years  ago  by  the  iN'ew  York  Exchange,  with 
Messrs.  Beling,  Nemeyer  &  Co.  as  supervising  inspectors  ; 
but  frequent  complaint  has  been  made  of  irregularity  in 
their  type  samples,  which  is  a  matter  of  serious  importance 
to  foreign  shippers.  A  universal  standard  in  glass  types, 
would  be  of  great  benefit  to  the  trade,  and  effectually  settle 
the  much  vexed  question  of  quality,  which  is  so  often  raised 
in  the  fulfilment  of  sales  for  future  delivery,  or  shipments 
upon  contracts.  An  attempt  w^as  made  some  years  ago,  by 
a  member  of  this  Exchange,  to  procure  standard  samples  of 
this  character ;  but  the  expense  was  ascertained  to  be  too 
great  for  any  practical  benefit.  The  volume  of  business 
has  since  increased  to  such  proportions,  however,  that  a 
united  effort  by  the  New  York,  Wilmington,  Charleston 
and  Savannah  Exchanges,  would  easily  accomplish  the 
desired  result,  at  a  small  proportionate  cost. 

About  a  year  ago,  the  character  of  Wilmington  ship- 
ments of  common  rosin  suffered  seriously  in  foreign 
markets,  in  consequence  of  the  careless  and  sometimes 


criminal  i')reparation  for  market ;  a  large  proportion  of 
"  strained  rosin "  being  mixed  with  sand  and  dross,  ren- 
dering it  quite  unfit  for  tlie  x)urposes  of  export  to  Eurox)e, 
where  it  is  distilled  into  common  oil.  So  great  had  this 
prejudice  against  Wilmington  rosin  become,  that  several 
importers  refused  to  take  our  rosin  at  any  price,  preferring 
that  of  Charleston  and  Savannah  at  greater  cost,  rather 
than  risk  an  uncertain  quality  where  only  10  per  cent,  was 
inspected.  This  important  matter  was  then  brought  to  the 
notice  of  Wilmington  receivers,  who  at  once  instituted 
means  of  stopping  the  fraudulent  practice  referred  to,  and 
who  have  since  effectually  overcome  the  difficulty,  by  closer 
inspection,  and  by  the  entire  rejection  of  doubtful  rosin. 

The  same  complaint  has  been  made  to  us  recently,  of 
Charleston  rosin,  and  it  behooves  the  Exchanges,  both 
North  and  South,  to  make  more  stringent  rules  of  insi)ec- 
tion  for  the  protection  of  consumers. 


The  receipts  of  tar  for  the  past  season,  have  exceeded 
those  of  former  years;  the  increase  for  this  year  being 
about  seven  per  cent,  above  the  receipts  of  last  season. 

The  domestic  export  of  this  article  is  steadily  increasing, 
a  considerable  trade  being  done  in  cans^  which  are  shipped 
for  the  convenience  of  Western  markets,  and  which  seem 
to  be  in  good  demand  from  all  quarters.  The  condition  of 
the  barrels,  is  somewhat  better  than  in  former  years,  but 
there  is  still  great  room  for  improvement.  The  large  falling 
off  in  our  foreign  demand,  is  in  a  measure  attributable  to 
this  long-continued  neglect  in  preparing  suitable  packages 
for  market ;  although  it  is  also  stated,  that  the  Russian  tar 
of  Archangel,  in  the  White  Sea,  is  much  preferred  for  its 
quality,  as  well  as  for  its  superior  packages,  which  are 
made  of  very  thick,  heavy  wood,  and  seldom  leak  at  all. 

A  Glasgow  broker  informed  me  two  years  ago,  that  they 
then  received  about  thirty  cargoes  of  Archangel  tar  to  one 


of  Wilmington  shipment,  although  there  was  still  a  fair 
request  for  our  product  in  Liverj)ool  and  Hull. 

The  average  monthly  prices  for  the  two  last  years,  have 
been  uncommonly  good,  as  may  be  seen  from  the  table 
appended  with  the  receipts  of  this  market  for  a  number 
of  years  past ;  and  to  this  fact  is  no  doubt  owing  the 
increased  supply. 

The  receipts  in  Wilmington  since  1874,  prior  to  which  no 
record  was  made,  were  as  follows  : 

1875  and  1876 53,010  barrels. 

1876  and  1877  , 71,211        " 

1877andl87S 61,674        " 

1878andl879.. 78,116        " 

1879  ^nd  1880 45,623  '^ 

1880  and  1881 56,460  '« 

1881  and  1882 68,653  " 

1882  and  1883 73,598  '* 

The  prevailing  custom  of  buying  tar  by  weight  and  sell- 
ing it  by  tale  barrel  for  export,  is  most  unsatisfactory  to 
dealers,  and  it  is  hoped  by  many,  that  the  terms  of  this 
trade  will  be  more  equitably  adjusted  by  the  Exchange. 

Average  prices  of  Tar  in  Wilmington  each  month  for  ten  years. 

For  Month  of      1873 

January , 2  65 

February 12  82^^ 

march i2  921^ 

April 13  00 

May '2  95 

June '3  173^ 

July !3  50 

August i3  37U 

September |2  82k 

October 2  47U 

November.. i2  32k 

December ^  3734 






87 1| 
If,  ' 

1875  I  1876     1877 

1  70 
1  65 
1  35 
1  60 
1  45 
1  .50 
1  80 
1  45 
1  45 
1  50 
1  65 

1  .50  U 
1  50  1 
I  62k  il 
1  57k  I 

1  o2k 
1  821^ 
1  42>^ 
I  87^ 
1  80 






















65      1 

55      1 








1  25  1 
1  15      1 

I  22U  1 
1  25  1 
1  62k  i  I 
1  973^,2 
1  47k  2 
1  85  '  2 

1882   1883 

45  2  07k  1 1  85 
7714  1  80  |1  80 
62  y,!!  80 

2  25 
2  40 
1  90 

72k  11  92k 

90   1  75 

523^  1  90 

57^1 1  95 

423^:1  90 

2734'!  75 

17k:  1 9i'4 
323^  1  9734 


1  60 



It  will  be  seen  by  an  inspection  of  the  table,  for  ten  years, 
appended,  that  there  has  been  a  large  and  almost  steady 
increase  in  the  receipts  of  cotton  at  this  port,  from  39,737  bales 
in  1873-4  to  131,669  bales  in  1881-2.  The  falling  off  in  the 
receipts  this  year,  is  not  a  fair  criterion  of  the  business  of 
this  market.  During  the  early  part  of  the  season,  from 
the  1st  of  September  to  the  middle  of  November,  there 
were  no  freight  vessels  offering  by  sail,  so  that  nearly  all 
our  receipts,  up  to  that  time,  were  forwarded  by  steamer, 
via  New  York,  at  rates  which  greatly  hampered  the  trade— = 
especially  in  direct  Liverpool  business.  This  unusual  scar^ 
city  of  shipping  facilities  not  only  established  an  unat^ 
tractive  market,  but  led  to  the  ultimate  refusal  of  over 
10,000  bales  of  through  cotton,  from  Augusta  and  other 
interior  jioints,  which  formerly  obtained  an  outlet  by  this 

The  receipts  from  Augusta  and  other  interior  points  for 
foreign  shipment,  were,  last  season,  to  the  Champion  Com. 
press,  4, 189  bales— this  year  they  were  only  2, 650  bales.  To 
the  Wilmington  Compress  last  season  they  were  976  bales 
— this  year  there  was  not  a  bale  received — showing  a  net 
decrease  of  2,515  bales  fom  this  source  alone.  It  is  there- 
fore  fair  to  presume,  that,  under  more  favorable  circum- 
stances, our  business  this  season  would  have  equalled  that 
of  last  year. 

Cotton  receipts  in  Wilmington  for  the  years  ending  31st 
March  1873-1883 : 

1873-74 43,070  Bales. 

1874-75 81,854 

1875-76 , 91,589 

1876-77 121,929 

1877-78 120,975 

1878-79 111,798 

1979-80 , 78,345 


1880-81 ..: 116,876  Bales. 

1881-82 137,733      '' 

1882-83 128,466       " 

During  the  year  1873-74  there  was  no  record  kept  of  the 
daily  prices  current  in  our  market,  but  the  following  table 
shows  the  average  price  for  each  month,  from  January, 
1875,  to  the  present  time,  April  1st,  1883. 

For  Month  of  :    1875 







January 14 

February 'l4    3-ie 

March jl5    3-16 

April |l5J/8 

May I 

June ' 

July ' 

August I 


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November 12    7-16 

December 12    3-16; 

12    7-16 

12^        I 
12    3-16 

12%        1 

10%       I 

10  11-16 

I^Vh        ' 

11  7-16 

10    3-16 

12    5-16110 
U  15-16  101% 
11    7-16 

9  15- 

10    5-1610    7- 
10  ll-lel  9    3- 
10    7-16    S  13- 
10%        I  8% 




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9    9-16 
10  11-16 

16  12  I 

112^        I 
illVi        ' 

16  1014      : 

16  10    3-16, 

16:111%       I 

1121^       i 




11  15-16 



10  15-16 

11  13-16 

10  15-16 

11  5-16 


9  9-16 
11  7 





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U    9-16 1  9% 

11  11-161 V 

n-X       ! 

11  13-16; 


12^       ' :. 

11    7-16 

10%-.-     1 


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With  reference  to  the  remarks  upon  our  honored  and 
distinguished  dead  in  ^'Oakdale,"  the  following  "copy" 
was  inadvertently  omitted,  and  is  appended  herewith  as  a 
proof  of  what  Wilmington  people  have  done,  and  will  yet 
do,  in  time  of  sore  trial : 

Among  those  who,  by  services  during  the  yellow  fever 
season,  have  imposed  upon  the  city  of  Wilmington  a  debt 
that  can  never  be  repaid,  were  Phineas  W.  Fanning  and 
Isaac  Northrop. 

The  former  held  the  post  of  Secretary  and  Treasurer — or 
an  office  with  duties  akin — in  the  Howard  Association.  He 
was  the  dispenser  of  such  charity  as  a  sorely  impoverished 
people  could  place  at  his  disposal.  At  any  hour  of  the  day 
or  night,  he  gladly  heeded  the  call  to  relieve  the  suffering. 
The  scourge  at  last  laid  him  on  a  bed  which  might  prove 
the  bed  of  death.  Even  then,  he  would  refuse  no  one  a 
hearing,  and  from  his  chamber  there  issued  orders  to  feed 
the  starving,  or  to  supply  with  nurses  and  with  medicine 
the  sick  and  dying. 

Mr.  Isaac  Northroj)  accompanied  his  family  to  a  place  of 
security,  and  then  returned  to  the  city  in  pursuance  of  a 
noble  resolve  to  devote  his  energies,  his  life,  if  need  be,  to 
the  friendless  and  the  poor.  It  was  a  purpose  in  which 
self  had  no  place— deliberate,  well-considered  and  intelli- 
gently formed.    He  sought  every  opportunity  for  doing 


good.  From  his  own  stores  the  poor  were  furnished  till 
abundant  supplies  were  exhausted.  All  his  thoughts,  all 
his  physical  powers,  were  given  to  the  work  in  hand.  When 
he  was  compelled  to  cease  from  his  labors  to  confront  death 
itself,  he  was  not  taken  by  surprise.  He  had  contemplated 
such  a  termination  of  his  duties,  and  made  full  preparation 
for  the  event.  His  name  deserves  to  be  written  high  among 
the  unselfish  ones  of  earth, 







Entered  according  to  Act  of  Congress  in  the  year  1883,  by  James  Sprunt,  in  the  office  of 
the  Librarian  of  Congress,  at  Washington.